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  1. 1. Meeting of the Expenditure Finance Committee on ‘National Translation Mission’; May 5, 2008 National Translation Mission EFC Meeting MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Department of Higher Education Languages Division
  2. 2. Translation as an instrument for Development of both Knowledge & Languages <ul><li>When  languages develop  on their own through primary standardization , it takes a lot of time. </li></ul><ul><li>When languages are planned & developed through secondary standardization , things happen faster. </li></ul><ul><li>This is how the NTM has been envisaged; ‘Cause g one are the days when languages could develop on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Only developed languages become carriers of new knowledge and ideas; Consider last 200 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is produced in certain centres of excellence, and mainly in some languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Others must bring in this knowledge explosion into their own languages and spaces . </li></ul>DPR Preamble
  3. 3. What did Translation Mean in India? <ul><li>In India, translation has always been an important activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation made it possible for us to travel – between texts, cultures, communities, and of course, between two or more times & spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>As we travelled, we established contacts with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation acted like a kinship tool in a diverse country like ours, and allowed ‘ others ’ (outsiders) to be appropriated within the self. </li></ul><ul><li>We have thus had ‘Translation as mediation’. </li></ul><ul><li>We have given as well as taken from all knowledge-producing languages. </li></ul>DPR Preamble
  4. 4. The Linguistic Landscape: Producers of Original Knowledge Texts -Hindi
  5. 5. NTM : Historical Background <ul><li>The idea came originally from the Prime Minister of India in end-1985. In the first meeting of the National Knowledge Commission (NKC), he suggested how vital access to translated material was for increasing access to knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>An NKC Working Group met in Delhi in February ‘06 to elaborate and plan, which included representatives from government organizations, academics, linguists, translators, educationists, publishers and others based on a draft prepared by CIIL. </li></ul><ul><li>By Sept ‘06, the Chairman, NKC forwarded the recommendations to the Planning Commission. </li></ul><ul><li>The groups finalized the structure at meetings held at CIIL. </li></ul>
  6. 6. contd <ul><li>Comments also received from Social Scientists (CSDS/ICHR) </li></ul><ul><li>On June 21 and July 3, ‘06, suggestions from many publishing houses were also received. </li></ul><ul><li>Culminated in a meeting Education Secretary called in March 08. </li></ul><ul><li>It was followed up with a massive meeting with publishers from all 22 languages in April ‘08. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Anukriti : A Precursor to NTM <ul><li>A translation facilitation- website was launched and updated by CIIL, NBT and Sahitya Akademi </li></ul><ul><li>Publication of online and print journal, ‘ Translation Today ’ during last four years. </li></ul><ul><li>A massive search engine was launched with a database on translation into major Indian languages. </li></ul><ul><li>A National Register of Translators. </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogues of translation publications obtained from major publishing houses are being put on the site. </li></ul>DPR Ch ## 7
  8. 8. Contd (on Anukriti ) <ul><li>Details of courses on translation available. </li></ul><ul><li>Links with professional translation agencies created. </li></ul><ul><li>Online links with various translation software to facilitate translators. </li></ul><ul><li>All these were achieved in this pilot with about Rs. 56 lakhs during the 10 th FYP. </li></ul>DPR Ch ## 7
  9. 9. <ul><li>India with such huge talent cannot afford to take a backseat in knowledge production only because our languages do not house new knowledge, or new knowledge is not produced any more using our languages. </li></ul><ul><li>The way out - a massive translation initiative such as the proposed ‘National Translation Mission’ (NTM). </li></ul><ul><li>It should begin with acts like translation of all 1.4 million odd technical terms or even newly emerging ones (CSTT’s mandate) as well as translation of NCERT and Other school text-books in all 8 th Schedule languages. </li></ul><ul><li>NTM must also involve individual translators on a mass scale, and help R&D work in all fields by quickly bringing out teaching & reference materials in all these languages </li></ul>National Translation Mission: Translation as a Social Action DPR Ch ## 1
  10. 10. What should be translated? <ul><li>* School textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>* Textbooks at higher level </li></ul><ul><li>* Reference books </li></ul><ul><li>* Other pedagogic material </li></ul><ul><li>* Specialized books </li></ul><ul><li>* Critical Studies </li></ul><ul><li>* Non-fiction/Writings of current interest </li></ul><ul><li>* Instruction manuals </li></ul><ul><li>* Magazines & E-Zines </li></ul><ul><li>* Journals (Both Professional and Popular) </li></ul><ul><li>* Web-based material </li></ul>
  11. 11. Set up a National Translation Mission: Idea Worth Pursuing <ul><li>Most important is to reduce the time gap between the original publication and the translated version. </li></ul><ul><li>We need many translators and also many user-friendly translation tools in public domain (something that C-DAC or IITs or IIITs can do with CIIL’s help). </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary to fill in critical gaps in terms of the availability of materials in all areas of knowledge. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Contd <ul><li>To ensure that the language of translation should be standardized, and not using offensive expressions. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also problems of promotion and dissemination of translated works. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no single public institution that deals only with translation, or does it on a massive scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating the gigantic activity requires establishment of a Mission, as all this cannot be achieved overnight, nor can there be a fixed time-frame for this project. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What could the Mission do? <ul><li>NTM could come up under CIIL - an existing institution, and later become a separate set up. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer both funding and responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Network with other institutions, individuals and publishing houses. </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a clearing house of information on all kinds of translation s ( on-line ) </li></ul><ul><li>Undertake, support & assign Virtual / Actual publication . </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Translators could benefit from a national accreditation and short-term focused training courses </li></ul><ul><li>PLUS, offer the following services - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of Translators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of Authors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Info on LT-related courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-zines in/on Translation and MT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic up-dating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation Training </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Lexicographical Tasks before the National Translation Mission <ul><li>The following activities must be flagged: </li></ul><ul><li>E lectronic dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural G lossaries </li></ul><ul><li>T hesauri </li></ul><ul><li>W ord finder s </li></ul><ul><li>T echnical terminologies </li></ul><ul><li>A nnotated corp us & tools </li></ul>Each one will feed the other tasks DPR ## 2
  15. 15. contd <ul><li>Spoken and Parallel Corpora archives (for future generation tools in oral and simultaneous translation) </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of traditional and special purpose dictionaries into E-dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Print & On-line Dictionary of Technical terms in all disciplines, and constantly update it. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a Comparative Dictionary of Technical Terms across major Indian languages. </li></ul>DPR ## 2
  16. 16. More about the model <ul><li>It must also have several wings – each one supporting and complementing the other. </li></ul>To summarize the issues: (i) Technical Terms in all disciplines and all 22 languages; (ii) School level texts in all; (iii) Tools and techniques for different language-pairs, (iv) Publication & Distribution, and (v) Coordination, monitoring and quality control.
  17. 17. NTM : A LAYERED MODEL <ul><li>The entity must have several layers (depending on the density and difficulty of tasks at hand). </li></ul><ul><li>Some languages and some tasks will be in the inner-most and basic layer. </li></ul><ul><li>As time goes and expertise grows, more difficult and subtle tasks could be undertaken. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Prioritizing the Domains? <ul><li>  Astrophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Biophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Botany (General) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry (General) </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics, Eugenics, Genetic </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><li>Informatics (General) </li></ul><ul><li>Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Physics (General) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>Zoology (General) </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative literature </li></ul><ul><li>Cybernetics </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnology </li></ul><ul><li>Film Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>Manuscriptology </li></ul><ul><li>Museology </li></ul><ul><li>Musicology </li></ul><ul><li>Painting (Plastic Arts) </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Religion/Religious Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Translation Studies </li></ul>PRIORITY - I PRIORITY - II
  19. 19. NTM: Six Key Activities Planned <ul><li>Developing Scientific & Technical Terms in all 22 Languages of the VIIIth Schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>  Translator Education </li></ul><ul><li> * Running short-term training programmes. </li></ul><ul><li> * Creating a course for translators as a part of language teaching </li></ul><ul><li> * Developing courses in translation technology </li></ul><ul><li> * Fellowship programmes. </li></ul><ul><li> * Encouraging research projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Information dissemination. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion/ dissemination of good quality translation. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of machine aided translation (between different language pairs) </li></ul><ul><li>Generation of high quality translation tools such as dictionaries and the sourcing software for translation, memory, WordNet etc . </li></ul>DPR Ch ## 2
  20. 20. Avoiding Duplication <ul><li>Coordination and cooperation with a variety of organizations like the CSTT, NCERT, National Book Trust (NBT), University Grants Commission (UGC), Sahitya Akademy, CIIL, Granth Academies, Public Library Networks etc. would be needed for avoiding overlapping and duplication. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar linkage would be needed with Private Publishers, media/ newspaper, corporate houses, & booksellers to make it a PPP initiative . </li></ul><ul><li>The teaching aids such as maps, charts, diagrams, reports ( like the Economic Survey, or the Educational Survey or even the Budget Document, etc) should be quickly rendered into Indian languages </li></ul>DPR Ch ## 11
  21. 21. NTM: The Structure in future <ul><li>When NTM finally becomes an autonomous and independent entity, its layered Organizational Structure could include these: </li></ul><ul><li>Advisory Committee with 11 ex-officio members, headed by the Honb’le HRM, and Eight representatives from Central or State Agencies and Eight from private organizations/ publishers/corporate houses or private individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Governing Board (GB), headed by Senior Scholar/nominee of Ministry of HRD. This board will also have (a) VCs of language universities by rotation, (b) two from IITs/NITs/IIITs etc engaged in translation technology, (c) two from each state by rotation, (d) three from among Book-sellers/Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>General Council (GC) with 25-30 members, drawn out of the members – both institutional and individual of the NTM. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides, a number of Advisory Sub-Committees, or Working Groups, with consultants and experts in each category (such as Scientific translation, Technical Translation, Instant Translation/ Interpretation, or Machine Translation, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>At present, NTM will be managed by a Project Advisory Committee to be set up on the recommendation of CIIL </li></ul>DPR Ch ## 9
  22. 22. TARGET BENEFICIARIES <ul><li>The weaker sections of students from the margins of the society who owing to their rural status, caste or class status have little access to knowledge (found only in English) </li></ul><ul><li>The lateral benefits go to a large number of groups and the general public eager to read literary and knowledge texts in their own languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Will also provide tasks/jobs to translators with a reasonable remuneration for their work </li></ul><ul><li>Publishers looking for interesting books in their languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers in schools, colleges and universities. </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteers engaged in non–formal education. </li></ul>DPR Ch ## 4
  23. 23. contd <ul><li>NGOs working in areas like public health, civil rights, environment, popular science etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Agencies looking for interpreters. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists and foreign scholars who need interpreting. </li></ul><ul><li>Film makers and TV producers in dubbing/subtitling </li></ul><ul><li>Universities and others with courses in translation & Comp Lit </li></ul><ul><li>Translation software developers. </li></ul>DPR Ch ## 4
  24. 24. PROJECT STRATEGY <ul><li>Major tasks and events: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation task of Technical and Scientific Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of Electronic Dictionaries/Thesauri </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication of knowledge-based translations in all major disciplines taught in our colleges and universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation of numerous school level text books and reference books up to class 12. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidies for journals on translation or publishing translation-related texts and analysis etc in Indian languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants to authors/translators for IPR/Copyright fee </li></ul></ul>Use of Public Domain and Free Downloading Facilities of Texts DPR Ch ## 5
  25. 25. contd <ul><ul><li>Grants for Translation Training at different levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants for NLP Research related to translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants for University Departments conducting Degree/Diploma courses on translation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants for specific projects (such as preparation of translation manuals between pairs of languages </li></ul></ul>DPR Ch ## 5
  26. 26. Budget for EVENTS/TASKS DPR Ch ## 10 a. Publication of translation of 1760 reference books + 200 text books 4520.00 b. G.I.A. Subsidies for journals on translation 200.00 c. G.I.A. Grants to authors/translators for Copyright Fee 35.20 d. G.I.A. Grants for Translator Training 100.00 e. Task+G.I.A. Electronic Dictionaries/Thesauri (Rs 390 cr+Rs 600 cr) 990.00 f. G.I.A. Grants for NLP Research 400.00 g. G.I.A. Grants for University Departments conducting Degree/Diploma courses on translation 200.00 h. Web-Maintenance (National Register/Bulletin/E-zine/Search/Tools) 200.00 Total ( in lakhs ) : Rs 6645.20
  27. 27. Phasing of Expenditure (in lakhs) DPR Ch ## 10 220.00 00.00 00.00 00.00 220.00 Equip./Softw. 4. 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 Total Recurring 1519.712 2026.305 1800.731 2050.682 7397.43 1. Human Resource 99.312 100.305 108.831 118.082 4,26.53 2. Publications and Other Tasks 1181.00 1901.60 1661.00 1901.60 6645.20 3. General Maint. 14.40 14.40 14.40 14.40 57.60 5. Equip. Maint. 00.00 5.00 11.50 11.50 28.00 6. Travel 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 20.00
  28. 28. Approved overall budget for NTM with year-wise break up DPR Ch ## 10 <ul><li>Note : * Translation fee for 300 books + Translation fee for 440 books plus 58.31 for a backlog payment for earlier year’s 140 assignments # Fee for Fee for 580 books & 0.90 for web-based content translation </li></ul>7397.43 2050.682 2253.643 2026.305 1066.800 Grand Total 966.800 100.00 Total 1535.20 537.320 422.18 383.800 175.400 16.50 G.I.A. 3501.72 837.027 1169.720 1099.923 390.050 05.00 O.C. 057.60 14.400 14.400 14.400 09.400 05.00 O.A.C. 220.00 00.000 50.000 45.000 112.000 13.00 Office Ex 125.00 45.00 35.000 30.000 05.000 10.00 Travel Ex 002.30 00.65 00.600 00.550 00.000 00.50 Medical 000.00 00.000 00.000 00.000 00.000 00.00 O.T.A. 1955.61 118.082 134.016 364.187 616.285 108.831 121.833 331.079 # 561.743 100.305 110.757 183.260+ 58.310 452.632 49.312 100.688 124.950* 274.950 50.00 Salary, incl Consultancy/ Tr.Fee/Honor Total 2011-12 2010-11 2009-10 2008-09 Additional to be asked for 2008-09 Released
  29. 29. To Summarize: The Steps <ul><li>Web-site for dissemination of information about the facilities & services under NTM </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of a data repository of translators in different disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>On-line bibliography of existing translations . </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting all forthcoming translation through mass media & product launch/Anuvad mela. </li></ul><ul><li>Join hands with publishers & guilds/associations </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance remuneration of translators </li></ul><ul><li>Identify experts in the field for copy editing, refereeing and reviewing – for quality control </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, provide a translation service through the NTM for its registered members/agencies/ embassies/ business houses </li></ul><ul><li>Interface between translators, university depts, publishers, and public/private sectors </li></ul>
  30. 30. THANK YOU Encl: DPR; NKC Recommendations & MHRD Working Group Reco, etc.