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Congo On Campus Teach In Ckedits


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Congo On Campus Teach In Ckedits

  1. 1. CONGO ON CAMPUS Cell Phones, Conflict Minerals and You An educational tool brought to you by:
  2. 2. <ul><li>If you have a cell phone in your pocket or a computer on your desk, you are directly linked to the deadliest war in the world. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Democratic Republic of the Congo
  4. 4. Background: A Brief History <ul><li>Belgian King Leopold II took personal control of the Congo territory, exploiting its vast natural resources </li></ul>1880s 1960 1965 <ul><li>The Congo was granted independence from Belgium, with Joseph Kasavabu as President and Patrice Lumumba as Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by the U.S. and Belgium, Colonel Joseph Desire Mobutu took power in a coup </li></ul>
  5. 5. Background: A Brief History <ul><li>Following the Rwandan genocide in 1994, Mobutu sided with the remnants of the Hutu power regime that killed 800,000 people </li></ul>1994 <ul><li>In 1998, Kabila breaks with Rwanda and Uganda. They reinvade Congo </li></ul>1998
  6. 6. Eastern Congo Aflame <ul><li>The humanitarian crisis has deepened dramatically in the Kivus </li></ul><ul><li>In the northeastern Orientale Province the Ugandan LRA continues brutal attacks on civilians </li></ul><ul><li>Every day, 1,500 more Congolese—half of them children—die from hunger, preventable disease, and other consequences of violence and displacement </li></ul>
  7. 7. Key Players: Who Is Involved? <ul><li>National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP) </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) </li></ul><ul><li>Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) </li></ul><ul><li>Mai-Mai </li></ul><ul><li>Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) </li></ul><ul><li>Mission of the United Nations Organization in DRC (MONUC) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Congo and Rwanda: A Delicate Détente <ul><li>In 2008, Rwanda and Congo struck an agreement that led to the arrest of Laurent Nkunda </li></ul><ul><li>Rwanda and DRC reached an agreement in March 2009, between the Congolese government and the CNDP </li></ul><ul><li>Several war criminals have been integrated into the government army command </li></ul>
  9. 9. Congo and Rwanda: A Delicate Détente <ul><li>Whole units are deserting and abuses by Congolese forces are increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Many intact CNDP elements take advantage of new mining, taxation, and smuggling opportunities </li></ul>
  10. 10. Kimia II: The Congolese-U.N. Offensive Against the FDLR <ul><li>Kimia II is the ongoing UN-backed operation against the FDLR </li></ul><ul><li>Started in June 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>The three phases are 1) deployment of Congolese forces 2) securing civilian areas 3) offensive operations against the FDLR </li></ul>
  11. 11. Kimia II: The Congolese-U.N. Offensive Against the FDLR <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Government units actively collaborate in commercial dealings with FDLR </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain size and type </li></ul><ul><li>FDLR’s reprisal attacks on civilians </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Creeping Toll of Sexual Violence <ul><li>The United Nations estimates that over 200,000 women and girls have been raped since the beginning of the conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic rape is used as a weapon of war by armed groups to subjugate and humiliate populations they seek to control </li></ul><ul><li>The main perpetrators are the government army as well as the FDLR </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conflict Minerals: Fuel for Unending War <ul><li>Armed groups fight for control of the mines that produce the 3 T’s—tin, tungsten, and tantalum—and gold </li></ul><ul><li>The 3T’s are used to make our electronic products </li></ul><ul><li>Armed groups sustain themselves and buy weapons with the profits from mines, estimated at $180 million a year </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Tin used inside cell phones and all electronic products as a solder on circuit boards </li></ul><ul><li>Tantalum (often called coltan) used to store electricity in capacitors in iPods, digital cameras, and cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>Tungsten used to make your cell phone or Blackberry vibrate </li></ul><ul><li>Gold used mainly in jewelry, gold is also a component in cell phones and other electronics </li></ul>Conflict Minerals: Fuel for Unending War
  15. 15. Conflict Minerals: Fuel for Unending War <ul><li>Gold first discovered in DRC in 1903 </li></ul><ul><li>While gold is used in jewelry, it is also the most valuable metal inside cell phones and laptop computers </li></ul><ul><li>According to leading electronics companies, gold accounts for over two-thirds of the metal value inside both cell phones and laptops </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the gold exported from Uganda comes from Congo </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conflict Minerals: Fuel for Unending War <ul><li>Mineral wealth did not cause the war in Congo, but it sustains armed combatants and fuels ongoing atrocities </li></ul><ul><li>Grievances surrounding land and identity helpe organize the factions, but greed ensures the conflicts remain violent and unsettled </li></ul><ul><li>Having access to mines provides resources for self-defense or offensive actions to ensure their security </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conflict Minerals: Fuel for Unending War <ul><li>The conflict minerals chain lacks transparency. Major problems are: </li></ul><ul><li>No public map of mine locations </li></ul><ul><li>No proper list of who trades in the minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Little transparency around trade regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Opaque pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone wins except the Congolese people </li></ul>
  18. 18. Taking the Conflict out of your Cell Phone <ul><li>A comprehensive policy to end the trade in conflict minerals must incorporate: </li></ul><ul><li>corporate responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>security measures </li></ul><ul><li>governance reforms </li></ul><ul><li>livelihoods initiatives </li></ul>Photo credit: Mark Craemer
  19. 19. Taking the Conflict out of your Cell Phone <ul><li>Consumers and companies have a critical role to play, by demanding three steps to enable Congo’s minerals to benefit its people rather than the armed groups that prey upon them: </li></ul><ul><li>Trace </li></ul><ul><li>Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Certify </li></ul>Photo credit: Mark Craemer
  20. 20. Take Action Now! <ul><li>Commit to purchase conflict-free phones, laptops, and other electronics. </li></ul><ul><li>Urge your school, or other institution to go conflict-free. Join the conflict-free listserv ! </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail , call , or visit your Senators and urge them to support the Congo Conflict Minerals Act of 2009 . </li></ul><ul><li>Grow the movement! Ask your friends to join you in coming clean for Congo. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Learn More <ul><li>Books: </li></ul><ul><li>King Leopold’s Ghost by Adam Hochschild </li></ul><ul><li>All Things Must Fight to Live: Stories of War and Deliverance in Congo by Bryan Mealer </li></ul><ul><li>In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz by Michela Wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Documentaries: </li></ul><ul><li>Lumo : A documentary on one woman’s struggles and triumphs in Congo </li></ul><ul><li>The Greatest Silence: Rape in the Congo by Lisa F. Jackson </li></ul><ul><li>Other: </li></ul><ul><li>The Enough Project : Read strategy papers on the conflict </li></ul><ul><li>RAISE Hope for Congo : Download educational resources and toolkits </li></ul><ul><li>Rape of a Nation by Marcus Bleasdale </li></ul>