Hypothermia

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Hypothermia

  1. 1. HYPOTHERMIAwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  2. 2. Hypothermia occurs when the bodytemperature drops below 36.5degreeCelsius (97.7 degree F), the lowerlimit of normal range of 36.5 - 37.5degree Celsius (97.8-99.5 degreeFahrenheit).www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  3. 3. Distribution and incidenceNeonatal cold injury occurs throughoutthe world, even in warm climates. In onehospital during an 8-year study inEthiopia, 67% of low birth weight andhigh-risk infants admitted to a specialcare unit from outside were hypothermic.In a large series of births in the provincesin China the incidence of sclerema was 6.7per thousand. High - risk factors wereprematurity and low birth weightwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  4. 4. General Risk Factors> Incorrect care of the baby immediately afterbirth.> Separation of mother from baby after birth.> The weight and gestational age of the infant.> The place of the delivery and environmentalconditions.> Inadequate warming procedures before andduring transport of the infant.> Asphyxia, hypoxia, other illness of the baby,> Inadequate warming procedure duringresuscitation.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  5. 5. Signs of HypothermiaEarly clinical signs which should arousesuspicion of cold stress due to hypothermiaare:(1) The feet are cold to the touch andbecome cold before the body is cold;(2) Weak sucking ability.(3) Reduction in activity-lethargy; and(4) A weak cry.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  6. 6. If hypothermia persists:(1) there is a risk of neonatal cold injury(2) the infant usually becomes lethargic, withslow, shallow and irregular respiration and aslow heart rate (bradycardia) correspondingto the degree of fall in body temperature.(3)Hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis maydevelop.(4) There is a real risk of deathwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  7. 7. (5) The face and extremities may have abright red color while the rest of bodyis pale; central cyanosis may be present.(6) Sclerema, a hardening of the skin,associated with reddening and edema isseen mainly on the back and the limbsbut may cover the whole body.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  8. 8. Loss of HeatThere are four ways a newborn maylose heat to the environment:-(1) Radiation(2) Convection(3) Conduction(4) Evaporationwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  9. 9. Role of a NurseAn important objective of appropriatecare of the newborn is to avoidhypothermia from the moment ofbirth, by using procedures that willprevent heat loss and maintain thetemperature within the normalrange, thus conserving the infant’senergy for growth and development.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  10. 10. Hypothermia can be prevented by(1) drying the infant immediately afterbirth,(2) placing indirect skin-to-skin contactwith mother,(3) Covering both (mother & baby) withheavy and clean blanket.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  11. 11. warm chainThe “warm chain” is a conceptintroduced to describe a set of interlinkedprocedures, which will minimize thelikelihood of hypothermia. Failure toimplement any one of them will break thechain and increase the possibility ofundesirable cooling of the infant.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  12. 12. The link in the “warm chain” includes:(1) Warm delivery room(2) Immediate drying(3) Skin-to-skin contact(4) Breast-feeding(5) Postpone bathing and weighing of thenewborn(6) Appropriate clothing and bedding(7) Keeping mother and baby together(8) Warm resuscitation(9) Training and awarenesswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  13. 13. Conclusion If all newborn infants, including preterm and smallinfants are carefully dried and given to their mother inskin-to-skin contact immediately after delivery, the riskof hypothermia is greatly reduced.There is sufficient evidences to conclude thatimmediate post delivery hypothermia is harmful tonewborn, increasing the risk of morbidity andmortality. The information presented here provides a basis fromwhich managers and health care providers can developtheir own plans and procedures for the prevention andmanagement of hypothermia in the newbornwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  14. 14. Thank youwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in

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