Principals saw the difference between two schools; discussion on grade levels and asked to provide insight into alignment between data and teaching practices!
We know some of our kids will not be at benchmark. However, increasing EXPLORE scores by 2 points in math has a greater relative impact on the trajectory to college readiness than being at benchmark in 8th grade.
It is clear from these results that major improvements in academic skillsneed to occur before grade 8. The study examined the effect of each enhancement separately. Several of these enhancements together would likely result in a largerincrease. These results should not beinterpreted to mean that high school-level enhancements have little or no benefit for students. Rather, of the factors studied, modest increases in students’ level of academic achievement by the eighth grade andbeing on target for college and career readiness in the eighth gradehad the greatest relative impact on college and career readiness ingrade 11 or 12. ANY QUESTIONS???
As CCSS suggests, this data shows Reading is important and different from content area to another and thus requires attention all disciplines.
Connecting Dots Ccss Di Nwea Help Final
Connecting the DotsCCSS, NWEA, DI… Help! An Overview of cerca
TodayOpportunities and Challenges of Supportingthe Common Core State StandardsImplementation AND Staying Focused GrowthUnderstanding how a set of Common CoreState Standard-Aligned critical literacypractices can help teachers DifferentiateInstruction for Growth on NWEA
―If you can’t see it the classroom, it’s not there.‖―There are only three ways to improve studentlearning at scale: • You can raise the level of the content that students are taught. • You can increase the skill and knowledge that teachers bring to the teaching of that content. • And you can increase the level of students’ active learning of the content.That’s it. Everything else is instrumental.‖ —Richard Elmore ―The Instructional Core‖Gregory R.Anrig Professor of Educational Leadership, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Cell Phones in Schools?Text Evidence • Compact • Can be used to record sounds and images • May contain software applications
―Ya Know‖ vs. Purposeful Academic Language Development
CCSS-AlignedFrom Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy inHistory/Social Studies, Science, and Technical SubjectsAppendix A: Research Supporting Key Elements of the Standards...the Standards put particular emphasis on students’ ability to writesound arguments on substantive topics and issues, as this ability iscritical to college and career readiness. English and educationprofessor Gerald Graff (2003) writes that ―argument literacy‖isfundamental to being educated.The university is largely an―argument culture,‖ Graff contends....He claims that becauseargument is not standard in most school curricula, only 20 percentof those who enter college are prepared in this respect....Whenteachers ask students to consider two or more perspectives on atopic or issue, something far beyond surface knowledge isrequired: students must think critically and deeply, assess thevalidity of their own thinking, and anticipate counterclaims inopposition to their own assertions.
Real-Life Social Activity Test or No TestDebate-oriented discussion is afavorite, real-life social activity. Do you ever go a day without one?
What is cerca?• Education for Thinking• A school-wide/district-wide common language and coreset of leveled and adaptable tools and practices fordeveloping critical literacy across all disciplines.• A streamlined system for coordinating and differentiatinginstruction, centered on exploring essential questionsthrough the common practices of academic discussion andclaim-making in traditional academic writing, as well as inmultimedia formats.• An approach for debatifying content in service ofdeveloping skills and improving rigor and engagement fortrue cognitive growth and college & career readiness.
Research-Based• The new Common Core State Standards focus on closereading and evidence-based argumentation as the key toacademic literacy, career readiness, and rigorous thought.• Using the cerca lens challenges students to read closelyand critically with authentic motivation to move beyondcomprehension into critical analysis, making instruction morerigorous so all students grow.• Debate-centered, cerca is naturally social andparticipatory.• Whole faculties can collaborate strategically around skilldevelopment, providing individualized support, regardless ofteaching styles. *See ―Additional Resources‖ on page 25.
claim• Answers a specific question given in a prompt or asserts anindependent claim generated by the student.• Claim statement often suggests/addresses an audience.• Tells readers why the issue is significant*. Providing keywords as part of an essential question unit often helpsstudents express this significance and their reasoning. Forexample, in discussions of Facebook and teens, ―privacy,‖―freedom,‖ and ―safety‖ are key terms students will need.*CCSS
evidence• Quotations from the text (Word for Word).• Summary of text.• Paraphrased information.• Facts & statistics.• Anyone engaged in the argument can find this and use it.
reasoning• The source of the greatest language and cognitivedemands.• This is thinking spelled out.• Answers this question: ―How does that evidence helpprove the claim?‖• Where rigor and learning reside.
counter-claim• Bring it on! The counter-claim challenges students toconsider other viewpoints by asking them to state anopponent’s argument and to develop a rebuttal from ashared value.• A natural and serious game, debate is animated bycounter- argument. Responsiveness to another argumentmakes the counter-claim in writing, play, discussion, orcreation the most engaging aspect of cerca.• Exploring opposing viewpoints is a strong threadthroughout all academic standards, from the CollegeReadiness Standards to the Common Core Standards. It isalso a skill featured prominently in Advanced Placementassessments across disciplines.
audience-appropriate language• Academic Language Learners (ALLs) and English LanguageLearners (ELLs) struggle with the power of their own ideas becausethey often lack the language or the confidence to express theabstract concepts and complex ideas that are the basis of reason-giving in all forms of argumentation.• Academic terms, discipline-specific sentence frames, andarguespeak can be provided to scaffold these challenges.• In reading, students can begin to see arguments with a kind of X-ray vision when they are given this support, providing more supportand practice for challenging reading.• Students can be taught about correct usage, punctuation, oreven the aptness of a word choice, when we pay regularattention to these details within a systematic program.
Skill Development• Standards and Skills-Aligned Task Templates andRubrics• Color-Coding System and Sentence Template-supported, systematic academic skill and languagedevelopment for ALLs and ELLs• Authentically Differentiated and Growth-Focused
Personalized & CollaborativeDifferentiation made simple. 4 levels of texts. 4 levels of tasks.
CERCA Centers Samples• Scorpions by Walter Dean Meyers• Building a progression of texts
Thinking Thinking about Persuasive about Text to X Writing Connections CharacterThinking CERCA Thinking with about Centers CERCA Words Make-Up Independent Book Club Reading Station Station
Learning PlanGroup or Individual Name_______________________________________________________________Centers Required SubmissionsThinking about Connections 1 2 3 4Thinking about Words 1 2 3 4Thinking about Characters 1 2 3 4*Thinking about What Happened 1 2 3 4Thinking with CERCA 1 2 3 4 * Multiple options available.
CERCA prompts (con’t)Chapter Close Reading Passage Opening and Prompt CERCA Type Closing Paragraphs (1st Sentence/Last Sentence)13 Read from the beginning of the chapter Who should be held responsible CERCA through “Jamal went down to the first for Jamal still having a gun later floor, then into his homeroom. He went to in the book, Jamal or the school? the closet, got his coat, and left the school.”14 Read the whole chapter. Sassy’ s decision to make: Should CERCA Sassy tell Mama about Jamal Decision Chart having a gun?15 Read from “’We got to talk,’ Jamal said?” Jamal’s decision to make: How CERCA through “Tito gave him his pencil, and will Jamal resolve his issues with Decision Chart Jamal wrote down the telephone number the Scorpions? next to the We Deliver sign.”16 “’Suppose he start something with you?’” Evaluate Jamal’s decision to allow CERCA “Remember what you said about being Indian to beat him up. Was letting beaten up and then it’s over and not too Indian this the only or best bad?” “Yeah?” “So that’s what I’m going to solution to his problems at this do,” Jamal said. If he starts to beat me up, point? I’m just going to take it like a man. Then I’m going to walk away, and when I get home I’ll just wash up and laugh at him.”17-18 Read pages 182-186 and 195-201 Was Jamal a good friend to Tito? CERCA19-20 Read the last three chapters of the novel. Tito’s decision to make: Should CERCA Tito keep his actions secret? Decision Chart
NWEA Descartes Word Analysis and Vocabulary Skills 191-200 201-210 211-220 220+ Chooses the Identifies the Infers the meaning Recognizessynonym (term not word that is a of a word using multiple used) for a given synonym (term context meanings for a word defined) clues, then selects given word for a given word the word that has the same meaning
Thinking about WordsName:_________________ Option 1: New Words in the Text Word that has Same Meaning Picture or Icon Word that has of Vocabulary Opposite Meaning Part of Speech Vocabulary Sentence Using the Vocabulary Word Word
Name:_________________ Thinking about Words Option 4: Key Words and Academic Terms Key terms I may need for discussing this book. Vocabulary Dictionary Dictionary Picture or Icon Word Definition 2 Synonym Antonym that Represents Definition the Word.
NWEA Descartes Literature: Literary Elements and Techniques 191-200 201-210 211-220 221 - 230- Analyzes - Determines a - Infers the reason - Analyzescharacter traits characters behind a techniques used by characters actions an author to(term not used) feelings and/or developin literary text emotions - Infers the qualities characters in based on the (emotional and/or literary text- Determines a information physical) of acharacters found in literary character based on - Evaluates information found infeelings and/or texts literary texts characteremotions development inbased on the - Infers the -Infers the reason literary textinformation conflict in a behind a characters - Infers the qualitiesfound in literary literary text feelings/emotions (emotional and/ortexts physical) of a - Analyzes to - Identifies the character based determine the qualities (emotional on information problem and/or physical) of found in literary presented in a texts character in literary
Thinking About CharactersName:________________ Option 2: Understanding Character Character 1: Character 2:: Values: Values: Concerns: Concerns: Influences: Influences: Feelings: Feelings: Problems: Problems:
Thinking About CharactersName:________________ Option 4a: Predicting Character Choice I predict ________________________________ will... _________________________ (Character Name) ______________________________________________________________________ because _______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ I predict this decision will affect their character development in the following ways…. Effect 1 Effect 2 Effect 3
Persuasive Writing Center• Jamal was able to bring a gun into school without being caught. Bringing weapons into schools has become a problem that schools face. One way to try to prevent weapons from coming into the schools would be through random possession checks. This would give a teacher or principal the right to search through students’ back packs, desks, and lockers. Write a persuasive essay to convince the school board that schools should have the right to randomly search students’ possessions?• Jamal was bullied by Dwayne to the point that he would do anything to get him to leave him alone. Bullying is another common problem within schools today. Cyber bullying is one form of bullying that has become common in the last few years. Facebook allows an easy way for students to cyber bully. Write a persuasive essay convincing the government that children under 16 should not have a Facebook page.• Dwayne made fun of Jamal for the clothes that he wore and that made Jamal feel bad about himself. Chicago Public Schools worry that the same mistreatment could happen to their students at school so they have enforced a uniform policy. Write a persuasive essay convincing the government to make uniforms mandatory for all elementary aged students.• Mr. Davidson only focused on the negative actions of Jamal and hoped that Jamal would do something that would allow him to be kicked out of school. Suspending kids is a common consequence used within schools to punish kids for misbehavior. Write a persuasive essay to convince the school board that suspending kids is not an effective form of punishment.
Progressions of Texts• Build opportunities for students to access more complex texts through background knowledge development.• Provide opportunities for all students to engage in rigorous close reading and argumentation by differentiating text levels for various levels of readiness.
Pre-K Practice Example Pre-K Read-Aloud:What evidence from the picture might make peoplethink that elephants are like people?Who is the big elephant?Who might the little elephants be?
Pre-K Practice Example2nd Grade: What evidence does the author give us that help usunderstand her claim that elephants are social? Use exact words fromthe text?Locates information in short passages (1 to 3 sentences) of informational textcontaining simple sentence construction (RiT 171-180)
Assessing DescartesCERCA Prompt: What evidence and reasoning doesthe author provide to support his claim that elephantsare smart? Do you agree or disagree with thisposition?• ―Identifies the supporting details in short (3 to 8 sentences) passages of informational text.‖ containing one or more compound sentences ‖• ―Paraphrases information found in complex informational text.‖• ―Locates and paraphrases information in informational text (5-6 paragraphs)‖ (Norm: Rit199.8 BOY 4th grade 2011)
Descartes as CCSSGrade 4, Standard 2: Determine the main idea of a textand explain how it is supported by key details; summarizethe text.• CERCA Prompt Level 1: What is the main idea of ________, and how does the author support this main idea with key details?• CERCA Prompt Level 4: What evidence and reasoning does the author provide to support his argument that ________? Do you agree or disagree with this position?• CERCA Sentence Starter Stem: The main idea of _______ by _____ is ____. The author supports this claim with key details such as _____, ____, and _____ in order to prove that _____.
Descartes as College Readiness Standards (Assessed on EPAS)What evidence and reasoning does theauthor provide to support his argumentthat ________? Do you agree or disagreewith this position?• Locate important details in uncomplicated passages• Make simple inferences about how details are used in passages
NWEA-EXPLORE Correlation NWEA-EXPLORE Correlation: Reading Total 8th Graders RIT Score Percentile % Probability of Meeting # Pershing (Spring) (Spring) College Readiness Benchmark Students in Pershing: 1400Minimum 225 57% 45% 217Minimum 230 70% 64% 191Minimum 235 80% 82% 102Minimum 240 88% 96% 67Minimum 245 93% 100% 30*College readiness EXPLOREBenchmark in Reading: 15*RIT Scores: NWEA-ACT Linking Study*Percentile: 2011 Norm Study NWEA-EXPLORE Correlation: MATH RIT Score Percentile % Probability of Meeting # Pershing (Spring) (Spring) College Readiness Benchmark Students Minimum 240 62% 53% 196 Minimum 245 72% 70% 139 Minimum 250 81% 85% 96 Minimum 255 88% 93% 61 *College readiness EXPLORE Benchmark in Math: 17 Minimum 260 92% 99% 53 *RIT Scores: NWEA-ACT Linking Study *Percentile: 2011 Norm Study Minimum 265 95% 100% 45
Discussion around Data Movement School A Principals demand forgrade & classroom data School B by Spring 12!
Sample (Before)Grade 4 Reading/ELA Sample: What is the main idea of “ElephantsCooperate, Proving How Smart They Really Are” by Charles Q. Choi andwhat key details does he use to support it? The main idea of Elephants Cooperate, Proving How Smart They Really Are is elephants may be smarter than we think. First off an elephant can see itself in a mirrors, only some animals can do this (humans apes and dolphins). Elephants also will help each other. For example, the elephants work together to get a bucket of corn. Finally an elephant will stay with their mate, unlike crows, hyenas. After that I think that elephants are very intelligent.
Sample (After)Grade 4 Reading/ELA Sample: “Elephants Cooperate, Proving How SmartThey Really Are” by Charles Q. Choi. The main idea of ―Elephants Cooperate, Proving How Smart They Really Are,‖ by Charles Q. Choi is that elephants are pretty smart. The author supports this claim with key details such as the fact that they can see themselves in mirrors, work together, the help each other. That only goes for a couple of other animals, which are dolphins, apes, and humans. Choi begins the summary of his research telling us that people used to think that elephants were not as smart as them. He starts giving us reasons. He gives the test results to persuade us. The elephants would work together to get corn. ―They had to coordinate their efforts so that each could get a tasty bucket of corn.‖ This shows that the elephants will cooperate to get the corn. Most animals such as lions will fight each other to get the food, but elephants will work together to make sure they both get the food.
After (continued)Some people might argue that other animals worktogether too, but an elephant will keep going for avery long time, but others don’t. ―Elephant behavioris flexible.‖ If they grew up learning how to dosomething they will do it, but other animals don’tchange. Elephants are smart enough. They can starta community. Some animals can build a structure likea nest. It is a structure. It is built by a living thing. Whenyou build something, it is not like you are just takingover something that is built for you. Choi proves to usthat elephants are smart by telling us about the testresults, which show that the elephants are notevolved or smart enough to build a structure but theywill work together to help themselves. That’s prettysmart because they can learn and change.
Sample Rubric Component 1 2 3 4 5 Claim The writer clearly stated their claim, Writer states a claim but does not Writer states an unclear claim or explaining the underlying develop the claim’s significance. does not state a claim at all. significance of the issue. Evidence Writer uses sufficient, valid, and Writer uses some valid or relevant Writer uses relevant evidence from another evidence from another source to insufficient, invalid, and irrelevant source to support claim through support claim through evidence to support claim direct quotation (word-for-word) summary, paraphrase, or direct through summary, paraphrase, or and summary and paraphrase as quotation (word-for-word), but direct quotation (word-for- word). necessary. evidence is not sufficient to prove claim. Reasoning Writer effectively explains exactly Writer fails to explain or fails to how or why the evidence supports Writer explains how evidence from explain clearly how evidence the claim of the paragraph(s). the text supports the claim of the from the text supports the claim of paragraph but too much of the the paragraph. thinking behind the argument is left unstated. Conclusion Writing contains an effective Writing contains an unclear Claim concluding statement that follows Writing contains a concluding concluding statement, one that from and supports the argument statement that follows from and does not clearly follow from or presented, making the significance supports the argument support the argument of the issue and reasoning behind presented, but may be mechanical presented, or no concluding the argument clear. or simply repetitious. statement at all. Appropriate Writing demonstrates skillful use of Language words and phrases that would Choice of words and/or Writing is difficult to understand appeal to the audience to make development of sentences and and ineffective in communicating an effective argument in which the phrases make it difficult for the writer the reasoning or the relationships claim is explicitly supported by to make an effective argument in that link the evidence to the evidence and sound reasoning. which the claim is explicitly claim. The paragraph flows like one piece supported by evidence and sound of writing as opposed to separate reasoning. parts stitched together. Conventions Writing contains no errors in X.of Usage and Writing contains less than 3 errors in X Writing contains more than 4 Punctuation errors in X.
Why Debatify? Why Write?• Real, timely, trackable, and actionable data.• Valued across disciplines and pedagogical styles.• Common & meaningfully repeatable tasks withdifferentiated texts and skills focus helps teachers addressthe practical challenges of differentiatedinstruction/personalized learning.• Given accessible texts and a good reason toargue, students can and do get what it says, what itmeans, and why it matters.• Parents can finally understand our language.
What’s In It For Me?• School LeadersA complete set of tools to help the entire team strategically orchestrateefforts around student skill development.• TeachersStudents gain a better understanding of content, produce betterwriting, and engage with each other productively.Collaborative focus allows for shared practices among teachers, makingthe whole team’s focus clear to students and mutually reinforcing.• StudentsActually understand what we mean when we are talking about literacyskills. Develop intellectual values and refine powerfulthinking, reading, writing, listening and speaking skills that apply to all areasof their lives. See the explicit connections between real life and school life.• ParentsShare a vocabulary that gives them a way to understand what students aresupposed to know and be able to do and how teachers are strategicallyorchestrating efforts to help them achieve.
Additional ResourcesAnderson, Lorin W., David R. Krathwohl, Benjamin Samuel Bloom, and Benjamin Samuel Bloom. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: a Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives : Complete Edition. New York: Longman, 2001. Print.―Common Core State Standards Initiative | The Standards | English Language Arts Standards.‖ Common Core State Standards Initiative | Home. Web. 02 July 2011. <http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards>.Graff, Gerald, and Cathy Birkenstein.―A Progressive Case for Educational Standardization.‖ Academe 94.3 (2008): 16–20.Hillocks, George. Teaching Argument Writing, Grades 6-12: Supporting Claims with Relevant Evidence and Clear Reasoning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2011. PrintKozulin, Alex. Vygotsky’s Educational Theory in Cultural Context. UK: Cambridge UP, 2003. Print.Kuhn, Deanna. Education for Thinking. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2008. Print. Reeves,Douglas B. ―The 90/90/90 Schools Study | The Leadership and Learning Center.‖ http://www.leadandlearn.com/90-90-90Wormeli, Rick. Fair Isn’t Always Equal: Assessing & Grading in the Differentiated Classroom. Portland, Me.: Stenhouse, 2006. Print.
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