Opportunity Analysis Project (OAP) - ADHD+ - Stanford University Ventures Program
ADHD+Interactive, Informative and Diagnostic Assistant System for Attention Deﬁcit / Hyper activity Disorder Ladan Jalali ( Occupational Therapist, M.Sc. Bio-Informatics - Biomedical Engineering )Esfandiar Khaleghi ( M.Eng. Biomedical Engineering, Student of Bioengineering and Biodesign Innovation )FOUNDERCO-FOUNDEROPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS PROJECT (OAP)
WHAT !IS ADHD?Attention Deﬁcit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a condition that becomes apparent in some children in the preschooland early school years. It is hard for these children to control their behaviorand/or pay attention. It is estimated that between 3 and 5 percent ofchildren have ADHD, or approximately 2 million children in the UnitedStates. This means that in a classroom of 25 to 30 children, it is likely thatat least one will have ADHD.
WHAT !IS ADHD+?Interactive, InformativeDiagnostic Assistant SystemADHD+ is an Interactive, Informative and Diagnostic Assistant System forAttention Deﬁcit / Hyper activity Disorder through several platforms.As the ﬁrst stage, we are working on HTML5 web-format and Android App.http://www.ADHD.ir
OUR CUSTOMERSTHE PSYCHOLOGISTS.We categorized our customers in two differentsegments.§ The Patients. (Kids who has some symptoms of ADHDwhich has been observed by their teachers or parents.)§ The Parents.§ The Teachers at schools.§ The Medical authorities. (Psychologists and ADHD/ADD Clinics) THE PATIENTSTHE PARENTSDIRECTINDIRECT
ADHD+!VALUE PROPOSITIONOur system would be divided in three segments.• Informative Section: To provide wide ranges of information about ADHD/ADD, Symptoms, Treatments and etc.• Diagnostic Section:Which is the most important part of our system. To examine and diagnose whether he/shehas the ADHD or ADD through the system by answering some test which has to be done bythemselves and observers (Friends, Parents, Schools). System can ﬁnd whether the patienthas ADHD and even the type of it.• Referral Section:The patient can ﬁnd the nearest medical center which offers ADHD/ADD treatments and etc.Based on the above issues, we’ve arranged some interviews with 28 people who are categorized in three sections as follow.
INTERVIEW SEGMENTSTHE PSYCHOLOGISTS.We categorized our interviews in three differentsegments.§ The patients.§ The people who are in touch with patients.§ The medical authorities.THE PATIENTSTHE PARENTS
CUSTOMERS’ PROBLEMSOur Customers ProblemsBased on our interviews, we realized the main concern ofour customers, especially the parents and teachers atschool is ﬁnding whether their kids or students has ADHDor not, because it’s really important to they diagnosed assoon as possible and before 8 years old. On the otherhand, as far as they are active, they have several activitieswhich is hard for their parents or teachers to realise whetherthey have ADHD or not.On the other hand, psychologists and ADHD centresshould arrange an appointment for each student to seewhether he/she has ADHD or not whereas they can bediagnosed by some tests which is hard for the parents andteachers to understand them. DO OUR CUSTOMERSHAVE THE PROBLEM THATWE THINK THEY DO?
CUSTOMERS’ SOLUTIONSSo, they search a lot on internet (or local libraries) for theADHD/ADD ofﬂine tests which are so time-consumingand hard to summarise whether their child or studentshas ADHD or not, because theses tests are written byPsychologists for the Psychologists and the people whoare not familiar with the medical terms, would usually beconfused and would ﬁnally decided to book anappointment in their nearest medical centres for thetest. So, not only the spend lots of time for theirresearch which is really time consuming, they usuallyshould pay a 20 min appointment in medical centreswhich is around $75-100 (+fuel and their worth of time).HOW ARE THEYCURRENTLY SOLVING ITAND HOW MUCH DO THEYPAY FOR THAT SOLUTION?
CUSTOMERS’ OBSERVATIONS ON ADHD+Then, when we shows our pilot system to them thatwas a WOW for them as far as the Teachers could easilyhelp their students to do the test and system showedwhether they have ADHD symptoms or not and even, itcan mention the type of ADHD as well.The parents were also, so keen for the ﬁnal version ofour system to examine their child.Psychologists, were so positive about the system as itcould help them to ask their patients to do the test athome before their ﬁrst session with them. Although, theyasked us to declare that the people should be seen by aprofessional psychologist and they should not rely onthese kind of tests only.ARE THEY INTERESTED INOUR SOLUTION?
CUSTOMERS’ OBSERVATIONS ON ADHD+They are happy to pay for this system.Parents are likely interested to pay for each test andrequested to have a free trial test in advance for the propaid test.Teachers are interested in yearly reduced ratesubscription based on the size of their school.Psychologists are looking for partnership subscriptionwhich we recommend them if the use diagnosed forADHD.ARE THEY WILLING TO PAYUS FOR IT?
THEIR OTHER CONCERNSThey suggested various interesting ideas such as entertaining test system to kidscan directly run the test without any observers.Psychologists, are also looking for ADHD+ consoles to can be located in theirwaiting rooms and the patients can use and run the test prior to theirappointment.They asked us to make a portal for their patients and send the patients resultsdirectly to their Psychologists to can monitor the treatment.Although, these are fantastic ideas, but we gonna put them in our 2nd phase ofour program to can focus more on our goal. But the system are going to run onvarious LCD sizes which can be run on any console, so, medical centres can usethis system on their computers.IS THERE A DIFFERENTPROBLEM THAT THEY AREMUCH MORE INTERESTED INHAVING US SOLVE FOR THEM?
MARKET SIZEAs US academic researches show, It is estimated that between 3 and 5 percent ofchildren have ADHD, or approximately 3 million children in the United States. Thismeans that in a classroom of 25 to 30 children, it is likely that at least one will haveADHD.The American Psychiatric Association states, (as of 2007), parents of 2.7 million youthages 4-17 years (66.3% of those with a current diagnosis) report that their child wasreceiving medication treatment for the disorder.ADHD Patients: 2.7 MADHD (Under-Treatment): 2.7 MFIRST YEARAPP. USER: 300.000 USER (TRIAL)APP. USER: 100.000 USERS (PAID)APP PRICE: FREE (Google Play, App Market, Web) PREDICTION:SUBSCRIPTION: PARENTS ($5.00 PER TEST) $500,000 FIRST YEAR (100.000 USERS) SCHOOLS ($300 PER 100 STUDENTS) TWO YEARS (PHASE II > PORTAL & PARTNERSHIP):$5.000.000 (1.000.000 USERS)
TARGET CUSTOMERSTHE PSYCHOLOGISTS.We categorized our customers in two differentsegments.§ The Patients. (Kids who has some symptoms of ADHDwhich has been observed by their teachers or parents.)§ The Parents.§ The Teachers at schools.§ The Medical authorities. (Psychologists and ADHD/ADD Clinics) THE PATIENTSTHE PARENTSDIRECTINDIRECT
BUSINESS MODEL CHANGENot a signiﬁcant change,except, our system aregoing to be re-designedin ﬂexible coding style tocan be run in variousLCD sizes to be suitablefor Clinical Self-ServiceDesks.
RESULTS /ADHD DIAGNOSIS STATE-BASED PREVALENCE DATA OF ADHD DIAGNOSIS(2007-2008)As of 2007, parents of 2.7 million youthages 4-17 years (66.3% of those with acurrent diagnosis) report that their childwas receiving medication treatment forthe disorder. Rates of medication treatment forADHD varied by age and sex; childrenaged 11-17 years of age were morelikely than those 4-10 years of age totake medication, and boys are 2.8 timesmore likely to take medication thangirls.In 2007, geographic variability in thepercent of children taking medicationfor ADHD ranged from a low of 1.2% inNevada to a high of 9.4% in NorthCarolina. In 2003, geographic variability inprevalence of medication treatmentranged from a low of 2.1% in Californiato a high of 6.5% in Arkansas.
RESULTS /ADHD TREATMENTS STATE-BASED PREVALENCE DATA OF ALL CHILDREN RECEIVINGADHD MEDICATION TREATMENT (2007 - 2008)
RESULTS /ADHD DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENTSSTATE-BASED PREVALENCE DATA OF CHILDREN WITH A CURRENTADHD DIAGNOSIS RECEIVING MEDICATION TREATMENT (2007-2008)
RESULTS /ADHD DIAGNOSIS DIAGNOSED ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDERAND LEARNING DISABILITY: (UNITED STATES, 2004-2006)About 5% of children had ADHD withoutLearning Disability (LD), 5% had LDwithout ADHD, and 4% had bothconditions.Children 12-17 years of age were morelikely than children 6-11 years of age tohave each of the diagnoses.Hispanic children were less likely thannon-Hispanic white and non-Hispanicblack children to have ADHD (with andwithout LD).Children with Medicaid were more likelythan uninsured children or privatelyinsured children to have each of thediagnoses.Children with each of the diagnoses weremore likely than children with neitherADHD nor LD to have other chronic healthconditions.Children with ADHD (with and without LD)were more likely than children withoutADHD to have contact with a mentalhealth professional, use prescriptionmedication, and have frequent health carevisits.
WHAT WE LEARNEDWhen properly treated, children andadolescents with ADHD can lead verynormal and productive lives. In fact,many traits found in individuals withADHD can help them to become verysuccessful later in life. It should benoted that a loving, supportive andconsistent environment is essential forthe positive growth and develop of allchildren and especially those withADHD or other learning disabilities.People with ADHD tend to haveaverage or above average intelligence.They are often very creative andusually have a high energy level. Theseindividuals also are frequently verysensitive and highly affectionate. In the last few years, it has becomemore likely for adults to be diagnosedwith ADHD and start on medication.These may be individuals who werenot properly identiﬁed when they werechildren. In other cases, adults havelearned to compensate for theirdisorder and become very successfulindividuals. In fact, some may "overc o m p e n s a t e " a n d b e c o m eextraordinarily successful.Parents can beneﬁt greatly byparticipating in a support group alongwith other parents of ADHD kids. Parents should refer to nationallyrecognized Support Organizations andtrusted Professional Associations forreliable information and effectivesupport.
WHAT WE LEARNED : DIAGNOSISSome parents see signs of inattention, hyperactivity,and impulsivity in their toddler long before the childenters school. The child may lose interest in playinga game or watching a TV show, or may run aroundcompletely out of control. But because childrenmature at different rates and are very different inpersonality, temperament, and energy levels, itsuseful to get an experts opinion of whether thebehavior is appropriate for the childs age. Parentscan ask their childs pediatrician, or a childpsychologist or psychiatrist, to assess whether theirtoddler has an attention deﬁcit hyperactivity disorderor is, more likely at this age, just immature orunusually exuberant.ADHD may be suspected by a parent or caretaker ormay go unnoticed until the child runs into problemsat school. Given that ADHD tends to affectfunctioning most strongly in school, sometimes theteacher is the ﬁrst to recognize that a child ishyperactive or inattentive and may point it out to theparents and/or consult with the school psychologist.Because teachers work with many children, theycome to know how "average" children behave inlearning situations that require attention and self-control. However, teachers sometimes fail to noticethe needs of children who may be more inattentiveand passive yet who are quiet and cooperative, suchas those with the predominantly inattentive form ofADHD.Ideally, the diagnosis should be made by aprofessional in your area with training in ADHD or inthe diagnosis of mental disorders. Child psychiatristsand psychologists, developmental/behavioralpediatricians, or behavioral neurologists are thosemost often trained in differential diagnosis.
WHAT WE LEARNED : DIAGNOSISThe ﬁrst task of the professional conducting theevaluation is to gather information that will rule outother possible reasons for the childs behavior.Among possible causes of ADHD-like behavior arethe following: A sudden change in the childs life—the death of a parent or grandparent; parentsdivorce; a parents job loss , Undetected seizures,such as in petit mal or temporal lobe seizures , Amiddle ear infection that causes intermittent hearingproblems , Medical disorders that may affect brainfunctioning , Underachievement caused by learningdisability and Anxiety or depression. Ideally, in ruling out other causes, the specialistchecks the childs school and medical records.There may be a school record of hearing or visionproblems, since most schools automatically screenfor these. The specialist tries to determine whetherthe home and classroom environments are unusuallystressful or chaotic, and how the childs parents andteachers deal with the child.The specialist interviews the childs teachers andparents, and may contact other people who knowthe child well, such as coaches or baby-sitters.Parents are asked to describe their childs behaviorin a variety of situations. They may also ﬁll out arating scale to indicate how severe and frequent thebehaviors seem to be.In most cases, the child will be evaluated for socialadjustment and mental health. Tests of intelligenceand learning achievement may be given to see if thechild has a learning disability and whether thedisability is in one or more subjects.
WHAT WE LEARNED : DIAGNOSISIn looking at the results of these various sources ofinformation, the specialist pays special attention tothe childs behavior during situations that are themost demanding of self-control, as well as noisy orunstructured situations such as parties, or duringtasks that require sustained attention, like reading,working math problems, or playing a board game.Behavior during free play or while getting individualattention is given less importance in the evaluation.In such situations, most children with ADHD are ableto control their behavior and perform better than inmore restrictive situations.In most cases, the child will be evaluated for socialadjustment and mental health. Tests of intelligenceand learning achievement may be given to see if thechild has a learning disability and whether thedisability is in one or more subjects.In looking at the results of these various sources ofinformation, the specialist pays special attention tothe childs behavior during situations that are themost demanding of self-control, as well as noisy orunstructured situations such as parties, or duringtasks that require sustained attention, like reading,working math problems, or playing a board game.Behavior during free play or while getting individualattention is given less importance in the evaluation.In such situations, most children with ADHD are ableto control their behavior and perform better than inmore restrictive situations.
WHAT WE LEARNED : DIAGNOSIS / ACCOMPANY TO ADHDA correct diagnosis often resolves confusion aboutthe reasons for the childs problems that lets parentsand child move forward in their lives with moreaccurate information on what is wrong and what canbe done to help. Once the disorder is diagnosed, thechild and family can begin to receive whatevercombination of educational, medical, and emotionalhelp they need. This may include providingrecommendations to school staff, seeking out amore appropriate classroom setting, selecting theright medication, and helping parents to managetheir childs behavior.Some disorder which may accompany to ADHD thatwe should work on in our system for having moreaccurate test, but to be honest, these disorders canreally accompany with ADHD even when they beeseen by Drs.
WHAT WE LEARNED : DIAGNOSIS /ACCOMPANY TO ADHDLEARNING DISABILITIESCONDUCT DISORDERTOUETTER SYNDROMEANXIETY AND DEPRESSIONBIPOLAR DISORDEROPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDERA correct diagnosis often resolves confusion aboutthe reasons for the childs problems that lets parentsand child move forward in their lives with moreaccurate information on what is wrong and what canbe done to help. Once the disorder is diagnosed, thechild and family can begin to receive whatevercombination of educational, medical, and emotionalhelp they need. This may include providingrecommendations to school staff, seeking out amore appropriate classroom setting, selecting theright medication, and helping parents to managetheir childs behavior.Some disorder which may accompany to ADHD thatwe should work on in our system for having moreaccurate test, but to be honest, these disorders canreally accompany with ADHD even when they beeseen by Drs.
SUMMERIZING SYSTEM OPTIMIZATIONü Making different user interface for different users,ü Providing an access for the patent familyphysiologist to access the patient test.ü Connecting teachers with specialist in case thestudent diagnosed by having ADHD through oursystemü Working on some disorders, which may accompanyby our system as ADHD.ü Make it more interactive and joyable for bothparents and patients.ü Further interviews on regular base with aboveinterviews to optimize the system better and better.ü And some, which we predicted its importance thatdevelopers team are working hard to making ithappen.