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Les 2 game 3d - texturing & materials


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Les 2 game 3d - texturing & materials

  1. 1. WHAT ARE TEXTURES?Textures are bitmaps containing color information,which are applied to a 3D object.• Diffuse map: contains the object’s color information• Alpha map: can be used for transparency control• Specular map: influences the object’s glossiness and reflection (color)• Normal map: can add extra detail without geometry
  2. 2. CREATING TEXTURESTextures can be made from (existing) photographicmaterial OR be homemade in Photoshop.
  3. 3. PROS & CONS – PHOTOGRAPHICMATERIALPROS:• Fast results• In most cases looks more realistic• More natural look & feelCONS:• Intellectual property can be a big issue• You have less control over the image• It can be hard to find / take the right picture
  4. 4. PROS & CONS – HOMEMADEMATERIALPROS:• Fast results• You are it’s creator, therefore it’s owner• More control over the imageCONS:• Can be slow to produce• Not always the most realistic results
  7. 7. BEST PRACTICE = COMBININGBOTHGo out, smell the air and take pictures, but keep thefollowing things in mind!• Camera angle - try and get the right perspective• Lighting - no flash, use a tripod instead and a longer shutter time!)• Patterns & tiles - when going for tileable textures watch for distinct patterns and spots that might mess up the tileability
  10. 10. UVW-MAP ANDTEXTURESTextures which are applied on a 3D model with thehelp of a UVW-map are called unique textures. UVW-MAP
  11. 11. SHARING TEXTURESPACEIt’s a common and good practice to use your UV-space asoptimal as you can!
  12. 12. SHORT TEXTURINGASSIGNMENT Pick a tutorial from the list (see Facebook for link) andcreate your own homemade texture in 15-20 minPost your final image on FB!
  13. 13. ALPHA CHANNELS• An RGB bitmap contains 3 channels: Red, Green and Blue.• Besides these channels that hold color information they can also contain grey scale color information = ALPHA CHANNELThey can be used for multiple purposes but are often usedfor transparency and masking
  14. 14. ALPHA CHANNELS -MASKING To mask certain areas of a texture (especially with leafs) you apply 100% white to areas you want to see (opaque), and 100% black to the areas you want to hide
  15. 15. ALPHA CHANNELS -MASKING In some game engines (like UDK) it’s best to use a separate 24-bit texture for alpha masking as the engine uses more resources if you add the information into a separate channel of your original texture, making it 32-bits.
  16. 16. ALPHA CHANNELS –GLASS Alpha is great for glass, where you want to have semi- transparency, still leaving a bit visible for the human eye. Tip for your car’s windows!
  17. 17. LET’S TALK ABOUTMATERIALS..Sometimes materials are confused with textures,which they are not! Materials contain a set of texturesand instructions to simulate particular attributes. Theyoften contain what we’ve discussed so far:• Diffuse map• Alpha map• Specular map• Normal map
  18. 18. SPECULAR MAPS• Influence the object’s glossiness and reflection• Most game engines use the color info for reflection, but not all
  20. 20. SPECULAR MAPSMost common mistake done
  21. 21. SPECULAR MAPS -EXPLANATIONMost materials in real life can be classified into 2 differentclasses:• Conductors – They conduct electricity, like metals• Dielectrics – They do not conduct electricity, like wood
  22. 22. SPECULAR MAPS -EXPLANATIONMost materials in real life can be classified into 2 differentclasses:• Conductors – They conduct electricity, like metals andLight reflected by specularity IS affected by the diffusecolor• Dielectrics – They do not conduct electricity, like wood.Light reflected by specularity is NOT affected by the diffusecolor
  23. 23. SPECULAR MAPS -EXPLANATION• Metal (conductor)• Wood (dielectrics)
  24. 24. SPECULAR MAPS -EXPLANATION (just like the layer option in• Specular maps are ADDEDPhotoshop). This is why only saturation will not be helpfulin case of a wooden texture!Want to know more?
  25. 25. SPECULAR MAPS - TIPS• Do not flatten your image and start editing it!• Add extra detail to the specular map for a nice pop• Keep your detail layers (scratches, dirt, etc.) separately to avoid frustration later on• Group and adjust the layers that share the same specularity together• Try and use the Adjustment Layers in Photoshop. They save a lot of time and can be adjusted on the fly.
  26. 26. NORMAL MAPSNormal maps are a special category of textures that canadd detail to your object without the use of actualgeometry.
  27. 27. NORMAL MAPS – HOW DOTHEY WORK? channels in bitmaps to storeNormal maps use the RGBheight information for the detail. This height information isprojected on 3D objects and used for lighting calculations.
  28. 28. CREATING NORMAL MAPSEasiest way to start is with the nVidia filter, using heightmaps (grey scale height/depth images):
  29. 29. CREATING NORMAL MAPSOr nDo, which is fairly similar but easier to adjust things:
  30. 30. CREATING NORMAL MAPSOr import your model into ZBrush and add detail there!
  32. 32. TIP:Tired of looking for good information on the web relatedto 3D? Try: wiki.polycount.comAlways up to date, filled with (good) tutorials and indepth explanations of gaming industry’s experts. Checkthe forums for high quality 3D work as inspiration ;-)