Game terminologies   By Ahmed Badr
Agenda•   RGB•   Color cube•   Pixel•   Color depth•   Resolution•   Pixel art•   BMP•   Grayscale
Agenda•   Alpha mask•   PCX•   JPEG/JPG•   Alpha channels•   Sprite•   Polygon•   Vertex•   Edge
Agenda•   Model•   Face•   Mesh•   Texture•   Tile maps•   Texel•   Texture Mapping•   UV mapping
Agenda•MinMaps•procedural texture•point sampling•Bilinear interpolation•Tri-linear filtering•anisotropic filtering•Render•...
Agenda•Gouraud shading•Reflection mapping•Specular reflection•Diffuse reflection•Refraction•Bump mapping•Normal mapping•pa...
Agenda•   Lightmap•   Ray tracing•   Terrain•   Height map•   Pixel shader•   Vertex shader•   Cell shader•   Game bots
Agenda•   AI•   procedural animation•   Skeletal animation•   Morph target animation•   Collision•   Game engine•   game g...
RGB• The RGB color model is  an additive model in  which red, green, and  blue (often used in  additive light models) are ...
Color cube• A color in the RGB color  model can be described by  indicating how much of each  of the red, green and blue  ...
Pixel• A pixel (short for picture  element, using the  common abbreviation  "pix" for "picture") is a  single point in a g...
Color depth• Color depth is a computer graphics term  describing the number of bits used to  represent the color of a sing...
Resolution• The number of pixels in an image is  sometimes called the resolution.• The higher the resolution the higher th...
Pixel art• Pixel art is a form of  digital art, created  through the use of                               Isometric  raste...
BMP• BMP files are usually not compressed, so  they are typically much larger than  compressed image file formats for the ...
Grayscale• Displayed images of  this sort are typically  composed of  shades of gray,  varying from black  at the weakest ...
Alpha mask• Used to  introduce  transparency to  areas to the  BMP files. A gray  scale image is  used to describe  transp...
PCX• PCX is an image file format developed by the  ZSoft Corporation of Marietta, Georgia, USA. It  was the native file fo...
JPEG/JPG• In computing, JPEG is a  commonly used method of  compression for  photographic images• Advantages: Holds  trans...
Alpha channelsIn a 2D image elementwhich stores a colorfor each pixel, anadditional value isstored in the alphachannel con...
SpriteSprite is a two-dimensional image oranimation that isintegrated into a.larger scene
PolygonIn geometry a polygonis a plane figure thatis bounded by aclosed path or circuit,composed of a finitenumber of sequ...
Vertexa vertex is a corner ofan angle
Edgea connection betweentwo vertices
ModelA model is a fully-3Dcomputer graphic,polygonal object orcharacter used incomputer and videogames
FaceIn geometry, a face of apolyhedron is any ofthe polygons thatmake up itsboundaries
Mesh• A polygon mesh or  unstructured grid is  a collection of  vertices and  polygons that  define the shape of  an polyh...
TextureTexture refers to theproperties held andsensations caused bythe external surfaceof objects receivedthrough the sens...
Tile maps• A picture with  seamless edges  repeated along side  in X and Y axis
Texeltexture element The smallest addressableunit of a texture map. When objects in theimage are near, one texel is mapped...
Texture MappingTexture mapping is amethod, pioneered byEdwin Catmull, ofadding detail, surfacetexture, or colour to acompu...
UV mapping• UV mapping is a 3D modelling  process of making a 2D image  representing a 3D model. The  map transforms the 3...
MinMapsA texture mappingtechnique that usesmultiple texture maps,or MIP maps. EachMIP map is half thesize of the first one...
procedural texture• An algorithmic way of describing a  texture. Unlike a bitmapped texture, in  which the texture is repr...
volumetric texture• A texture that is described in three  dimensions. It can be created as a "stack"  of 2D bitmapped text...
point sampling• Also called "nearest neighbor," it is the simplest  form of texture mapping, which is often  associated wi...
Bilinear interpolation• A texture mapping technique that produces a  reasonably realistic image, also known as  "bilinear ...
Tri-linear filtering• Bilinear filtering has several weaknesses that  make it an unattractive choice in many cases:  using...
anisotropic filtering• is a method of  enhancing the  image quality of  textures on surfaces  that are at oblique  viewing...
RenderRendering is the process ofgenerating an image froma model, by means ofcomputer programs. Themodel is a description ...
Framea frame is one of themany still imageswhich compose thecomplete movingpicture
Gouraud shading• Gouraud shading, named after  Henri Gouraud, is a method  used in computer graphics to  simulate the diff...
Reflection mapping• reflection mapping is an efficient  method of simulating a complex  mirroring surface by means of a  p...
Specular reflection• Specular reflection  is the perfect,  mirror-like  reflection of light•   http://en.wikipedia.org/wik...
Diffuse reflection• Diffuse reflection is the  reflection of light from an  uneven or granular  surface such that an  inci...
Refraction• Refraction is the change in  direction of a wave due to  a change in its speed. This  is most commonly seen  w...
Bump mappingBump mapping is acomputer graphicstechnique where at eachpixel, a perturbation tothe surface normal of theobje...
Normal mapping• normal mapping is an application of the  technique known as bump mapping• Normal mapping used to re-detail...
parallax mapping• Parallax mapping is an  enhancement of the  bump mapping or  normal mapping . To  the end user, this  me...
LightmapA light map is a 3D engine light datastructure which contains the brightness ofsurfaces in a video game. Light map...
Ray tracingRay tracing is a generaltechnique fromgeometrical optics ofmodeling the pathtaken by light byfollowing rays of ...
Terrain• Terrain, or  relief, is the  third or vertical  dimension of  land surface.
Height mapA height map or heightfield is a raster imageused to store values,such as surfaceelevation data, fordisplay in 3...
Pixel shaderA pixel shader serves to manipulate a pixel,usually to apply an effect on an image, forexample; realism, bump ...
Vertex shaderA Vertex-Shader serves to manipulate thegeometry of an object of a scene.Therefore the form of the object cha...
Cell shaderCell Shading is the "art"of rendering yourobjects to look likecartoons. Variouscartoon effects can beachieved w...
Game botsis a robotic computer controlled entity thatsimulates an online or LAN multiplayerhuman death match opponent, tea...
AIGame artificial intelligence refers totechniques used in computer and videogames to produce the illusion ofintelligence ...
procedural animation• A procedural animation is a type of  computer animation, used to  automatically generate animation i...
Skeltal animation• Skeletal animation, sometimes  referred to as rigging, is a  technique in computer animation,  particul...
Morph target animation ((or per-vertex animation• Morph target animation (or per-vertex  animation) is a method of 3D comp...
Collisioncollision means the action of bodies • striking or coming together
Game engine• A game engine is the core software component of a  computer video game or other interactive application  with...
game genre• Video games are categorized into genres  based on their gameplay•   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_genre
References• http://www.wikipedia.com• http://www.answers.com/
Game development terminologies
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Game development terminologies

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a collection of terminologies used in the game development industry, from my point of view any one who intends to work in that business should understand them.

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Game development terminologies

  1. 1. Game terminologies By Ahmed Badr
  2. 2. Agenda• RGB• Color cube• Pixel• Color depth• Resolution• Pixel art• BMP• Grayscale
  3. 3. Agenda• Alpha mask• PCX• JPEG/JPG• Alpha channels• Sprite• Polygon• Vertex• Edge
  4. 4. Agenda• Model• Face• Mesh• Texture• Tile maps• Texel• Texture Mapping• UV mapping
  5. 5. Agenda•MinMaps•procedural texture•point sampling•Bilinear interpolation•Tri-linear filtering•anisotropic filtering•Render•Frame
  6. 6. Agenda•Gouraud shading•Reflection mapping•Specular reflection•Diffuse reflection•Refraction•Bump mapping•Normal mapping•parallax mapping
  7. 7. Agenda• Lightmap• Ray tracing• Terrain• Height map• Pixel shader• Vertex shader• Cell shader• Game bots
  8. 8. Agenda• AI• procedural animation• Skeletal animation• Morph target animation• Collision• Game engine• game genre
  9. 9. RGB• The RGB color model is an additive model in which red, green, and blue (often used in additive light models) are combined in various ways to reproduce other colors.
  10. 10. Color cube• A color in the RGB color model can be described by indicating how much of each of the red, green and blue color is included. Each can vary between the minimum (no color) and maximum (full intensity). If all the colors are at minimum the result is black. If all the colors at maximum, the result is white.
  11. 11. Pixel• A pixel (short for picture element, using the common abbreviation "pix" for "picture") is a single point in a graphic image. Each such information element is not really a dot, nor a square, but an abstract sample
  12. 12. Color depth• Color depth is a computer graphics term describing the number of bits used to represent the color of a single pixel in a bitmapped image.• This concept is also known as bits per pixel (bpp)
  13. 13. Resolution• The number of pixels in an image is sometimes called the resolution.• The higher the resolution the higher the picture quality• In game industry the same concepts apply but put in mind that high resolution comes at the price of high memory consumption and processing time.
  14. 14. Pixel art• Pixel art is a form of digital art, created through the use of Isometric raster graphics software, where images are edited on the pixel level. Two type of pixel art, Isometric and non isometric. Non Isometric
  15. 15. BMP• BMP files are usually not compressed, so they are typically much larger than compressed image file formats for the same image. For example, an 800×600 24-bit image will occupy almost 1.4 megabytes• 800 x 600 x (24/8) = 1.4 MB
  16. 16. Grayscale• Displayed images of this sort are typically composed of shades of gray, varying from black at the weakest intensity to white at the strongest
  17. 17. Alpha mask• Used to introduce transparency to areas to the BMP files. A gray scale image is used to describe transparency in a BMP image
  18. 18. PCX• PCX is an image file format developed by the ZSoft Corporation of Marietta, Georgia, USA. It was the native file format for PC Paintbrush and became one of the first widely accepted DOS imaging standards, although its use has since been succeeded by more sophisticated image formats such as GIF, JPEG, and PNG.• Advantage: compression without losing quality
  19. 19. JPEG/JPG• In computing, JPEG is a commonly used method of compression for photographic images• Advantages: Holds transparency information without the need to an external file• Disadvantages: destructive compression is used.
  20. 20. Alpha channelsIn a 2D image elementwhich stores a colorfor each pixel, anadditional value isstored in the alphachannel containing avalue ranging from 0to 1. A value of 0means that the pixeldoes not have anycoverage information
  21. 21. SpriteSprite is a two-dimensional image oranimation that isintegrated into a.larger scene
  22. 22. PolygonIn geometry a polygonis a plane figure thatis bounded by aclosed path or circuit,composed of a finitenumber of sequential .line segments
  23. 23. Vertexa vertex is a corner ofan angle
  24. 24. Edgea connection betweentwo vertices
  25. 25. ModelA model is a fully-3Dcomputer graphic,polygonal object orcharacter used incomputer and videogames
  26. 26. FaceIn geometry, a face of apolyhedron is any ofthe polygons thatmake up itsboundaries
  27. 27. Mesh• A polygon mesh or unstructured grid is a collection of vertices and polygons that define the shape of an polyhedral object in 3D computer graphics.
  28. 28. TextureTexture refers to theproperties held andsensations caused bythe external surfaceof objects receivedthrough the sense of.touch
  29. 29. Tile maps• A picture with seamless edges repeated along side in X and Y axis
  30. 30. Texeltexture element The smallest addressableunit of a texture map. When objects in theimage are near, one texel is mapped toone or more screen pixels. When objectsare distant, multiple texels are averagedinto one screen pixel
  31. 31. Texture MappingTexture mapping is amethod, pioneered byEdwin Catmull, ofadding detail, surfacetexture, or colour to acomputer-generatedgraphic or 3D model
  32. 32. UV mapping• UV mapping is a 3D modelling process of making a 2D image representing a 3D model. The map transforms the 3D object onto an image known as a texture. In contrast to "X", "Y" and "Z", which are the coordinates for the original 3D object in the modelling space, "U" and "V" are the coordinates of the transformed object. This creates the effect of painting the image onto the surface of the 3D object
  33. 33. MinMapsA texture mappingtechnique that usesmultiple texture maps,or MIP maps. EachMIP map is half thesize of the first one,providing severaltexture maps forvarious levels ofdepth
  34. 34. procedural texture• An algorithmic way of describing a texture. Unlike a bitmapped texture, in which the texture is represented as a bitmap, a procedural texture describes the texture mathematically. Although not widely used, this method is resolution independent and can create more precise textures, especially if there is great and varying depth to the objects being textured. Procedural textures may be 2D or 3D• http://www.answers.com/topic/procedural-textures? cat=technology
  35. 35. volumetric texture• A texture that is described in three dimensions. It can be created as a "stack" of 2D bitmapped textures or as a 3D procedural texture. When an object with volumetric texture is sliced in half, the texture would still be rendered accurately on the inside• http://www.answers.com/topic/volumetric-texture?cat=technology
  36. 36. point sampling• Also called "nearest neighbor," it is the simplest form of texture mapping, which is often associated with low-end games and applications that do not demand much realism. An algorithm is used to map a screen pixel to the corresponding point on the texture map. The attributes (color, alpha, etc.) of the nearest texel are then directly applied to the screen pixel. The process is repeated for each pixel forming the object being textured
  37. 37. Bilinear interpolation• A texture mapping technique that produces a reasonably realistic image, also known as "bilinear filtering" and "bilinear texture mapping." An algorithm is used to map a screen pixel location to a corresponding point on the texture map. A weighted average of the attributes (color, alpha, etc.) of the four surrounding texels is computed and applied to the screen pixel. This process is repeated for each pixel forming the object being textured• http://www.answers.com/topic/bilinear-interpolation?cat=technology
  38. 38. Tri-linear filtering• Bilinear filtering has several weaknesses that make it an unattractive choice in many cases: using it on a full-detail texture when scaling to a very small size causes accuracy problems from missed texels, and compensating for this by using multiple mipmaps throughout the polygon leads to abrupt changes in blurriness, which is most pronounced in polygons that are steeply angled relative to the camera.• trilinear filtering interpolates between the results of bilinear filtering on the two mipmaps nearest to the detail required for the polygon at the pixel• http://www.answers.com/Trilinear%20filtering
  39. 39. anisotropic filtering• is a method of enhancing the image quality of textures on surfaces that are at oblique viewing angles with respect to the camera where the projection of the texture appears to be non orthogonal http://www.answers.com/Anisotropic%20filtering
  40. 40. RenderRendering is the process ofgenerating an image froma model, by means ofcomputer programs. Themodel is a description ofthree dimensional objectsin a strictly definedlanguage or datastructure. It would containgeometry, viewpoint,texture and lighting.information
  41. 41. Framea frame is one of themany still imageswhich compose thecomplete movingpicture
  42. 42. Gouraud shading• Gouraud shading, named after Henri Gouraud, is a method used in computer graphics to simulate the differing effects of light and colour across the surface of an object. In practice, Gouraud shading is used to achieve smooth lighting on low-polygon surfaces without the heavy computational requirements of calculating lighting for each pixel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gouraud_shading
  43. 43. Reflection mapping• reflection mapping is an efficient method of simulating a complex mirroring surface by means of a precomputed texture image. The texture is used to store the image of the environment surrounding the rendered object.• Types of cube mapping – Standard Environment Mapping – Cube Environment Mapping – HEALPix Environment Mapping• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflection_mapping
  44. 44. Specular reflection• Specular reflection is the perfect, mirror-like reflection of light• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specular_re flection
  45. 45. Diffuse reflection• Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light from an uneven or granular surface such that an incident ray is seemingly reflected at a number of angles• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffuse_reflection
  46. 46. Refraction• Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. This is most commonly seen when a wave passes from one medium to another. Refraction of light is the most commonly seen example, but any type of wave can refract when it interacts with a medium• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refraction
  47. 47. Bump mappingBump mapping is acomputer graphicstechnique where at eachpixel, a perturbation tothe surface normal of theobject being rendered islooked up in a heightmapand applied before theillumination calculation isdone
  48. 48. Normal mapping• normal mapping is an application of the technique known as bump mapping• Normal mapping used to re-detail simplified meshes• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Normal_map_example.png
  49. 49. parallax mapping• Parallax mapping is an enhancement of the bump mapping or normal mapping . To the end user, this means that textures such as stone walls, will have more apparent depth with less of an influence on the performance.• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallax_mappin g
  50. 50. LightmapA light map is a 3D engine light datastructure which contains the brightness ofsurfaces in a video game. Light maps arepre-computed and used for static objects
  51. 51. Ray tracingRay tracing is a generaltechnique fromgeometrical optics ofmodeling the pathtaken by light byfollowing rays of lightas they interact withoptical surfaces
  52. 52. Terrain• Terrain, or relief, is the third or vertical dimension of land surface.
  53. 53. Height mapA height map or heightfield is a raster imageused to store values,such as surfaceelevation data, fordisplay in 3Dcomputer graphics
  54. 54. Pixel shaderA pixel shader serves to manipulate a pixel,usually to apply an effect on an image, forexample; realism, bump mapping,.shadows, and explosion effects
  55. 55. Vertex shaderA Vertex-Shader serves to manipulate thegeometry of an object of a scene.Therefore the form of the object changesand this changes the appearance of theobject. With the help of vertex Shadereffects as vertex lighting, terrain-/Object-deformation, waves or fish eyeperspective are possible
  56. 56. Cell shaderCell Shading is the "art"of rendering yourobjects to look likecartoons. Variouscartoon effects can beachieved with verylittle modifications tothe original source.code
  57. 57. Game botsis a robotic computer controlled entity thatsimulates an online or LAN multiplayerhuman death match opponent, team deathmatch opponent or a cooperative humanplayer. Computer game bots work viaartificial intelligence routines pre-programmed to suit the game map, gamerules, game type and other parametersunique to each game
  58. 58. AIGame artificial intelligence refers totechniques used in computer and videogames to produce the illusion ofintelligence in the behavior of non-playercharacters (NPCs). The techniques usedtypically draw upon existing methods fromthe academic field of artificial intelligenceAI
  59. 59. procedural animation• A procedural animation is a type of computer animation, used to automatically generate animation in real-time to allow for a more diverse series of actions than could otherwise be created using predefined animations.• Procedural animation is used to simulate particle systems cloth and clothing, rigid body dynamics, and hair and fur dynamics, as well as character animation• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procedural_animation
  60. 60. Skeltal animation• Skeletal animation, sometimes referred to as rigging, is a technique in computer animation, particularly in the animation of vertebrates, in which a character is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called the skin) and a hierarchical set of bones used for animation only (called the skeleton).• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skeletal_animation
  61. 61. Morph target animation ((or per-vertex animation• Morph target animation (or per-vertex animation) is a method of 3D computer animation that is sometimes used as an alternative to skeletal animation. Morph target animation is stored as a series of vertex positions. In each keyframe of the animation, the vertices are moved to a different position.• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morph_target_animation
  62. 62. Collisioncollision means the action of bodies • striking or coming together
  63. 63. Game engine• A game engine is the core software component of a computer video game or other interactive application with real-time graphics. It provides the underlying technologies, simplifies development, and often enables the game to run on multiple platforms• The core functionality typically provided by a game engine includes a rendering engine (“renderer”) for 2D or 3D graphics, a physics engine or collision detection (and collision response), sound, scripting, animation, artificial intelligence, networking, streaming, memory management, threading, and a scene graph
  64. 64. game genre• Video games are categorized into genres based on their gameplay• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_genre
  65. 65. References• http://www.wikipedia.com• http://www.answers.com/

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