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Reading Comprehension: The Key to Academic Achievement Presenter: Amy Benjamin You may access today’s visuals at: www.amyb...
From  Time to Act , a study commissioned by the Carnegie Foundation, 2009: Although U.S. students in grade 4 score  among ...
From  Time to Act , a study commissioned by the Carnegie Foundation, 2009: Although U.S. students in grade 4 score  among ...
From  Time to Act , a study commissioned by the Carnegie Foundation, 2009: Although U.S. students in grade 4 score  among ...
 
 
Elementary School Middle School High School volume: detail, description,  vocabulary: technical and general academic terms...
Focus Strategies for All Subjects:  <ul><li>1. Read aloud/think aloud (model your </li></ul><ul><li>thinking process as yo...
10,000 hours of practice
Reader Orientation and Text Types:  Organizational structures such as : 1.  It describes the features or parts of one thin...
What is the  significance  of text types?  A reader who is aware of the text type is better able to: <ul><li>Mentally orga...
Text Types: Genres Narrative (Telling a story) Other literary text: poetry, drama, etc. Informational text (textbooks) Jou...
Getting Reading and Writing to Work Together: Writing-to-Learn Practices Consider:  Column A: End-of-chapter questions Tes...
Typical end-of-chapter questions:  Text A <ul><li>Explain how geckos stick to vertical surfaces.  </li></ul>mental cut-and...
Typical test-type questions:  Text A <ul><li>Which of the following best expresses the </li></ul><ul><li>main idea of this...
Outline:  Elementary Boxes & Bullets Main idea Main idea Main idea Middle Sch I.  A. B. C. II. A. B. C. III. A. B. C. High...
<ul><li>Changes caused by Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>A. How people worked </li></ul><ul><li>B. How people liv...
The Reading Process: Before During After 3C’s: B : Connect ! (4 connections) D: Concentrate ! (5 behaviors) A: Complete ! ...
The Reading Process: Before:  Connect ! 3 C’s Connection 1: Background knowledge (incl. key  vocab) Connection 2: Text typ...
Before:  Connect! 3 C’s “ What comes to mind when I say the word______?” “ What do/does ___________remind you of?” “ What ...
Before:  Connect! 3 C’s Building Background Knowledge: Pre-teach new vocab Present visuals Connect to personal experience
Before: Connect! Prepare for the genre   How is it organized?  3 C’s Picture the structure. Set up a “mental closet” to co...
Before: Connect! Have a focus for reading. 3 C’s Decide what you are looking for.  (page 86)
Before: Connect!  Get an Overview 3 C’s THIEVVES: Title Headings Introductory paragraph Every first sentence of every para...
The Reading Process: During:  Concentrate!   3 C’s Adjust the environment:  eliminate all sensory distractions Visualize: ...
The Reading Process: After:   Complete! 3 C’s Write, talk, or draw
Cooperative Learning Protocol for Improving Reading Comprehension 4-Roles in the Group 1. I’m the summarizer.  2. I’m the ...
Let’s summarize: The  ABOUT,  AND  technique: 1 . It’s about…….. (one or two words) 2 . and…. It’s about geckos It’s about...
Text I: It’s about the Industrial Revolution and how it changed family life. Text II:  It’s about Eos and Tithonius and ho...
Cooperative Learning Protocol for Improving Reading Comprehension 3 Kinds of questions: 1. “Right there”: The answer is st...
Where do I need help? Understanding the vocabulary Making connections: Text-to-text Text-to-self Text-to-world Visualizing...
Five Gears of Reading:  Skim it:  Scan it:  Sample it:  Read it:  (optional)  Study it:  Glance over it; (30 secs per page...
Focus Groups:  <ul><li>Consider the “99 Ways” List. </li></ul><ul><li>What practices are already in place and working for ...
Time Interdisciplinary connections strengthen learning Simultaneous use of instructional time: Teach skills that allow stu...
Can my students read the textbook independently?   Preparation: Read one page, timing yourself. Compose 5 basic comprehens...
Can my students read the textbook independently?   Formative Assessment : : Ask students to read the targeted page in clas...
Can my students read the textbook independently?   How to help: Intensify the “Before” reading strategies that connect rea...
Enjoyment: Reading anything we want, just for fun! stories, newspapers, comics, magazines, graphic novels, teen romances, ...
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Reading comp 2010 w deptford

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The principles of reading comprehsion on the secondary level

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Reading comp 2010 w deptford

  1. 1. Reading Comprehension: The Key to Academic Achievement Presenter: Amy Benjamin You may access today’s visuals at: www.amybenjamin.com (Reading Comprehension: 2010) <ul><li>Today’s Presentation: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Reading comprehension in the secondary grades </li></ul><ul><li>Reader Orientation: Text Types </li></ul><ul><li>Getting reading and writing to work together </li></ul><ul><li>4. The Reading Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before: Connect! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During: Concentrate! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After: Complete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Five Gears of Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Formative Assessment </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. From Time to Act , a study commissioned by the Carnegie Foundation, 2009: Although U.S. students in grade 4 score among the ( highest, lowest ) in the world, those in grade 8 score much ( higher, lower ). By grade 10, U.S. students score among the ( highest, lowest ) in the world.
  3. 3. From Time to Act , a study commissioned by the Carnegie Foundation, 2009: Although U.S. students in grade 4 score among the highest in the world, those in grade 8 score much higher . By grade 10, U.S. students score among the highest in the world. Is it this?
  4. 4. From Time to Act , a study commissioned by the Carnegie Foundation, 2009: Although U.S. students in grade 4 score among the highest in the world, those in grade 8 score much lower . By grade 10, U.S. students score among the lowest in the world. No, it’s this: What’s your theory?
  5. 7. Elementary School Middle School High School volume: detail, description, vocabulary: technical and general academic terms sentence length reference to diagrams different kinds of punctuation objective (does not address the reader as “you”) less familiar imagery
  6. 8. Focus Strategies for All Subjects: <ul><li>1. Read aloud/think aloud (model your </li></ul><ul><li>thinking process as you read) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Getting reading and writing to support each </li></ul><ul><li>other (writing-to-learn activities) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Direct vocabulary instruction </li></ul>
  7. 9. 10,000 hours of practice
  8. 10. Reader Orientation and Text Types: Organizational structures such as : 1. It describes the features or parts of one thing ( Outline ) 2. It lays out a sequence ( Story Arc ) 3. It explains a relationship between two things ( T-Chart )
  9. 11. What is the significance of text types? A reader who is aware of the text type is better able to: <ul><li>Mentally organize the information (be oriented) </li></ul><ul><li>Predict and anticipate </li></ul><ul><li>Recall the key information </li></ul><ul><li>Establish an accurate relationship between </li></ul><ul><li>key ideas and supportive details </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctVteQDRIM&feature=related
  10. 12. Text Types: Genres Narrative (Telling a story) Other literary text: poetry, drama, etc. Informational text (textbooks) Journalism (news articles, feature articles, editorials, critiques) Reports (findings from research) Procedures (step-by-step)
  11. 13. Getting Reading and Writing to Work Together: Writing-to-Learn Practices Consider: Column A: End-of-chapter questions Test-like questions Column B Reader-created outline Reader-created summary Reader-created paraphrase
  12. 14. Typical end-of-chapter questions: Text A <ul><li>Explain how geckos stick to vertical surfaces. </li></ul>mental cut-and- paste Very weak intermolecular forces produced by billions of hair-like structures, known as setae….
  13. 15. Typical test-type questions: Text A <ul><li>Which of the following best expresses the </li></ul><ul><li>main idea of this passage? </li></ul><ul><li>a. Why geckos fascinate us </li></ul><ul><li>b. How geckos stick to walls </li></ul><ul><li>c. Scientists study geckos’ feet </li></ul><ul><li>d. That cute little over-engineered reptile </li></ul>Main idea-type 2. “Van der Waals” refer to a. weak intermolecular forces b. setae c. structures on a gecko’s feet d. billions of hair-like structures Vocabulary-type
  14. 16. Outline: Elementary Boxes & Bullets Main idea Main idea Main idea Middle Sch I. A. B. C. II. A. B. C. III. A. B. C. High Sch I.________ A.______ 1._____ 2.______ a._____ b._____ c._____ B.__________ II.____________ A.__________ B.__________ 1._______ 2._______ 3._______ C.__________
  15. 17. <ul><li>Changes caused by Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>A. How people worked </li></ul><ul><li>B. How people lived </li></ul><ul><li>Before the IR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Workers mostly in rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Families worked together on farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Most items made by hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Children continued work of parents </li></ul></ul>Outlines: Text I <ul><li>During and After the IR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Families moved to cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. City living conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Families less together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Factory work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Dirty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Machinery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Rapid production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Decline of hand-made goods </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. The Reading Process: Before During After 3C’s: B : Connect ! (4 connections) D: Concentrate ! (5 behaviors) A: Complete ! (3 choices) Or, 3F’s: B: Frontload D: Focus A: Finish
  17. 19. The Reading Process: Before: Connect ! 3 C’s Connection 1: Background knowledge (incl. key vocab) Connection 2: Text type (organizational structure) Connection 3: Establish a purpose for reading Connection 4: Overview
  18. 20. Before: Connect! 3 C’s “ What comes to mind when I say the word______?” “ What do/does ___________remind you of?” “ What do you see in your mind when I say ______?” “ What words are you seeing that you need to know more about?
  19. 21. Before: Connect! 3 C’s Building Background Knowledge: Pre-teach new vocab Present visuals Connect to personal experience
  20. 22. Before: Connect! Prepare for the genre How is it organized? 3 C’s Picture the structure. Set up a “mental closet” to contain the information. Think about what you expect in this structure.
  21. 23. Before: Connect! Have a focus for reading. 3 C’s Decide what you are looking for. (page 86)
  22. 24. Before: Connect! Get an Overview 3 C’s THIEVVES: Title Headings Introductory paragraph Every first sentence of every paragraph Visuals and Vocabulary End-of-chapter questions Summary
  23. 25. The Reading Process: During: Concentrate! 3 C’s Adjust the environment: eliminate all sensory distractions Visualize: Look for imagery in the text Visualize the organizational structure Monitor comprehension: Be prepared to reread and/or seek outside help Be an active reader: Anticipate, react, predict, question connect
  24. 26. The Reading Process: After: Complete! 3 C’s Write, talk, or draw
  25. 27. Cooperative Learning Protocol for Improving Reading Comprehension 4-Roles in the Group 1. I’m the summarizer. 2. I’m the question asker. 3. I’m the word clarifier: 4. I’m the predictor:
  26. 28. Let’s summarize: The ABOUT, AND technique: 1 . It’s about…….. (one or two words) 2 . and…. It’s about geckos It’s about birds and how they stick to vertical surfaces.
  27. 29. Text I: It’s about the Industrial Revolution and how it changed family life. Text II: It’s about Eos and Tithonius and how their ill-fated love story played out. Text III: It’s about England and why it is to be treasured. Text IV: It’s about the different kinds of taxes and what they are used for. Summary Starters:
  28. 30. Cooperative Learning Protocol for Improving Reading Comprehension 3 Kinds of questions: 1. “Right there”: The answer is stated directly I. Yes/No II. Who/what/when/where/why/how 2. “Put it together”: The answer is implied in the text 3. “Beyond the Text”: The answer is not given; the text evokes the question QAR: Question-Answer Response
  29. 31. Where do I need help? Understanding the vocabulary Making connections: Text-to-text Text-to-self Text-to-world Visualizing Answering the questions Summarizing Remembering what I read Taking notes K-W-L Chart Concentrating
  30. 32. Five Gears of Reading: Skim it: Scan it: Sample it: Read it: (optional) Study it: Glance over it; (30 secs per page); get the gist; be able to state what it is about in a complete sentence Look it over with an eagle’s eye , scanning for specific information, such as information that has key words to answer questions Now that you’ve let the text wash over you, read it thoroughly: every word, every sentence, every graphic. Go back, as necessary, getting a more useful and permanent understanding. This may involve working with a partner, taking notes, creating graphic organizers, and other meaning-making activities. www.amybenjamin.com Find a segment that is most interesting to you and read it carefully.
  31. 33. Focus Groups: <ul><li>Consider the “99 Ways” List. </li></ul><ul><li>What practices are already in place and working for you? </li></ul>10 Minutes: Report out, please
  32. 34. Time Interdisciplinary connections strengthen learning Simultaneous use of instructional time: Teach skills that allow students to process information independently
  33. 35. Can my students read the textbook independently? Preparation: Read one page, timing yourself. Compose 5 basic comprehension questions Assess the vocabulary: How many words on the page will be problematical for the students? Are there sufficient context clues for readers to determine meaning of unfamiliar words?
  34. 36. Can my students read the textbook independently? Formative Assessment : : Ask students to read the targeted page in class and time themselves. Note the students who took significantly more time. Ask students to answer the 5 basic comprehension questions. Note the students who have more than 2 wrong. Ask students to identify the words that they don’t understand after reading the passage. Note the students who identify more than five words.
  35. 37. Can my students read the textbook independently? How to help: Intensify the “Before” reading strategies that connect reader to text. Provide pictures Provide simplified versions
  36. 38. Enjoyment: Reading anything we want, just for fun! stories, newspapers, comics, magazines, graphic novels, teen romances, sci-fi, adventure, humor…. <ul><li>Components of successful free reading programs in schools: </li></ul><ul><li>Lavish access to all kinds of appealing reading material </li></ul><ul><li>No accountability (ie, tests) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Regular time set aside for reading </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained over time (multiple years) </li></ul><ul><li>Comfortable environment, conducive to reading </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Staff training on the benefits and management of SSR </li></ul><ul><li>Source: The SSR Handbook: How to Organize and Manage a Sustained Silent </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Program . Janice Pilgreen. Boynton/Cook. Portsmouth, NH. 2000 </li></ul>www.amybenjamin.com

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