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Psr An International Overview

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Psr An International Overview

  1. 1. Page 1 Introduction This Brief has been commissioned by the Efficiency Unit to report on recent developments in public sector reform around the world. It is based on secondary rather than original research and the objective has been to focus on international examples, so that Hong Kong examples have been deliberately excluded. The purpose of this publication is to present "at a glance" the key developments around the world on the public sector reform front. It is meant to inform and inspire our public managers who are required to innovate in their service delivery. Each country or organisation devises its own public sector reform agenda to suit its social, resources and political circumstances. The wholesale transplant of one reform initiative from one country to another seldom works. Nonetheless, knowing what other public managers in jurisdications elsewhere are thinking, and how they tackle their policy and implementation challenges should present food for thought for us in Hong Kong. Head, Efficiency Unit July 2007 Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  2. 2. Page 2 Executive Summary Public engagement P ublic sector reform is not new. But over the past decade or two, there has been an increase of reform activity, right the world, focusing on those that have been widely adopted, those that seem to have delivered significant improvement, The challenge of public around the world. While priorities have and those that promise interesting new engagement is to find shifted over time, and there have been directions in the reform agenda. new ways of encour- different emphases from country to aging citizens to be country, there have also been several It is a sampler, a catalogue of short case meaningfully involved persistent themes: renewed attempts to studies that readers can investigate more in public policy-making, engage citizens in the process of closely on their own. This is the first in a and in playing a role in governance; a move to place customers series of papers, and it is meant to serve the institutions through which they and end-users at the heart of public as a general introduction to some of the are governed in their services; a focus on delivery and imple- outstanding themes that will be local communities. mentation as opposed to policy addressed in greater detail in future formulation; managing for outcomes; an papers. increased reliance on market instruments to improve value-for-money; and efforts Public Engagement to coordinate the complex variety of The challenge of public engagement is to Customer- different programmes across find new ways of encouraging citizens to centric government. be meaningfully involved in public policy- government making, and in playing a role in the Customer-focused It is difficult to find a precedent for such institutions through which they are public services widespread and sustained interest in governed in their local communities. consider the public’s public sector reform, even if we go back to experiences as service the progressive reformers of North Right around the world, governments are users. They seek to America around the turn of the 19th struggling with this challenge. Information engage through short century, a movement that was also feedback loops – from technology can assist with the provision of managerialist in tone. information to citizens and it can make the service user direct to the service provider consultation easier. But engagement There are different views as to what requires much more than formal – rather than long loops – which flow underlies this transformation agenda, but interaction, and governments are also from user to provider throughout the literature, one finds a experimenting with more personal via policymakers. deep-seated belief that the business of consultation, creating innovative new government is fundamentally changing. forums for deliberation. Globalisation, technological innovation and rising public expectations – and the Customer-centric government speed with which these changes are Customer-focused public services con- taking place – mean that the role of the sider the public’ experiences as service s public services in society and the manner users. They seek to engage through short in which they are delivered must feedback loops – from the service user fundamentally change. direct to the service provider – rather than long loops – which flow from user to This brief discusses some of the cutting- provider via policymakers. edge reforms to public services around Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  3. 3. Page 3 Executive Summary In a number of governments, the pro- mance-related pay, performance con- Policy to delivery ducer-led model of public services is tracting and performance budgeting. The traditional empha- gradually giving way to a consumer- Some governments are now experi- sis on policy develop- driven model. The range of options ex- menting with purchasing outcomes and ment in the senior ranks tends from improving responsiveness to not just outputs. of government is being end-users, through to the personalisation replaced with a focus on of public services, and policies directed to Market Instruments management and giving the consumers of public services In the regulation of private activity, in the service delivery. some choice of provider. procurement of goods and in the delivery of public services under contract, govern- Policy to delivery ments are using market instruments to The traditional emphasis on policy devel- deliver better outcomes. opment in the senior ranks of government Managing for is being replaced with a focus on manage- A variety of different market instruments results ment and service delivery. are now being employed by Performance manage- governments to assist them in meeting ment is concerned with the delivery of results Many good ideas fail, not because the public purposes, including online rather than just idea was wrong, but because the auctions, trading of environmental compliance with rules. execution was flawed. Governments are permits, competition and contracting, paying much greater attention to and the creation of new markets for strengthening the public sector’ s public services. competence in delivery. Initiatives have Market included increased flexibility in the Joined up government recruitment of senior executives, greater Governments are searching for new instruments In the regulation of openness in attracting expertise from the ways of overcoming the fragmentation private activity, in the private sector, and particularly commercial and duplication in the public sector. procurement of goods expertise, the establishment of delivery and in the delivery of units with cross-cutting responsibilities, The lack of coordination in public public services under and the deregulation of the public services, services remains a serious challenge in contract, governments by giving greater autonomy to service the struggle to improve the quality of the are using market managers. customer’ experience of government. s instruments to deliver Many of the traditional solutions, such as better outcomes. Managing for results merging departments and agencies and Performance management is concerned the use of case managers have limited with the delivery of results rather than just value. Web-based technologies are Joined up compliance with rules. opening up new possibilities for delivering joined up government, but government There have been a wide variety of perfor- they are also raising entirely new Governments are mance-based initiatives, from perfor- questions, such as the desirability of searching for new ways of overcoming the mance measurement and reporting, joining up related public and private fragmentation and performance accountability (based on a services. duplication in the public cycle of management reforms), perfor- sector. Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  4. 4. Page 4 1. Public Engagement Public Engaging the citizenry is a challenge for National Highway Traffic Safety governments right around the world. It Administration in the USA (www.nhtsa. engagement continues to be a dilemma for a variety of gov/ncsl/) tracks legislation on a range of The challenge of public reasons: the ongoing 'nationalisation' of road safety issues across all jurisdictions. engagement is to find government, with decision-making new ways of encour- aging citizens to be authority moving from the local to the But intermediating government meaningfully involved national level; the growing significance of information is no longer the exclusive in public policy-making, supra-national institutions, such as the domain of government. Concerned citizens and in playing a role in European Union and the World Bank; the are using the internet to provide fellow- the institutions technical complexity of modern citizens with a window into government. In through which they government; and the lack of interest on the the US, legislation trackers are being are governed in their part of citizens, evidenced through low offered by individuals - see, for example, local communities. voter-turnouts and declining party GovTrack ( In the UK, memberships. TheyWorkForYou(www.theyworkforyou. com) enables citizens to track their local Information member's speeches and voting patterns, and to check details from their register of At the most basic level, citizens need to interests and members' expenses. understand what government is doing and how it impacts on them. Traditionally, this Rules and regulations are more intrusive has been difficult because of citizens' than legislation, requiring close diverse interests, and the different ways in consultation with those affected. But rule- which they interact with public services. making has also become more complex due to requirements in some jurisdictions However, information technology is for regulatory impact statements and cost- making it easier to track the progress of benefit analysis. This makes it more difficult legislation. Online bill tracking services are for governments to attract meaningful provided by most state legislatures in the comment prior to the promulgation of new USA - see, for example, that of the rules. The US federal government now Michigan Legislature (www.legislature.mi. offers a web portal - Regulations.Gov gov/(S(cwey1v555f1edr45fdw0nzfu))/ ( - dedicated to mileg.aspx?page=home). And some offer consultation on rule-making so that it is personalised bill tracking so that after easier for the public to track changes and identifying legislation that is of particular file comments. interest, subscribers can be updated regularly by email - Nevada (www.leg. Governments are also able to provide their is one state citizens with detailed information about that offers this service. particular aspects of public administration. Best practice is to be found in the US Individual departments, interest groups federal government website, FedSpending and commercial organisations also offer (, which enables services that focus on specific issues. The citizens to obtain detailed (and user- Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  5. 5. Page 5 1. Public Engagement friendly) information on federal and online discussion forums, as well as government grants and contracts, by more traditional consultation state, congressional district, contractor, mechanisms. Some governments are service type or level of competition. tailoring discussion forums to particular sub-groups in the community. Some governments provide highly- HeadsUp ( is one accessible ways of tracking new such service directed to young people. infrastructure projects in the state or city. See, for example, the New York City Web 2.0 - the latest generation in Economic Development Corporation internet-based services - greatly ( On a smaller expands the kind of contributions that scale, the city of Seattle provides can be made by citizens. These highly- residents with detailed maps showing democratic systems have sometimes road construction works (www.seattle. been described as 'peer-production'. A gov/transportation/map/default.htm). leading-edge example of how this new technology might be used in improving Consultation the quality of public engagement is Politicopia, a wiki established by a state Citizens also want to be engaged in politician from Utah (USA). In this case, government decision-making, being citizens are provided with neutral consulted about forthcoming reforms and statements of major policy initiatives, enabled to feed back their views on with supportive and critical public services. Some government argumentation. The public are then able agencies and local authorities seek public to make their own contributions online, input on the quality of public services and and the politician operating the site has spending priorities, using surveys mailed been able to take meaningful reforms to out to local residents. the legislature based on these comments. Some conduct annual surveys of a sample of randomly selected citizens. ComNET ( The City of San Francisco, for example, htm) represents a more active form of publishes an annual 'City Survey' public engagement. It was developed summarising the government's by the Center on Municipal Government performance across a range of measures, in New York, and uses hand-held comparing results over time (http://www. computers (similar to PDAs), to enable community organisations to capture id=59064). information about local potholes or streetlight maintenance (along with In 2006, the Singapore Government photographs), and upload the data to restructured its feedback unit into a new government. The system is now being service entitled REACH (http://app.reach. used in a number of North American with e-polls municipalities. Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  6. 6. Page 6 1. Public Engagement One of the most closely-watched Deliberative forums are large group consultation initiatives has been discussions involving a representative 'Participatory Budgeting' (http://www. sample of citizens who have been provided in advance with briefing htm), introduced by the city of Porto materials, and are given access to Alegre in Brazil in 1990, and thereafter subject-matter experts before adopted in some 250 municipalities participating in a deliberative process. across South America and around the world. Participatory Budgeting works at the local level, where there are defined Case Study 1: Deliberative geographic boundaries. It is based on Polling in Wenling City structured dialogue and debate about spending priorities over the course of the In 2005, Zeguo township in Wenling year, among local people elected by City, China, used 'Deliberative Polling' their fellow citizens. ( to engage with around 250 randomly- Deliberation selected citizens to consult on priorities for local infrastructure projects. A Deliberation implies that citizens have scientific approach to the selection of been given the opportunity to make a participants was combined with thoughtful contribution to an issue after traditional methods of deliberation used consideration of the evidence. It in the local community. Among other suggests that a representative cross- benefits, deliberation encouraged section of the public has been provided participants to take into account the with the information and allowed the financial consequences of their choices. time and the forum within which to reach a considered judgement. Citizens' Juries typically involve smaller groups - 12 to 15 non-experts - to hear In British Columbia, Canada, the evidence from witnesses, deliberate and government established a Citizen's form a judgement on contentious policy Assembly (www.citizensassembly.bc. issues. They have been actively used by ca/public) in 2004, to review the governments and third party province's electoral system. 160 organisations in the UK in recent years. representatives drawn from all electoral districts considered alternative reforms at Citizen-led reform a series of forums over a period of eleven months. Submissions were Some governments allow their citizens received by the Assembly from the to initiate reforms, if they are able to general public. The recommendations attract a sufficient level of community were put to the public in a popular support. In the UK, experiments are referendum. underway with a citizen-led initiative Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  7. 7. Page 7 1. Public Engagement known as 'community call to action'. additional assessment on property Under the Police and Justice Act 2006, taxes. The funds are allocated to the citizens can raise community safety BID, which provides supplementary concerns with local councillors, who are services in retail and commercial under a statutory obligation to address precincts. In New York City, BIDs these matters and respond. Frontline financed additional security personnel councillors in turn are able to insist on and street cleaners, and worked with responsiveness from delivery agencies. local shopkeepers to improve the visual appearance of the neighbourhood. BIDs Citizen initiatives - which allow citizens have also been established more to vote on a proposed statutory or recently in some UK municipalities. constitutional amendment - have been used in Switzerland for well over a Another area where citizens have been century. They have been actively used able to become involved in community in some of the western states of North governance is in the management of America in recent decades. (www. natural resources. Local fishing Votes or referenda communities are sometimes are triggered by public petition, administered in this way. In Australia, although issues are usually required to there are around 4,000 volunteer have a high level of support before they community landcare groups, can be submitted for consideration. coordinated by government, that play an important role (for example) in Governance helping to combat soil erosion (www. The most advanced form of engagement enables the public to be involved in the actual governance of The UK government is also looking to organisations with responsibility for the the directly-elected 'neighbourhood delivery of community services. The councillors' who will have delegated most successful of these have been at rights over spending on services within the sub-local level, where local citizens the local neighbourhood. Local have a greater capacity to make a councillors would have the option of contribution to the management of raising additional funds by levying an neighbourhood services. extra charge on the local tax for specific neighbourhood services. One of the most successful initiatives of this sort have been Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), pioneered in Canada in the late 1960s, and adopted widely in the United States in the 1990s. BIDs are created on the initiative of local merchants and property owners, and financed by an Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  8. 8. Page 8 2. Customer-centric Government Customer- 'Putting customers first' through voice better understanding what matters to and choice was a central element of Al service users. At a more sophisticated centric Gore's 'National Performance Review' in level, it involves rethinking public services government the US federal government in the mid- in terms of the customer experience - Customer-focused 1990s, and subsequently by the Bush seeking to understand government public services administration. More recently, the UK programmes as a narrative told from the consider the public’s government has actively sought to focus user's perspective. experiences as service users. They seek to public service providers on the needs of engage through short end-users. In Singapore, ministers have The soft issues - whether consumers feedback loops – from exhorted public servants to 'Start with are treated with respect - matter as the service user direct the User in Mind', and other govern- much to consumers as the hard issues - to the service provider ments around the world have adopted the effectiveness of the service they – rather than long a similar approach, particularly in finally receive. It is now commonplace loops – which flow relation to online services. for government agencies to use 'mys- from user to provider tery shoppers', a technique often used via policymakers. Service quality by private sector managers to test the quality of front-line service delivery. The quality movement has served as a companion to customer-centric Once again, information technology has government. 'Citizen's Charters' intro- made it easier for governments to duced by the UK government in the late survey and to respond to the concerns of 1980s pioneered this approach, estab- service-users. CivicRADAR (www. lishing explicit performance standards - being piloted in for customer service. This was followed Connecticut - enables citizens to com- by Quality Charters in Portugal, Client municate information to the city Charters in Malaysia, Service Users' government, make service requests and Charters in Australia and Customer register complaints 24 hours a day. Service Standards in the US federal More importantly, the system allows government. them to track the response of the various departments and agencies online and Responsiveness when the requests are resolved, com- plete a satisfaction survey. The Organisation for Economic Coop- eration and Development (OECD) In the private sector, price comparison reports widespread interest in improving websites now enable consumers to the responsiveness of government, search for the best prices for standard although different governments pursue goods and services such as airline flights. the concept in different ways. At a Websites have been launched enabling simple level, this involves surveying the public to compare the prices customer satisfaction, with a view to charged by competing public utilities Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  9. 9. Page 9 2. Customer-centric Government (such as electricity and gas). But many of personalisation, some North Ameri- government services are heavily can governments now allow drivers to subsidised or provided free of charge, so order customised number plates online. that price comparison may be of little The state of Virginia allows customers to assistance. draw on any one of 180 different designs, some of which are sponsored On the other hand, a growing number of by community organisations and social websites enable citizens to compare the causes ( quality of services. The US Department citizen/vehicles/plate_search.asp). of Health and Human Services (www. allows Business Link ( patients to compare the performance of uk), an online information service for hospitals across the United States small business in Britain, is an example according to a range of performance of this new generation of customised measures. In the UK, an independent services. For example, an individual guide to the performance of hospitals wishing to start a new business can and medical consultants is provided by input details on the kind of business a public-private partnership known as Dr they are proposing to establish, and the Foster ( In the online service will provide them with a education sector, the UK government start-up organiser, with all of the re- allows parents to compare the stan- quired links, and (say) prompted assis- dards of neighbourhood schools (http:// tance and precedents for preparing a and non- business plan. government organisations offer similar services in the US (www.greatschools. Increasingly, individuals are looking for net). private services to be incorporated into these personalised online facilities. This Personalisation is leading to a debate about whether governments' electronic services should Personalisation suggests that the public be opened up to third party intermedi- are provided with a customer-friendly aries who would act more as the agent interface with government services. of the citizen than as the agents of Developments in information technol- government. Australian immigration ogy have opened up new ways of visas are managed through an interna- personalising public services, with tional network of travel agents. In the facilities available 24/7 and the ability to UK, banks have explored the possibility make appointments online. It is of enabling customers to lodge their summed up in the 'MyGov' concept - returns and pay their taxes through the tailoring government websites to banks' websites, and insurance compa- individual need. As an extreme example nies have suggested that motor vehicle Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  10. 10. Page 10 2. Customer-centric Government Government 2. Customer-centric registration might be undertaken by pioneered choice in education through them on their policyholders' behalf. voucher arrangements. In Australia, this has been accomplished simply by However, since many public services allowing government funding to be involve personal care, case manage- allocated across the public and inde- ment remains an important means of pendent sectors according to student personalising public services to the numbers. individual. It is resource-intensive and must be prioritised on those in greatest Where public services are provided free need, but governments continue to at the point of delivery, it is still possible explore new models. For example, the for customers (or their agents) to choose UK government is introducing a na- between alternative providers. Under tional scheme for case-managing Australia's Job Network , job seekers can offenders through the criminal justice register for assistance with any of a system. range of approved service providers in their area, drawn from the private and In the health sector, pilot schemes are voluntary sectors. being introduced for managing the long-term health needs of the chroni- Concerns have been expressed that cally ill, with the objective of improving choice is not equally accessible for some quality of life and reducing disadvantaged groups. This can be hospitalisation rates. Health Mainte- addressed partly through differential nance Organisations in the USA pio- vouchers, which offer proportionately neered these models, with private greater benefits to the disadvantaged. health insurers and state social insur- In the UK, the government is appointing ance providers elsewhere in the world 'choice advisers' to assist families in adapting them to local need. South making meaningful decisions about Africa introduced managed care in the schools. Every local authority is to late 1990s, and Australia started con- appoint a network of choice advisers ducting trials with 'coordinated care' from 2008. shortly thereafter. The UK is also experimenting with integrated care models for the management of chronic disease. Choice It was long assumed that the concept of customer choice had only limited application to public services, but the United States and Australia have Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  11. 11. Page 11 2. Customer-centric GovernmentGovernment 2. Customer-centric Case Study 2: Choice-based Letting in Public Housing In 2000, Harborough District Council (a UK local authority) launched a choice- based letting system for the allocation of public housing. It was based on the so- called Delft Model that had been widely adopted in the Netherlands. Instead of allocating housing to appli- cants with no alternatives and little explanation as to decisions, choice-based letting gave tenants the opportunity to register for and respond to advertise- ments for available properties. They were provided with information about the properties and neighbourhoods, and local market conditions. And simpler and more transparent selection criteria were introduced. Applicants who turned down offers were no longer automatically penalised. Choice-based lettings have since been adopted by many local authorities in the UK. Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  12. 12. Page 12 3. From Policy to Delivery From Policy to Most public servants are involved in adopt this approach more often, al- delivering services to citizens, and yet, in though Sweden, Switzerland and Delivery most governments around the Hungary have also been leaders. The traditional empha- industrialised world, the senior ranks of sis on policy develop- ment in the senior the public service have been dominated In many countries, chief executives and ranks of government is by policy generalists with only a few senior civil servants are now hired on being replaced with a having a commercial or financial term contracts, with performance- focus on management background. Governments have tended related pay. Organisational structures and service delivery. to be driven by policy models rather are determined and public servants are than delivery models. recruited, employed and promoted by the chief executive of the individual Politicians and public servants are now department or agency, rather than a paying much greater attention to central public service board. And in an questions of implementation, and the attempt to avoid a fragmentation of the structures, processes and capabilities public service and encourage leadership necessary to strengthen the public development, a number of govern- sector's competence in delivery. There ments have established a 'senior has been a growing recognition that executive service'. many good ideas fail, not because the idea itself was wrong, but because the The US federal government was the first execution was flawed. to introduce such a service, followed in the late 1990s and early 1990s by Transforming the senior civil service Australia and New Zealand, and later by the Netherlands and the UK. South Traditionally, the core public service was Korea has a strong career-based career-based, with civil servants re- tradition, but in 1999 the government cruited on the basis of examinations or introduced the Open Competitive academic credentials, and thereafter Position System, with the objective of enjoying lifelong tenure. They were facilitating the transfer of skills from transferred between positions as outside government. Ministries were to needed, which required them to be designate 20% of senior positions for generalists. open competition. In recent years, a number of countries Even with a senior executive service, have shifted to position-based systems, these countries have experienced where the focus is on finding the best difficulty in attracting significant num- candidate for the job in question, often bers of external applicants for senior by competitive recruitment amongst positions, and governments have internal and external candidates. Anglo- sought to involve the private sector in American governments have tended to other ways. Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  13. 13. Page 13 3. From Policy to Delivery Private sector expertise government appointed an executive from the private sector as the new In 2004, the Japanese Prime Minister Commercial Director in the Department appointed senior business leaders and of Health. He was given a strong academics to a Council for the Promo- mandate for reform and he, in turn, tion of Regulatory Reform (www.cao. relied heavily on secondments from the private sector to support the initiative. This expert committee was used to The programme is regarded as having develop an important new initiative for been a success, although the market-testing public services that has sustainability of this model is uncertain since been implemented by the as many of the staff have since returned government. to the private sector ( en/Policyandguidance/ North American governments have long Organisationpolicy/Secondarycare/ appointed senior business executives to Treatmentcentres/DH_074351). high-level 'commissions' to design and then to oversee the implementation of Driving delivery financial and operational reforms. The Governor of Georgia, Sonny Perdue Another way in which governments recently appointed a 'Commission for a have emphasised the primacy of New Georgia' (, delivery is through the creation of led by CEOs and senior executives from specialist units at the centre of govern- the private sector, to harness innovation ment to ensure that key targets are and technology to improve cost effi- met. The New South Wales state ciency and customer responsiveness. government in Sydney, Australia, established a Premier's Delivery Unit in In Virginia, Governor Mark Warner 2006, to drive improvement in the created a 'Council on Virginia's Future' delivery of public services. A similar unit ( involving was established by the UK government senior politicians, public officials and in 2001, to oversee the government's private sector executives. The brief performance management system. included providing a long-term focus on high priority issues, improving govern- In 2006, the British government estab- ment performance, and engaging lished a Delivery Council (www. citizens in a dialogue about Virginia's future. public_service_reform/delivery_council), made up of leaders in operational When it set about to create a new delivery from across government 'to market for elective surgery in the Na- share best practice (e.g. on commis- tional Health Service (NHS), the British sioning models) and to provide expert Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  14. 14. Page 14 3. From Policy to Delivery practitioner input to the design and Consistent with these developments, management of delivery models'. Key when the new US Department of delivery departments in the UK have Homeland Security was created in also been appointing 'Commercial 2002, it was exempted from provisions Directorates', staffed with personnel with of the civil service law relating to hiring, a strong commercial background. compensation and promotion. Deregulating public services Case Study 3: Iowa's Charter One of the most important reforms Agencies identified for improving public service delivery has lain in the reduction of the In 2003, Iowa launched its Charter bureaucratic red tape imposed on public Agencies programme (http://charter. service managers. In order for managers Agencies are to be given greater autonomy, it has able to volunteer for charter status, also been necessary to make them which ensures them greater financial more accountable - 'making the man- and managerial freedom, in return for agers manage' as well as 'letting the commitments to deliver measurable managers manage'. One of the four service improvements and savings. Six pillars of Singapore's public sector agencies stepped forward in 2004, and productivity reforms has been 'Maximise together they represent more than half Discretion'. of all state employees. Devolution of financial responsibility has Charter Agencies are exempt from been central to these reforms. Typically, across-the-board budget cuts for three governments have moved to three-year years; they are able to retain half of forward estimates, output budgeting, unspent appropriations and 80 percent accrual accounting and charging gen- of all new revenue generated; they can eral government agencies for capital actively market goods and services to assets. At the same time, chief execu- the public; they are exempt from tives have been made responsible for restrictions on staffing numbers and the financial performance of their may award employee bonuses. agencies, with associated performance However, they are subject to the state's pay. collective bargaining arrangements. In human resource management, there It has proven somewhat easier to give has been a trend towards assigning the greater management autonomy to responsibility for recruitment and service delivery agencies. Where promotion to the chief executive rather governments felt that it was inappropri- than a central government board or ate to privatise state trading enterprises, commission. Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  15. 15. Page 15 3. From Policy to Delivery they corporatised or commercialised them, expanding their freedom to engage in business activities, whilst also increasing their financial and regulatory accountability. A great deal of work remains to be done in ensuring that these reforms flow down to the managers involved in the delivery of front-line services - school principals, hospital administrators, prison governors and police commanders. In the UK, there has been an attempt to increase managerial autonomy at this level. The most striking examples lie in the creation of semi-autonomous 'trusts' out of high-performing service units. The earliest of these were foundation trust hospitals ( Policyandguidance/Organisationpolicy/ Secondarycare/NHSfoundationtrust/ index.htm), followed more recently by city academies ( academies/what_are_academies/? version=1) and trust schools (http:// trust_schools.html), which enjoy greater commercial freedom than traditional public institutions. Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  16. 16. Page 16 4.4. Managing For Results Managing For Results Managing for Over recent decades, many governments number of high-level goals and detailed around the world have adopted some targets for improving the state's results form of performance management. A performance, under the title Tasmania Performance man- Together (www.tasmaniatogether.tas. recent survey among OECD nations found agement is con- that three-quarters included non-financial Performance assessment and cerned with the delivery of results performance data in their budget public reporting is overseen by a statutory rather than just documentation, although half neglected Progress Board that is appointed on a compliance with rules. to link expenditure to targets or apply bipartisan basis. rewards or sanctions. The government of Virginia (USA) is The trend is for governments to move required by legislation to publish an from simple and indirect forms of perfor- annual scorecard reporting progress mance management towards more against long-term objectives, current demanding models where budgets are service performance and productivity directly linked to targets and governments improvement. Performance against the buy outcomes rather than just paying for government's key targets is tracked outputs. online at 'Virginia Performs' (www., and the public Performance measurement are able to study the state's performance over time and against other states. This is the most basic kind of performance Citizens are able to search detailed results management. It consists of monitoring by agency and by locality. and reporting accomplishments, usually in comparison with some benchmark - Performance accountability past performance, some ideal notion of best practice or external benchmarks This implies the existence of a manage- drawn from the public or private sectors. ment cycle, in which performance objec- tives are agreed, achievements are In one of the most comprehensive measured and reported against those national projects, the Australian Productiv- objectives, reforms are made with a view ity Commission publishes an annual to accomplishing the targets, and there is 'Report on Government Services' (www. a system of escalating interventions where agencies fail to respond html), comparing the performance of a adequately. wide range of public services across the various states. North America have been in the forefront of this movement, with state govern- Following an extensive programme of ments setting targets for local school community consultation in 2000, the districts and intervening in cases of Australian state of Tasmania laid down a persistent failure. Two of the early movers Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  17. 17. 4. Managing for results Page 17 4. Managing For Results were North Carolina and Texas, where agencies. The best-known example is significant gains in student performance Compstat, a system introduced by the were observed by the mid-1990s. In New York Commissioner of Police, Bill 2000, the Bush administration introduced Bratton, in 1994. It was designed to the 'No Child Left Behind' Act (www. direct police resources into crime hot spots and reliable and timely statistics left-behind.html), obliging states to about policing outcomes lay at its heart, introduce annual report cards, with an with front-line commanders meeting obligation to take corrective action where regularly with senior management to progress is lacking. account for their performance. Compstat was seen as having made a major Case Study 4: Intervention in contribution to the dramatic fall in New York's crime rates in the 1990s and Failing Schools within five years, more than a quarter of police departments across America The UK established an independent were imitating the initiative. inspections agency for schools in 1992, and published the first scorecards, based Following Compstat's success, Baltimore on public examination results, the same introduced CitiStat ( year. For some years, parents have been in able to check the performance of local 2000, using a performance account- schools based on inspections by the Office ability model based on Compstat, to of Standards in Education (www.ofsted. manage severe problems with em- or the examination ployee absences, sick leave, workers' scorecards ( compensation and overtime. The performancetables) that are based on scheme was later broadened to include student performance. other performance criteria and it is now being rolled out across the entire state Starting in 2000, the government built on of Maryland. these foundations, developing a compre- hensive performance management Pay-for-Performance regime, with around 1,400 failing schools being placed in 'special measures', and a Since the 1980s, more than two-thirds further 200 closed for failure to reform. of OECD countries have introduced The evidence suggests that this performance related pay for at least programme was successful across the some of their public service, including targeted measures. the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada, Australia and New Performance accountability can also be Zealand, and a range of European used as an intensive management tool for countries including Germany, Italy, the turning around underperforming Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  18. 18. Page 18 4. Managing For Results Netherlands and Sweden. Korea has also through a legally-binding or a quasi- adopted performance pay in recent years. contractual relationship. Competitive tendering and public private partner- In New Zealand, which was one of the ships (PPPs) are dealt with later in this early adopters, the Public Service Com- report, but performance contracting missioner determines the performance deserves to be considered separately. incentive, limited to 15 percent of the remuneration package. The performance Some countries have engaged in of the organisation and the public service extensive competition of public services, as a whole is taken into account. In and in the process, they have devel- Canada, a committee of departmental oped sophisticated models of perfor- secretaries assesses performance, with mance contracting. Several UK govern- the Prime Minister making the final ment agencies, and local governments, determination. In the Australian federal are now using contracting to procure government, ministers are consulted, but better social outcomes (such as diversity the Prime Minister and the head of his and sustainability outcomes), rather department play a central role. than focusing just on value-for-money. Experts disagree as to whether perfor- Governments have also employed mance bonuses are effective and appro- quasi-contracts (or 'service level priate in motivating individual employees agreements') between policy agencies in the public sector, and some have and delivery units, in an attempt to cautioned at the danger of politicisation. adapt the lessons of performance Some extend these reservations to the contracting to public sector agencies. For use of financial penalties in the example, Denmark employs perfor- incentivisation of underperforming mance contracts between ministries organisations. While financial incentives and line agencies, and between minis- may be of limited value where govern- tries and chief executives, with associ- ment agencies are budget-funded, the ated performance-related pay. success of performance sanctions in managing contracts for the delivery of Performance budgeting public services by the private sector suggests that they can be used At its simplest, performance budgeting successfully. may mean nothing more than present- ing performance data as part of budget Performance contracting documentation. A stricter version at- tempts to link funding to outputs and Performance contacting involves purchas- outcomes specified in the budget ing outcomes or outputs from a public, papers. The promoters of performance private or voluntary sector supplier, budgeting hope to use these measures Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  19. 19. Page 19 4. Managing For Results to drive budgetary and management In the United States, health insurance decisions. funds and Health Maintenance Organisations have introduced pay-for- The US federal government introduced performance (P4P) programmes for the Government Performance and physicians and hospitals. At elsewhere, Results Act (GPRA) in 1993, requiring there has been a movement in the past agencies to develop strategic plans, three or four years towards paying for annual performance plans and perfor- outcomes, although efforts are still mance reports. GPRA was regarded as being made to improve the quality of somewhat groundbreaking in giving the measures. The federal government's Congress a role in the process. In 2004, Medicare and Medicaid programs are the GPRA was taken a step further, also experimenting with outcome- moving to align performance informa- based funding methods. tion with budgetary decisions, with the Office of Management and Budget From inputs to outcomes (OMB) asking agencies to submit performance budgets. Since the mid- There has been a distinct move from 1990s, more than 30 US states have the specification of inputs to the funding introduced performance measurement of outputs, and while the shift to pur- legislation, but Texas and Maryland are chasing outcomes has proven more in the forefront of moving to true perfor- difficult, governments continue to mance budgeting. experiment. Several local authorities in the UK are now contracting for out- Some of the more rigorous forms of comes in the cleanliness of their streets. performance budgeting are to be found Part of the contractor's profit is at risk in the higher education sector (for based on local citizens' perceptions of example in the Scandinavian countries), cleanliness (as measured by indepen- where a proportion of the funding is dent research). based on academic performance. In the UK, this approach is also used for Australia's Job Network and the French research funding. Case-mix funding (or equivalent partly reward welfare-to- 'payment by results') in the health work providers based on the success of system is yet another form of perfor- their clients in retaining their jobs over mance budgeting. The United States, the medium-term. And experiments Denmark, Norway, Chile and some of are underway in Australia and the UK, the Australian states have been using testing whether the risk of hospital case-mix funding for hospitals, and the admission rates for the chronically-ill UK is part way through the introduction can be shifted to private and voluntary of such a scheme. providers. Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  20. 20. Page 20 4. Managing4. Managing For Results For Results In the UK, the Highways Agency has adopted an 'Active Management Payment Mechanism' (www.highways. in new tollroads delivered under PPPs. This includes financial bonuses and penalties for road congestion caused by breakdowns, road works and special events, as well as adjustments based on the number of accidents (benchmarked against comparable roads). Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  21. 21. Page 21 5. Market Instruments Governments have always looked to the Governments are also auctioning Market market to purchase some of their goods restricted public services online. The Instruments and services. But over recent decades, Singapore Land Transport Authority In the regulation of they have increasingly adopted market- conducts online bidding for 'certificates of private activity, in the type arrangements to assist them in entitlement' for vehicle ownership (the procurement of goods meeting public ends. Unlike the numbers of which are capped) (www.lta. and in the delivery of privatisation initiatives of the 1980s, Oklahoma allows real- public services under market-oriented government seeks to time electronic bidding on state bonds contract, governments use the economic incentives created ( are using market through these instruments to deliver instruments to deliver public purposes. Environmental markets better outcomes. e-Auctions Carbon trading, popularised through the debate over global warming, is a kind of A simple example of a market instru- environmental market designed to assist ment now widely used by governments in the management of CO2 emissions. to deliver value-for-money are elec- Also known as 'cap and trade', this form tronic auctions. e-Auctions assist in of regulatory system relies on a statutory creating a more competitive ceiling on emissions within a defined environment, as well as saving on geographic area, with companies procurement costs. Housing, medical, assigned individual limits, which can be computing and other office supplies are bought and sold. The benefit of such a just a few of the services being bought system is that those companies capable through reverse e-Auctions, which of reducing their emissions at the lowest intensify the competitive pressure for cost are incentivised to do so through sellers. buying entitlements. Online auctions are particularly valuable The trading of environmental credits was for local governments that may not pioneered by the US government with otherwise be able to attract significant sulphur dioxide (SO2) trading introduced market interest. In the UK, consortia of in 1990, and a variety of schemes have local authorities have formed regional since been implemented around the purchasing organisations to increase world ( their commercial leverage. In the United trading/index.html). The Australian state States, the federal government has government of New South Wales created a single site, FedBid (www. introduced salinity trading in the Hunter to handle federal, state and River in 1992, as a way of balancing the local government online procurement interests of coal mines and vineyards, services. both of which use the river. Trading is now undertaken online, with the public Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  22. 22. Page 22 5. Market Instruments able to monitor trends (http://hrs1.epa. sions and accounts), human resources administration, procurement and supply chain management and help desks and Governments have also used tradable customer information. rights for the management of water extraction from rivers and groundwater A number of Asian countries, but most systems, and for regulating the exploita- notably India, have developed a new tion of fishing resources. Australia is one industry in supplying these services to of the world leaders in the use of water overseas companies, and particularly in markets, with online trading (www. the English-speaking world. Some And the Great Barrier governments struggle with the politics of Reef Marine Park Authority uses a trading outsourcing public services to overseas scheme to control the number of tourist countries, because of the perceived operators on the reef ( impact on local jobs. au/corp_site/permits/emc). PPPs: Australian governments pioneered Competition and contracting the asset procurement model that has come to be known as PPP or the private Contracting of public services has be- finance initiative (PFI), in the late 1980s. come increasingly commonplace over Until recently, they continued to be world recent decades, partly as a by-product of leaders in PPP toll roads, although the US the information revolution, and partly has recently overtaken them. The market because of the popularity of PPPs in the leader in the PPP markets is the UK provision of infrastructure and the associ- which has signed more than 800 PPPs ated services. since the policy was first actively pursued in 1996. IT-enabled change: Governments turned to the private sector for IT services largely But the PPP model has now been because there was no in-house capabil- adopted right around the world, with ity in this field and, given the pace of some countries such as Spain and Japan change, there was little point in develop- developing more sophisticated procure- ing it. What has changed in recent years ment models than the UK. In many of is the expansion of the associated these countries, the service element in support services which private sector these contracts is largely confined to firms are capable of managing on behalf facilities management, but there are of clients. The term most commonly some important exceptions - prisons used is 'business process outsourcing', (UK, USA, Japan), hospitals (Japan), and and the range of services variously tollroads carrying market risk (Australia, includes asset management, financial Canada, USA). management (including payroll, pen- Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  23. 23. Page 23 5. Market Instruments Instruments 5. Market Public service contracting: In addition to included: the call centre, accounting, these developments, there has been purchasing, human resources, informa- continuous expansion in the range of tion technology and support for fire, public services delivered under contract, police, water and sewerage, and gar- as governments have developed new bage services, street design and models and private firms have devel- maintenance, planning and zoning, oped new service capabilities. The inspections and permits. Some town following are some of the leading-edge councils in Singapore contract out the examples: administration of all their common areas to managing agents. One of the most successful areas of public service contracting has been the Contestability custodial sector, with private firms in some countries managing entire prisons, 'Contestability' is not another word for undertaking prisoner transportation and 'competition'. It refers to the reform of handling home detention with electronic public services by using the threat of tagging. Both the US and the UK have competition. It is not necessary that the worked with the private and voluntary service in question actually be market- sectors in the provision of probation tested: only that there is a pool of services. alternative providers, and a mechanism for the injection of competition should In 1996, Mozambique contracted the the incumbent fail to improve. management of its customs service to a private company originally established The US federal government has been by the UK Customs Service, with a view operating a contestability regime to reconstructing its systems and pro- through its 'Most Efficient Operation' cesses and retraining its staff. More (MEO) policy in procurements. Agencies recently, this firm has advised Bulgaria are able to defer competition by dem- and other countries on the onstrating that they meet an acceptable modernisation of their customs level of performance. programmes (http://www.crownagents. com). In the UK, the government has used this approach in reforming elective surgery in In the USA, the state of Georgia has public hospitals, and the management recently contracted out the manage- of Local Education Authorities and ment of entire local authorities. Sandy prisons, and there is a commitment to Springs ( was use it in reforming probation services. For the first of these, in December 2005, example, the Prison Service undertakes appointing a private contractor to deliver 'performance tests' of underperforming all of its services. Contracted services prisons, with the threat of market-testing Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  24. 24. Page 24 5. Market Instruments if an acceptable standard is not reached. Japan has recently adopted a some- Some Australian state governments what different approach to introducing have also used this approach with their public service markets. In May 2006, prisons, improving human resource the Japanese Diet passed the 'Act management. Regarding the Reform of Public Services Through the Introduction of Public service markets Competition', or the 'Market Testing Law' as it is popularly known. This was More recently, governments have part of Prime Minister Koizumi's reform looked to the design and management policy entitled, 'Leave to the private of entire public service markets. One of sector what it can do'. In piloting the the most widely-studied examples is programme, the government selected Australia's welfare-to-work market. eight model projects in three fields. These were drawn from 119 proposals Case Study 5: Australia's Job made by the private sector in late 2004, when the government invited external Network suggestions as to possible areas of reform. Under Australia's welfare-to-work market, assistance with job placement The UK government has a formal policy for the unemployed - historically a of developing a 'mixed economy' public sector monopoly - was changed composed of public, private and volun- to a case management model and then tary sector providers across a wide to performance-based contracts. Job range of public services. Examples of Network is a managed market that has markets under development include: reduced costs and significantly managed health care for the chroni- strengthened performance cally-ill, elective surgery, secure mental accountability. health, offender management, the transition from welfare-to-work, foster Similar markets for job placement are care and residential care for children, being created in France, Germany, the parental support and local government. UK and Japan. In the UK, the govern- ment is investigating a market model The creation of a mixed economy where the private and voluntary sector involves much more than merely providers would finance the initial skills- contracting out public services to private development and placement effort, and companies. The government has payments would only be made to the created new forms of public entities service provider once the beneficiary capable of operating in these markets, had remained off unemployment and significant work is underway in benefits for a defined period of time government in identifying and over- ( coming the barriers to voluntary sector 2007/welfarereview.pdf). Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  25. 25. Page 25 5. Market Instruments Instruments 5. Market participation. One of the results has been the emer- gence in the UK of hybrid organisations consisting of joint ventures between public, private and/or voluntary providers. For example, Working Links (www. is a joint venture involved in the UK job placement market, involving the government-owned Jobcentre Plus, two commercial organisations, and an Australian voluntary sector provider. Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  26. 26. Page 26 6. Joined Up Government Overlap, duplication, fragmentation, Case Study 6: Australia's Joined up balkanisation, 'turf protection', Centrelink Government 'stovepipes', the 'silo mentality' - a wide Governments are variety of terms have been used to Centrelink ( was searching for new describe the challenge of trying to ensure ways of overcoming established by the Australian federal that government departments and the fragmentation and government in 1997 as a one-stop shop agencies work together. The solutions duplication in the public for a variety of welfare services. It pro- have variously been described as sector. vides services for two major policy coordination, collaboration, service departments that purchase front-desk integration, 'seamless government', services from Centrelink, so that welfare 'joined up government', 'holistic govern- beneficiaries only have to tell their story ment' and the management of cross- to government once. Reorganising cutting issues. Whatever the name, the social welfare transactions in this way challenge of making public services enabled Centrelink to present coherent for the customers and citizens government's services according to 'life who interact with them remains one of events' such as 'looking for work' or the most difficult areas of public 'planning your retirement', rather than administration. the categories that made sense to individual departments. Structural Change It was established as an arms-length One of the most common solutions to agency with its own board, and with service integration lies in merging agen- quasi-contractual relationships with its cies and creating super-departments, client departments. Centrelink was able although this can shift the coordination to rationalise the number of service problems elsewhere. New Zealand outlets, and create a single website and developed a system with two different a central call centre. Over time, it has also kinds of ministers - 'vote' ministers who been able to negotiate arrangements negotiated outputs and secured budget with other departments to serve as their allocations, and 'responsible' ministers 'front desk'. who represented government agencies from a supply perspective. The distinction Centrelink is widely regarded as having was sometimes made between the delivered its objectives, although it has government's 'ownership' interest and its not been without its challenges. Aligning 'purchase' interest (the latter being file structures across departments and concerned with the delivery of outputs). creating a centralised database raised privacy concerns. In some cases, gov- ernment wished to give new policy initiatives a distinctive brand, and in- sisted that Centrelink should not function Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  27. 27. Page 27 6. Joined Up Government as the one-stop shop. And the separation Case Management of policy and delivery into separate agencies proved to be difficult to maintain. Case management - coordinating the delivery of multiple services to target populations - is another long-estab- Cross-cutting Reviews lished method of joining up services, particularly welfare-related services. In some policy areas, such as crime Typically it is expensive, and so tends to reduction and children at risk, where a be reserved for high priority services, or number of different departments and where the costs of a lack of coordination agencies have a stake, the answers lie in are high. cross-departmental reviews. Joint programmes can be established to target This same approach of relying on a such issues on a collaborative basis, with 'service champion' can be adopted in integrated teams and 'joint budgets' giving stakeholders a voice in financed out of a common fund. The UK government. The UK government has has adopted this approach in recent years recently announced that it will appoint in dealing with priority issues such as drug 'Customer Group Directors' to represent abuse and mental health. sectors of the community within government, such as small businesses Place Management and the aged. Place management solutions are based Shared Services on devolving authority and spending responsibility to neighbourhoods and Another form of joined up government communities. They focus on ends rather where there is currently a great deal of than means, addressing the outcomes interest is in 'shared services', particu- desired for a particular locality. In the more larly in corporate support. In the UK, the radical proposals, budgets may be united NHS has formed NHS Shared Business under a local 'place manager'. Services (, a joint venture with a private company, to In the United States, place management provide finance, accounting and payroll was often known as 'comprehensive services to public healthcare community initiatives'. In Australia, 'single organisations. The scheme is voluntary, area budgets' were developed as a way but participating organisations are of integrating federal, state and local guaranteed a 20% initial cost reduction government programmes that impacted and ongoing savings of 2% a year, with on a single community. timely and high quality reports. Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  28. 28. Page 28 6. Joined Up Government The concept can equally extend to However, web-based technologies customer service centres and other have created renewed interest in one- front-desk facilities. Australia's Centrelink stop shops. The Singapore government is a shared service centre for customer- broke new ground in 1999 in creating a facing transactions. single gateway to government informa- tion and service, known as the eCitizen In 2006, the American states of Iowa, Portal. It was quickly copied by other Maine and Vermont formed a drug- governments around the world: Singov purchasing pool to negotiate collectively ( in Singapore, DirectGov for discounts in drug costs under the ( in Medicare and Medicaid. School districts the UK, and ( in in the United States are creating shared the US are the descendants of these service arrangements to take advantage early initiatives. of scale economies whilst remaining grounded in the local community. Over the past decade, many American cities have developed 311 call systems - Police forces in Norfolk, Suffolk and a single phone number to provide quick Cambridgeshire (in England) have been access to non-emergency services - collaborating with a view to increasing with callers directed to the appropriate effectiveness and reducing costs. A Joint part of government within seconds. Governance Board was created, with the Across America they have been tagged chair rotating between Chief Constables. with the slogan, 'One call to city hall'. The original services targeted for study were call-handling, firearms-licensing, No Wrong Door major investigations and scientific services. This was later extended to Instead of joining up the front office or include custody, property, fleet and the back office, government can join up procurement. the intermediate systems so that different departments function as a front One-stop shops door to each other's services. This approach recognises that the public One-stop shops were long discredited may call upon government's services in as a solution, since without major a variety of different ways, and seeks to restructuring, they place another layer ensure that regardless of the way in between the public and the officials who which the approach was first made, will eventually resolve their concerns. services are provided in a coherent and These arrangements can to be known coordinated manner. as 'first-stop shops' and, in France, 'foyers'. The idea appears to have been pio- neered in the social welfare sector in Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  29. 29. Page 29 6. Joined Up Government Arizona in 1998, when it was recognised Australia continues to enforce a strict that the need for welfare assistance system of visas, but since 1996, visitors might manifest itself as an education from many countries have been able to problem, a health problem, a housing obtain electronic travel authorities (ETAs) problem or a law and order problem, through a network of around 300,000 and that the need for coordinated travel agents worldwide. The govern- services remained the same no matter ment has maintained its visa system, what the point of entry. The concept was but it is invisible to the individual tourist. quickly adopted in other states, although it has proved difficult to implement. In the United States, a voluntary organisation, Earth911, has brought In the United States, 'No Wrong Door' together information on the state of the has been applied most often in social environment from more than 10,000 welfare services, but the London Devel- communities across America, particu- opment Agency has recently adopted a larly through its Beach Water Quality similar approach in serving small service ( business. Success depends heavily on waterquality/index.asp?cluster=0). the development of common supporting Earth911 has been able to convince informational, technological and policy federal, state, local and voluntary architecture. organisations to share information, where government organisations like Alternative channels the Environmental Protection Agency had believed it was impossible. In many situations, citizens engage with public and private sector organisations in the same transaction. In renewing a motor vehicle registration, a driver will also need to renew his insurance. In submitting a return and paying her taxes, a taxpayer will need to interact with banks and accountants as well as government. Some citizens have asked why related public and private services cannot be joined up in a single, integrated service, and some private providers have chal- lenged the assumption that government needs to remain the sole channel for delivering such services. Public Sector Reform: An International Overview
  30. 30. Page 30 Further Reading Public engagement OECD Journal of Budgeting, (2005) 5:1, pp.127-151. 'Power to the People', Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Ltd, March 2006 (http:// Market instruments pdf) Stephen Goldsmith and William D. Eggers, Governing by Network: The New Gerry Stoker, Why Politics Matter, London: Shape of the Public Sector, Washington, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. DC: The Brookings Institution, 2004. Customer-centric government 'The UK Government's Approach to Public Service Reform', London: The Prime Charles Leadbeater, 'Personalisation Minister's Strategy Unit, 2006, Chapter 6, through participation', London: Demos, 2004. Joined up government OECD, 'Responsive Government: Service 'Modernising Government', Cm 4310, Quality Initiatives', OECD Publishing, London: The Stationery Office Limited, February 2006. 1999; Performance and Innovation Unit, 'Wiring It Up: Whitehall's Management of On choice, see The Centre for Market and Cross-Cutting Policies and Services', Public Organisation at London: Cabinet Office, 2000 uk/Depts/CMPO/research/choice/ choiceindex.htm Christopher Pollitt, 'Joined-Up Government: A Survey', Political Studies From policy to delivery Review, 2003, Vol.1, pp.34-49. 'The UK Government's Approach to Public Service Reform', London: The Prime Minister's Strategy Unit, 2006, Chapter 5. Managing for results Dall Forsythe (ed.), Quicker, Better, Cheaper? Managing Performance in American Government, Albany, New York: Rockefeller Institute Press, 2001. Teresa Curristine, 'Government Performance: Lessons and Challenges', Public Sector Reform: An International Overview