BY:

SUBHI SHARMA
• Animal research plays a crucial role
in scientists' understanding of
diseases and in the development of
effective medica...
 Animals are also used in cosmetic research to
test for allergic reactions and other potential
side-effects caused by cos...
•
•

•

The discovery relied on crucial data obtained from animal
studies by other research groups.
The most recent use of...
http://nmlc.org/wpcontent/uploads/2009/04/Volunteer-Collage2010-04-19.jp
Pro’s

Animal research

Con’s

Animal testing has contributed to many lifesaving cures and treatments.

Animal testing is ...
• Animal research has had a vital role in many scientific and medical
advances of the past century and continues to aid ou...
•

•

Regulations require that scientists use as few animals as possible,
especially for terminal experiments. However, wh...
• According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, in 2006 about
670,000 animals (57%) (not including rats, mice, birds, o...
•

•

•

Toxicology testing, also known as safety testing, is conducted by pharmaceutical
companies testing drugs, or by c...
•

•

According to the US-based Foundation for Biomedical Research 'animal
research has played a vital role in virtually e...
• Xenotransplantation research involves transplanting tissues or organs
from one species to another, as a way to overcome ...
Animal research
Animal research
Animal research
Animal research
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Animal research

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Animal research

  1. 1. BY: SUBHI SHARMA
  2. 2. • Animal research plays a crucial role in scientists' understanding of diseases and in the development of effective medical treatments. • Research animals provide scientists with complex living systems consisting of cells, tissues and organs. Animal models can interact and react to stimuli, giving researchers a picture of a compound moving through a living system and an idea of how that stimuli might react in a human being. Animals are biologically similar to humans in many ways and they are vulnerable to over 200 of
  3. 3.  Animals are also used in cosmetic research to test for allergic reactions and other potential side-effects caused by cosmetic products.In the UK experiments are classified as mild, moderate or substantial in the amount of suffering they cause an animal.  A fourth category of unclassified is used when the animal is anaesthetized but killed before regaining consciousness. British law requires that any new medicinal drug to be used on humans must undergo a substantial testing program including testing on at least two different species of live mammal. Animals have as much right to live as humans  Strict controls have not prevented some animals being abused, though such instances are rare  Deaths for research are unnecessary  Animals suffer while they are locked up and how do we know when they do and don’t feel pain
  4. 4. • • • The discovery relied on crucial data obtained from animal studies by other research groups. The most recent use of primates in Nobel Prize winning research occurred in 1981; Roger W. Sperry, David H. Hubel and Torstein N. Wiesel were awarded the coveted award for their work exploring brain function. By studying monkeys, Roger W. Sperry found that the nerves connecting the left and right hemispheres of the brain could be severed without causing any drastic changes in the monkeys; each side of the brain was still able to learn, however, what was learned by one side could no longer be retrieved by the other. Biologists believe that chimpanzees share at least 98.4 percent of the same DNA as humans while the genetic composition of gorillas is at least 97 percent consistent with that of humans. Evidence of all animals and primates in particular as "sentient" beings, capable of a range of emotions and thought processes, has led scientists to search for alternative ways to study behavior without
  5. 5. http://nmlc.org/wpcontent/uploads/2009/04/Volunteer-Collage2010-04-19.jp
  6. 6. Pro’s Animal research Con’s Animal testing has contributed to many lifesaving cures and treatments. Animal testing is cruel and inhumane. There is no adequate alternative to testing on a living, whole-body system. Alternative testing methods now exist that can replace the need for animals. Animals are appropriate research subjects because they are similar to human beings in many ways. Animals are very different from human beings and therefore make poor test subjects. Animals must be used in cases when ethical considerations prevent the use of human subjects. Drugs that pass animal tests are not necessarily safe. Animals themselves benefit from the results of animal testing. Animal tests may mislead researchers into ignoring potential cures and treatments. Animal research is highly regulated, with laws in place to protect animals from mistreatment. 95% of animals used in experiments are not protected by the Animal Welfare Act. Animals often make better research subjects than human beings because of their shorter Animal tests do not reliably predict results in human beings.
  7. 7. • Animal research has had a vital role in many scientific and medical advances of the past century and continues to aid our understanding of various diseases. Throughout the world, people enjoy a better quality of life because of these advances, and the subsequent development of new medicines and treatments—all made possible by animal research. However, the use of animals in scientific and medical research has been a subject of heated debate for many years in the UK. Opponents to any kind of animal research—including both animal-rights extremists and anti-vivisectionist groups—believe that animal experimentation is cruel and unnecessary, regardless of its purpose or benefit. There is no middle ground for these groups; they want the immediate and total abolition of all animal research. If they succeed, it would have enormous and severe consequences for scientific research.
  8. 8. • • Regulations require that scientists use as few animals as possible, especially for terminal experiments. However, while policy makers consider suffering to be the central issue and see animal euthanasia as a way to reduce suffering, others, such as the RSPCA , argue that the lives of laboratory animals have intrinsic value.[Regulations focus on whether particular methods cause pain and suffering , not whether their death is undesirable in itself] The animals are euthanized at the end of studies for sample collection or post-mortem examination ; during studies if their pain or suffering falls into certain categories regarded as unacceptable, such as depression, infection that is unresponsive to treatment, or the failure of large animals to eat for five days; or when they are unsuitable for breeding or unwanted for some other reason. Methods of euthanizing laboratory animals are chosen to induce rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or distress. The methods that are preferred are those published by councils of veterinarians. The animal can be made to inhale a gas, such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide , by being placed in a chamber, or by use of a face mask, with or without prior sedation or anaesthesia. Sedatives or anaesthetics such as barbiturates can be given intravenously or inhalant aesthetics may be
  9. 9. • According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, in 2006 about 670,000 animals (57%) (not including rats, mice, birds, or invertebrates) were used in procedures that did not include more than momentary pain or distress. About 420,000 (36%) were used in procedures in which pain or distress was relieved by anaesthesia, while 84,000 (7%) were used in studies that would cause pain or distress that would not be relieved. • In the UK, research projects are classified as mild, moderate, and substantial in terms of the suffering the researchers conducting the study say they may cause; a fourth category of "unclassified" means the animal was anesthetized and killed without recovering consciousness according to the researchers. In December 2001, 1,296 (39%) of project licenses in force were classified as mild, 1,811 (55%) as moderate, 63 (2%) as substantial, and 139 (4%) as unclassified..There have, however, been suggestions of systemic underestimation of procedure severity. • The idea that animals might not feel pain as human beings feel it traces back to the 17th-century French philosopher, René Descartes who argued that animals do not experience pain and suffering because they lack consciousness.] Bernard Rollin of Colorado State University the principal author of two U.S. federal laws regulating
  10. 10. • • • Toxicology testing, also known as safety testing, is conducted by pharmaceutical companies testing drugs, or by contract animal testing facilities, such as Huntingdon Life Sciences , on behalf of a wide variety of customers. According to 2005 EU figures, around one million animals are used every year in Europe in toxicology tests; which are about 10% of all procedures. According to Nature, 5,000 animals are used for each chemical being tested, with 12,000 needed to test pesticides. The tests are conducted without anaesthesia because interactions between drugs can affect how animals detoxify chemicals, and may interfere with the results. A rabbit during a Draize test Toxicology tests are used to examine finished products such as pesticides , medications food additives, packing materials, and air freshener, or their chemical ingredients. Most tests involve testing ingredients rather than finished products, but according to BUAV , manufacturers believe these tests overestimate the toxic effects of substances; they therefore repeat the tests using their finished products to obtain a less toxic label.[ The substances are applied to the skin or dripped into the eyes; injected intravenously intramuscularly or subcutaneously inhaled either by placing a mask over the animals and restraining them, or by placing them in an inhalation chamber; or administered orally, through a tube into the stomach, or simply in the animal's food.
  11. 11. • • According to the US-based Foundation for Biomedical Research 'animal research has played a vital role in virtually every major medical advance of the last century - for both human and veterinary health. From antibiotics to blood transfusions, from dialysis to organ transplantation, from vaccinations to chemotherapy, bypass surgery and joint replacement, practically every present-day protocol for the prevention, treatment, cure and control of disease, pain and suffering is based on knowledge attained through research with lab animals.' In the last five years in the UK, no fewer than three independent inquiries have been carried out into the effectiveness of animal research in developing medicines for human use. The House of Lords Select Committee, the Parliamentary Animal Procedures Committee and the independent Nuffield Council on Bioethics all concluded that testing on animals is a scientifically sound method, has yielded great results in the past, and is crucial for future advances. Anti-vivisectionists continue to call for public inquiries and will continue to do so until they get the result they want -- which will never be forthcoming, given the overwhelming scientific evidence in favour of animal research.
  12. 12. • Xenotransplantation research involves transplanting tissues or organs from one species to another, as a way to overcome the shortage of human organs for use in organ transplants. Current research involves using primates as the recipients of organs from pigs that have been genetically modified to reduce the primates' immune response against the pig tissue. Although transplant rejection remains a problem, recent clinical trials that involved implanting pig insulin-secreting cells into diabetics did reduce these people's need for insulin. • Documents released to the news media by the animal rights organization Uncaged Campaigns showed that, between 1994 and 2000, wild baboons imported to the UK from Africa by Imutran Ltd, a subsidiary of Novartis Pharma AG, in conjunction with Cambridge University and Huntingdon Life Sciences, to be used in experiments that involved grafting pig tissues, suffered serious and sometimes fatal injuries. A scandal occurred when it was revealed that the company had communicated with the British government in an attempt to avoid regulation

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