Linux distributions. Ubuntu Server

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Presentation about Linux distributions with some details about Ubuntu Server Edition

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Linux distributions. Ubuntu Server

  1. 1. Linux distributions. Ubuntu Server Dragoş Acostăchioaie http://www.unixinside.org dragos@unixinside.org Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  2. 2. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What is a Linux distribution? A package which consists in: ✗ the Linux kernel ✗ libraries and utilities ✗ lot of applications ✗ installation and configuration tools Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  3. 3. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org Types of Linux distributions Target platform: ✗ for desktops ✗ for servers ✗ for laptops and netbooks ✗ for tablets and mobile phones ✗ for embedded systems Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  4. 4. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org Types of Linux distributions License and availability: ✗ commercial (RedHat Enterprise, SuSe, ...) ✗ non-commercial (Ubuntu, Fedora, ...) Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  5. 5. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org Types of Linux distributions Addressability: ✗ home and office users ✗ professional users (programmers, admins, ...) ✗ specialized users (scientists, chemists, teachers, ...) Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  6. 6. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org Types of Linux distributions Purpose: ✗ general use ✗ specialized functionalities (routers, clusters, ...) Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  7. 7. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org Types of Linux distributions Live Linux distributions ✗ can be booted from USB flash drive, CD, ... ✗ no need to install it ✗ useful for trying it and for demonstrations ✗ useful to repair a broken system Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  8. 8. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org How many Linux distributions exists? ✗ over 300 maintained distributions (distrowatch.com) ✗ many distributions are based on other distribution http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Linux_Distribution_Timeline.svg ✗ the most important distributions are: ✗ Debian ✗ RedHat/Fedora ✗ Ubuntu ✗ Slackware Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  9. 9. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What is the package management ? ✗ a package is a set of files needed for an application (executable files, scripts, libraries, configuration files, documentation, ...) ✗ relations between packages ✗ one of the most important part of a Linux distribution is the package management system ✗ DEB – used by Debian-based distributions (Ubuntu, Linux Mint, ...) ✗ RPM – used by Fedora-based distributions (CentOS, OpenSUSE, ...) ✗ Pacman – used by Arch-based distributions (Chakra, Bridge, ...) ✗ pkgtool – used by Slackware-based distributions (Kongoni, VectorLinux, ...) Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  10. 10. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org Why are so many Linux distributions? Different development model: ✗ Windows/MacOS – centralized (corporate) development ✗ FreeBSD – only one distribution, important decisions are taken by a small group of people ✗ Linux – only kernel development is controlled by a group of people (headed by Linus Torvalds). Everyone is free to make it's own Linux distribution Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  11. 11. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org How to choose a Linux distribution? There are no rules. Some hints: ✗ what are you going to do with it? ✗ how easy is to install it? ✗ how good is the documentation? ✗ have a strong community base (easy to solve problems using forums, blogs, IRC, ...) ✗ is a wide-spread distribution? (larger application availability, more tested, ...) Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  12. 12. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org How to choose a Linux distribution? There are no rules. Some hints: ✗ how new are the package versions? (up-to-date with new facilities, good security, ...) ✗ how often does it change? ✗ how easy is to update packages? ✗ how easy is to update to a newer distribution version? Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  13. 13. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org How to choose a Linux distribution? In many cases, choosing a Linux distribution is a matter of taste. Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  14. 14. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What are the most popular Linux distributions? Debian ✗ very large community base ✗ good security; very stable, tested and reliable ✗ slow release cycle (1-3 years), in three branches: stable, testing, unstable ✗ very good for professionals ✗ it supports a big number of platforms (11) ✗ lacks the latest Linux technologies Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  15. 15. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What are the most popular Linux distributions? Ubuntu – based on Debian ✗ Kubuntu – the KDE version of Ubuntu ✗ Xubuntu – Xfce version of Ubuntu ✗ Lubuntu – LXDE version of Ubuntu ✗ Edubuntu – educational version of Ubuntu ✗ Ubuntu server – server version of Ubuntu Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  16. 16. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What are the most popular Linux distributions? Ubuntu – based on Debian ✗ very large community base ✗ good security (LTS have 3-5 years of security updates) ✗ relatively short, predictable (6 months), release cycle ✗ very good for beginners (easy to install, good documentation, ...) ✗ project started and financed by Mark Shuttleworth, a charismatic South-african multimillionaire, former Debian developer Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  17. 17. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What are the most popular Linux distributions? Linux Mint – based on Ubuntu ✗ large community base ✗ many own-built elements (artwork, graphical utilities, ...) ✗ doesn't have a fixed release schedule ✗ very good for beginners (easy to install, good documentation, ...) ✗ community editions doesn't include all the features and lacks security updates Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  18. 18. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What are the most popular Linux distributions? Fedora ✗ very large community base ✗ good security ✗ predictable release cycle ✗ focus on enterprise features, less on desktop usability ✗ good for professional users ✗ sponsored by RedHat, the biggest Linux company Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  19. 19. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What are the most popular Linux distributions? CentOS – based on RedHat ✗ relatively large community base ✗ good security, but not always up-to-date ✗ oriented on server usage, very stable, tested and reliable ✗ lacks the latest Linux technologies Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  20. 20. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What are the most popular Linux distributions? ArchLinux ✗ follows the KISS (Keep It Simple, Stupid) philosophy ✗ very good package management system; it permits to install the packages from source code ✗ lot of customization and tweaking options ✗ very good documentation ✗ focused on professional users ✗ doesn't have a fixed release schedule ✗ sometimes unstable Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  21. 21. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What are the most popular Linux distributions? Slackware ✗ follows the simplicity philosophy ✗ rudimentary package management system ✗ very stable clean as bug-free, used as core system for custom solutions ✗ complex upgrade procedures, limited number of available packages ✗ good for professional users Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  22. 22. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What are the most popular Linux distributions? OpenSUSE ✗ large community base, very popular in Germany and other European countries ✗ good security, well maintained ✗ predictable release cycle ✗ good for all kind of users; very good documentation ✗ good configuration tools ✗ resource-heavy desktop and graphical utilities ✗ originally based on Slackware, uses RPM package manager Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  23. 23. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What are the most popular Linux distributions? PCLinuxOS ✗ relatively large community ✗ good security ✗ doesn't have a fixed release schedule; conservative politics ✗ very good for beginners; includes out-of-the-box support for graphic drivers, browser plugins and media codecs ✗ doesn't include default support for non-english languages ✗ originally based on Mandrake, uses RPM Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  24. 24. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org What are the most popular Linux distributions? Mageia ✗ growing community base, very new distribution (since 2010) ✗ predictable release cycle (9 months) ✗ very good for beginners (easy to install) ✗ very good central configuration tool ✗ very good support for many languages ✗ continuation of Mandriva, uses RPM Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  25. 25. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org Ubuntu Server Server and desktop differences ✗ both editions uses the same package repository ✗ Server edition doesn't have X Window ✗ Server edition have a different installation process (it uses a text user interface) ✗ Server edition have different kernel options ✗ Server edition doesn't have graphical configuration tools Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  26. 26. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org Ubuntu Server Advantages: ✗ very clean ✗ good security (security updates, long term security updates for LTS releases – 5 years) ✗ stable and reliable, well tested ✗ ✗ good documentation ✗ easy to install ✗ lot of packages in Ubuntu repositories Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  27. 27. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org Ubuntu Server Ubuntu Server is certified with big companies hardware: ✗ Lenovo ✗ Dell ✗ IBM ✗ HP ✗ Intel Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  28. 28. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org Ubuntu Server Ubuntu Server includes virtualization support: ✗ KVM - used on Intel and AMD hardware) ✗ Xen, Qemu – for other hardware Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  29. 29. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org Ubuntu Server Ubuntu Server is ready for cloud computing: ✗ 13.04 offers a complete solution for building highly available, flexible and secure OpenStack production clouds ✗ easy and fast to install a OpenStack cloud Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013
  30. 30. Dragoş Acostăchioaie - http://www.unixinside.org Ubuntu Server Any questions? Şcoala de vară “Informatică la castel”, Macea, 26 – 31 august 2013

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