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Voice disorders

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This presentation discusses voice disorders and its evaluation

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Voice disorders

  1. 1. Voice Disorders Balasubramanian Thiagarajan
  2. 2. Introduction • Normal voice is difficult to interpret • Voice disorders should be classifiable • Voice disorders should be objectively quantifiable
  3. 3. Normal voice - Pre-requisites • • • • • • Normal range of vocal fold mobility Normal mobility of mucosa on deep layers Optimal co-aptation of vocal fold edges Optimal motor force at glottic closure Optimal pulmonary support Optimal timing of the glottic closure in relation to the onset of phonatory expiration • Optimal tuning of vocal fold tension
  4. 4. Phonatory expiration • This occurs when the person is attempting to speak • Vocal folds on both sides approximate along their entire antero-posterior dimension • This can be tested by asking the patient to say (eeee) while performing laryngoscopic examination • In non phonatory expiration vocal folds are gently abducted Non phonatory expiration
  5. 5. Glottal cycle • Opening phase • Closing phase • Closed phase
  6. 6. Opening phase • Vocal fold gets blown upwards by increasing subglottic pressure • Undulating wave moves on the medial margin from the lower part to upper part.
  7. 7. Closing phase • After the width of the glottis reaches the maximum, subglottic air pressure reduces and elastic recoil of vocal folds draw them towards midline. Closure occurs from below upwards • The lower lip of vocal folds close first followed by the upper
  8. 8. Closed phase • Glottis closes completely when the upper lip of both vocal folds come together. • This phase lasts till the subglottic pressure overcomes the glottic closure
  9. 9. Characteristics of voice disorder Voice disorder Discomfort Pain on phonation Easy fatiguability Not Not a u d i b l Not clear Not stable appr opri ate for age and sex Unable to fullfil Liguistic/ paralingusitic functions
  10. 10. Definitions • Dysphonia - Voice impairment / difficulty in speaking • Dysarthria - Articulation difficulties due to impairment of speech muscles • Dysarthrophonia - Dysphonia + Dysarthria CNS causes like motor neuron disorders • Dysphasia - Impairment of comprehension of spoken / written language. • Hoarseness - harsh breathy voice
  11. 11. Voice disorders - diagnostic problems • Aetiology (Multifactorial) • Pts develop compensatory mechanisms in order to communicate effectively, this could mask the primary disorder • Pts may have more than one condition contributing to voice disorders
  12. 12. Voice disorders - causes • • • • Inflammatory Structural / neoplastic Neuromuscular Muscle tension imbalance
  13. 13. History • • • • • • • Nature & chronicity Exacerbating / releiving factors Life style / dietary / hydration issues Medical conditions / trt effects Pts voice use / voice requirements Impact on quality of life Pts expectations
  14. 14. Complaints • Voice quality changes - (hoarseness, roughness and breathiness) • In appropriate pitch - age and sex • Poor voice control (break in pitch) • Inability to raise voice to be heard in noisy environment • Difficulty in singing • Voice tiring
  15. 15. Complaints - contd • Throat related symptoms • Reduced ability to communicate • Difficulties in using voice at different times of the day • Emotional effects due to voice changes
  16. 16. Examination • • • • • • • • Oral cavity Oropharynx Nasal cavity Lower cranial nerves Cervical adenopathy Signs of increased muscle tension Laryngeal position Breathing pattern
  17. 17. Direct laryngocopy - pitfalls • Small view • Brief duration of visibility • Mucosal wave cannot be appreciated (100 cycles / sec. Retina can perceive only 5 cycles / sec)
  18. 18. Stroboscopy • Depends on Talobot's law (persistence of vision) • This is an optical illusion caused by fusion of various phases of glottic cycle • The frequency of flashing light should be equal to that of vocal fold vibratory cycle
  19. 19. Stroboscopic examination • • • • • Amplitude of vibration Mucosal wave Symmetry Periodicity Glottic closure patterns - including its phase and configuration • Non vibrating portions • Ventricular vibrations
  20. 20. Amplitude of vibration • It is the extent of vocal fold movement in the horizontal plane • Usually it is one half of the width of the visible part of the vocal fold • Amplitude decreases when the pitch increases • Amplitude increases with increasing loudness of phonation
  21. 21. Amplitude of vibration - Rating • • • • 0 - No observable horizontal excursions 1 - Diminished amplitude of excursion 2 - Normal amplitude of excursion 3 - Greater amplitude of excursion
  22. 22. Decreased vocal fold vibration amplitude • Vocal fold stiffness • Reduced subglottic pressure • Sulcus vocalis increases stiffness of the vocal folds • Tight glottic closure - Hyperfunctional dysphonia
  23. 23. Increased amplitude of vocal fold vibration • Reinke's odemea - There is a consious increase of subglottic pressure in these patients to move the increasingly bulky cord • Decreased laryngeal muscular tone - vocal fold paralysis (appears like flag fluttering in the wind)
  24. 24. Mucosal wave • This is a normal wavy motion of vocal fold mucosa travelling both in vertical and horizontal planes • Normally it travels across in the vertical plane of the vocal folds and then rolls laterally across atleast 50% of the width of the visible part of vocal fold • It is affected by the mucosa and the underlying muscle layers • Normally it decreases with rising pitch of phonation • It increases with increasing loudness of phonation
  25. 25. Mucosal wave - grading • • • • 0 - No observable travelling wave 1 - Restricted mucosal wave 2 - Normal mucosal wave 3 - Greater mucosal wave
  26. 26. Decreased mucosal wave - causes • Increased stiffness due to mucosal changes Polyp, sulcus vocalis and vocal fold dysplasia • Increased muscle tension leading to tight glottic closure (Hyperfunctional dysphonia; it leaves a long closed phase) • Decreased muscle tone causes weak glottic closure pattern (Hypofunctional dysphonia with long open and short closed phase)
  27. 27. Mucosal wave absence • • • • Stroboscopic fixation (synonym) Malignant neoplasm Vocal fold scarring Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis
  28. 28. Increased mucosal wave • Reinke's oedema • This is due to elevated subglottic pressure
  29. 29. Symmetry • Both vocal cords are normally symmetrical • They mirror each other in timing / phase and amplitude
  30. 30. Symmetry (Contd) • • • • A - displays normal amplitude and timing. Upper curve represents right cord and lower curve represents left cord movements B - Asymmetry. The range of excursion of left cord is less than that of the right fold C - Extreme asymmetry. Left vocal fold opens while the right vocal fold closes D - Asymmetry both in phase and amplitude
  31. 31. Periodicity • This is regularity of successive glottic cycles • Aperiodicity between successive cycles could be either in amplitude or timing or in both. • To access this the strobe light setting should be set to auto so that the light flashes are executed at the same frequency as that of vocal fold vibrations • Normally laryngeal image will be static • In aperiodicity the flashes will not coincide with glottal cycle. This causes hazy shivering of laryngeal image
  32. 32. Periodicity - (Contd) • A - Normal glottic wave form • B - Aperiodicity in timing between successive cycles • C - Aperiodicity in amplitude • D - Aperiodicity in timing and amplitude
  33. 33. Aperiodicity - causes • • • • Inadequate expiratory air during phonation Disrupted laryngeal muscle tension Imbalance of neuromuscular control of larynx Disrupted mechanical properties of vocal folds
  34. 34. Glottic closure patterns • The timing of opening phase, closing phase and closed phase are more or less equal normally • Opening phase dominates with increasing pitch / decreasing loudness during phonation • Closed phase predominates with rising loudness of phonation
  35. 35. Pathological changes of glottic closure • Predominance of opening phase - decreased laryngeal muscle tension (hypofunctional dysphonia) • Predominance of closing phase - Due to increased glottal resistance / hyperfunctional dysphonia
  36. 36. Glottic closure shape • Normal - Complete closure. Small triangular posterior chink + females • Hour glass phonatory gap - vocal nodules • Slit shape phonatory gap in hyperfunctional dysphonia
  37. 37. Glottic closure shape - (contd) • Oval shape phonatory gap - Hypofunctional dysphonia • Irregular phonatory gap - Growth vocal folds • No closure - Bilateral vocal fold paralysis
  38. 38. Non vibrating portions • Laryngeal scarring • Dysplastic patches • Mucosal fixation
  39. 39. Stroboscopy - uses • Detection of early glottic cancers • Determine changes to vocal folds not normally visible to naked eye • Pre and post treatment comparison
  40. 40. Vocal hygiene • • • • • Smoking cessation Avoidence of dust and fumes Reflux prophylaxis Avoid eating late in the night Avoidance of voice strain
  41. 41. Specific voice disorders (common) • • • • • • • Tension dysphonia Laryngitis LPR Vocal nodules Vocal fold cysts Vocal fold paralysis Arytenoid granuloma
  42. 42. Voice disorders (Less frequent) • • • • • • • Sulci / mucosal bridges Spasmodic dysphonia Papillomatosis laryngeal trauma Hyperkeratosis / Malignancy Endocrine causes Amyloid
  43. 43. Thank You !

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