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Chapter 2- research involving animals .pptx

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Chapter 2- research involving animals .pptx

  2. 2. Learning objectives • Know basic facts of animal research • Explain why animal models are used • Assess whether the 3Rs are moral Starter: What do you think when someone says “animal testing” or “animal research” Animal Research and Alternatives
  3. 3. Why are animals used? Researchers aim to understand how our body functions (physiology) and the diseases that affect us (pathology). They must study living systems and the effect that diseases have on them – this often involves research that would not be ethical to carry out on humans, so animals are used. Despite the difference in appearance between humans and animals they have a very similar biology (they are anatomically similar). Even mice and men are around 99% genetically similar.
  4. 4. Fish Rats Other Mammals Mice Reptiles / Amphibians Birds Which Percentage Applies To Which Animals?
  5. 5. Fish Rats Other Mammals Mice Reptiles / Amphibians Birds
  6. 6. Quick Questions:  Why do we need to use animals for research and teaching?  What have people learned from animal research?  Are the animals used in research & education protected and taken care of?  Does everyone agree with using animals for research or do some people disagree?
  7. 7. Why Do We Need To Use Animals for Research & Teaching?  The functions of cells and organs are basically the same in animals and humans.  What we learn from animals is useful in human and animal medicine. Animal cells function in many of the same ways as human cells. Biologically, humans are in the Animal Kingdom. An animal cell
  8. 8. Why Do We Need To Use Animals for Research & Teaching?  Animal are used to: • Understand how diseases affect living tissue • Develop and test treatments — including treatments for animals • Train future scientists and health-care professionals
  9. 9. Can Computer Models and Cell Cultures Replace Animal Research?  Non-animal models are very important, but have limitations. They cannot duplicate the complicated interactions in a whole system.  Final testing depends on studies in living, whole animals or people. This is actually required by federal law.
  10. 10. Can Results from Animal Studies Really Be Applied to Humans?  They CAN and ARE. Virtually all drugs, devices and medical procedures have been developed with some animal research. This dog, Kodi, underwent hip replacement surgery twice. Hip replacement surgical techniques were tested first on animals and now help both animals and people.
  11. 11. What Have We Learned From Animal Research?  Animal research has played a major role in nearly all medical advances for both humans and other animals.  So what animals have helped with medical advances? • Let’s look at some specific examples…
  12. 12. Animal Use in Biomedical Research Polio  Landsteiner and Popper proved it infectious; able to transmit disease to monkeys.  Salk and Sabin developed their vaccine through work with chickens and monkeys. Polio was one of the most dreaded childhood diseases of the 20th century. Polio epidemics have crippled thousands of people, mostly young children; the disease has caused paralysis and death for much of human history. Developed in the 1950s, polio vaccines are credited with reducing the global number of polio cases per year from many hundreds of thousands to around a thousand.
  13. 13. Animal Use in Biomedical Research  Infant Mortality • Studies in sheep led to use of steroids in treatment of respiratory distress syndrome, a major cause of death in premature infants. • Advances in understanding and treatment of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) came from studies in rats, mice, dogs, and sheep.
  14. 14. Animal Use in Biomedical Research  Cystic Fibrosis • A major killer of young adults. • Mouse models led to understanding the biochemical processes involved in this disorder. • Genetic therapies on the horizon are an extension of work in mice.
  15. 15. Animal Use in Biomedical Research  High Blood Pressure (HBP) •Goldblatt linked HBP to kidneys in rats, cats, and dogs. This research led to treatments for high blood pressure. •Cushing linked HBP to brains in dogs. This research led to understanding the nervous system’s influence on blood pressure and development of drugs to treat it.
  16. 16. Animal Use in Biomedical Research  Obesity • Major risk factor for diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke and certain cancers • Epidemic in the United States: 64% of adults are overweight and 25% are obese • Mouse models and Zucker obese rats are shedding new light on causes of overeating, importance of leptin receptors, and ways that obesity leads to disease.
  17. 17. Animal Use in Biomedical Research  Bioterrorism • Botulism antitoxin (prevention) was tested in mice and non-human primates • The smallpox vaccine was first studied using cowpox in cattle. In fact, the word “vaccine” is derived from the word “vaca” which means cow in Latin.
  18. 18.  AIDS • Current anti-AIDS treatment developed in animals have greatly extended life expectancy and quality of life for AIDS victims. • AIDS vaccines are being developed in monkeys.
  19. 19. Animal Use in Biomedical Research  Stroke • Stroke kills over 150,000 people in the U.S. each year and cause major disabilities that can include paralysis, inability to speak, loss of vision and loss of cognitive function. • A new treatment for stroke (and one that can reverse disability due to stroke), was first studied in rats.
  20. 20. The 3Rs Refinement – Finding ways of making animals’ lives better in labs, this can include toys for animals or better training for technicians Reduction – Using as few animals as possible to get good results Replacement – Using non-animal alternatives wherever they exist The 3Rs are principles of good science designed by scientists to improve animal welfare and scientific accuracy.
  21. 21. Alternatives Scientists use many ways to try to replace animals used in research. These include using cell cultures, computer modelling and human studies. Researchers must, by law, use these techniques if they would be as effective as using animals.
  22. 22. Alternatives Researchers also try to use the “lowest” type of animal possible for their experiment – perhaps a fish instead of a sheep or a fruit fly instead of a mouse. Why do you think scientists try to replace animal use? Why use “lower” animals – do you agree with this idea? or
  23. 23. Watch the following two videos taken inside animal research facilities and try to identify as many ways as you can that the 3Rs are being used. e.g. Refinement: the lab technicians are trained to handle the animals carefully How the 3Rs are used
  24. 24. Dogs in medical research • Research into new heart medicines is being helped by these dogs. The dogs are exercised daily and trained to work with the researchers, by jumping onto weighing scales for example. • Heart function is measured using ultrasound scanning, much like the scanning used to see the developing foetus in a pregnant women.
  25. 25. Using mice as a model for Alzheimer's disease • Mice can be used to mimic Alzheimer's disease in humans. Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia ‫مرض‬ ‫عقلي‬ . • Currently there are no effective treatments so mice models offer one approach to both understanding and developing treatments for Alzheimer's. Here we see mice digging and burrowing. • Alzheimer's disease is not just defined by its symptoms but by specific proteins that build up in the brain. So, mouse models also develop these protein build-ups, and scientists can better study how to stop this from happening.
  26. 26. “Good science and good animal care go hand-in-hand.” –REVISE 3RS The goal is to get reliable data and make sure animals are healthy and well cared for.
  27. 27. The Three R’s of using animals in research  The Three R’s are principles of good science that scientists must adhere to when conducting animal-based research. First R- Replacement Using non-animal alternative wherever they exist in order that the only research done using animals is that which can be done no other way. This is synthetic skin. It can be used in some research situations.
  28. 28.  Second R- Reduction • Using as few animals as possible to attain statistically significant results, as well as finding ways to cut down on the number of animals used for any specific piece of research.
  29. 29. This is a laboratory animal care technician. Read about him at: Watch a short video of a technician at:  Third R- Refinement • Improving animal welfare in laboratories by enhanced lab technician training, better enrichment inside the cages for animals, redesign of an experiment, etc.
  30. 30. Are lab animals suffering and in pain?  Animal use is carefully controlled, particularly if it might cause pain.  Laws mandate minimizing pain and distress for lab animals.  Good science relies on controlling an animal’s health and comfort.  All animal protocols are reviewed and must be approved by an outside monitoring committee.
  31. 31. Disscusion (1) Give two examples of how the 3Rs are used in research (2) In 3 sentences explain why we use animals for research (3) If you could make a 4th “R”, what would it be and why?
  32. 32. Now let’s find out what you think. • What is your opinion about using animals as models in research? • You are going to do an assignment in which you will express your views!