Report GFZ


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  • Report GFZ

    1. 1. Morphometric analysis of landscape and drainage basin evolution as an indicator of active tectonics in the W-Pontides, Northern Turkey Christoph Kunze acknowledgements: H. Echtler, S. Hoth, T. Schildgen, C. Yildirm
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Where are the W-Pontides? </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic placement and main questions </li></ul><ul><li>Geological evolution and tectonic setting </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and methods (Geomorphometry) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geomorphometry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working tasks/steps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Examination area <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lat 41°00`N to 42°10`N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lon 32°10`E to 35°40`E </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elevation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Pontides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>highest summits (2550m) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>average: ~600m </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>“ The neotectonic regime of the areas lying north of the North Anatolian fault … has not been studied in detail; largely of the neotectonic structures of the region are neither as active nor as spectactular …” </li></ul><ul><li>I. KUSCU et al 2004 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Geological evolution modified from Yilmaz (1997) modified from Yilmaz (1997)
    6. 6. Geological evolution modified from Yilmaz (1997) modified from Yilmaz (1997)
    7. 7. Geological evolution
    8. 8. Geological evolution <ul><li>NAFZ development in Late Miocene-Pliocene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is NOT southern boundary of Pontides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coeval rise of Pontides till Quarternary </li></ul><ul><li>Pontides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-W trending giant horst </li></ul></ul>Görür, N. & Tuysuz, O. Early Miocene G
    9. 9. Tectonic setting Şengör ( 198 0) and Koçyiğit ( 1991 )
    10. 10. Summary & Main Questions <ul><li>Geological summary </li></ul><ul><li>Alpine orogeny vitally important </li></ul><ul><li>Since Eocene acute tectonic development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra montane basins & volcanics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late Miocene = Neo-Tethyan oceanic realms obliterated </li></ul><ul><li>present-day </li></ul><ul><li>> escape tectonics </li></ul><ul><li>Main questions </li></ul><ul><li>Active tectonic in N-Anatolian plateau, central Pontides? </li></ul><ul><li>NW-SE & W-E movement in central Pontides leads to strain/tectonic uplift? </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of NAF? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Tools and methods <ul><li>(Geo)Morphology </li></ul><ul><li>qualitative morphology </li></ul><ul><li>quantitative morphology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defining and measuring parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantification of landforms to derive information about past forming processes </li></ul><ul><li>Coevally intrument of describing AND explanation </li></ul>modified from Pike (1995), Rasemann et al. (2004) Geosciences Computer Science Mathematics Geomorphometry Geomorphology Hydrology Ecology Geometry Topography Geostatistics GIS Image Processing Pattern recognition Land surface modelling Land surface parametrisation Land surface analysis Enviromental science Oceanography Space exploration Military applications Earth science Civil engineering
    12. 12. Analysis structure <ul><li>primary parameter </li></ul><ul><li>cell based, neighbourhood function </li></ul><ul><li>moving window (focal function) </li></ul><ul><li>slope, aspect, curvature </li></ul><ul><li>complex primary parameter </li></ul><ul><li>DEM-based calculations </li></ul><ul><li>information of geomorphological structure </li></ul><ul><li>darinage basins, stream network </li></ul>Schmidt and Dikau (1999) )
    13. 13. <ul><li>Local relief, slope, curvature </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage basin generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage density, elevation relief ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter, perimeter, circularity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Streamnet generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinuosity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>topographic profiles/transects </li></ul>Morphometric parameters primary parameter complex primary parameter others OR external objects
    14. 14. Tasks clarify evolution of landscape in W-Pontides, especially Kastamonu basin tectonic makers of landscape evolution field support analyse <ul><li>morphometric parameters </li></ul><ul><li>drainage basins </li></ul><ul><li>N-S & E-W transects </li></ul><ul><li>longitudinal river profiles </li></ul>
    15. 15. Database <ul><li>SRTM3 data (3‘‘ world-averaged) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pit/hole-filled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>72m resolution, resampled to 35m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>source: LP DAAC ( link ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ASTER data (3b/3n) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>souce: LP DAAC EOS ( link ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gelogical maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>georeferenced TIFs > digitised </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Primary parameter <ul><li>Slope </li></ul><ul><li>1st derivative of surface </li></ul><ul><li>Curvature </li></ul><ul><li>2nd derivative of surface </li></ul>ESRI modified from ESRI
    17. 24. Primary parameter <ul><li>Slope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>zones of acute slope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fields of high plateaus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Curvature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge of slope in opposite direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local relief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flat centre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>> disturbed by sole islands OR along lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>surrounded by high string ranges </li></ul></ul>
    18. 25. Complex primary parameter <ul><li>Drainage basin generation </li></ul><ul><li>Stream network generation </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>499 basins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 subbasins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>basins area > 1km² </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area range 1km² to 978km² </li></ul></ul><ul><li>entire stream length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L e = 22763km </li></ul></ul>
    19. 26. Complex primary parameter <ul><li>Surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter angle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculated by SHAMOS Algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circulation index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[Perimeter (P)]² / Area (A) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drainage density = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream length (L) / Area (A) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elevation relief ratio = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(mean e - min e ) / (max e – min e ) </li></ul></ul>
    20. 31. knickpoint analysis <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knickpoints and knick zones are steep reaches in river longitudinal profiles that typically form in bedrock channels in response to base-level fall or where the channel encounters a relatively resistant substrate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frankel et al 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>identification for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rock differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>folding/faulting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abrupt discharge turn </li></ul></ul>Frankel et al (2007)
    21. 32. knickpoint analysis <ul><li>Power-law scaling between local channel slope & contributing drainage area : </li></ul><ul><li>S = k s * A - θ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S local channel slope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>k s steepness index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A upstream drainage area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>θ concavity index </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on empirical relations </li></ul><ul><li>θ independent of rock uplift rate U, assuming U is uniform, however … </li></ul><ul><li>U ~ k s </li></ul>S. Hoth
    22. 34. outlook <ul><li>Shows up evolution of drainage basins </li></ul><ul><li>Area-wide calculation will follow </li></ul><ul><li>Gives hopefully an Insight to </li></ul><ul><li>steps of drainage eveolution. </li></ul>Hypsometric curves of drainage basins of different stages Rasmann 2003
    23. 35. outlook <ul><li>ASTER data analysis </li></ul><ul><li>DEM with 30m resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping terraces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refine basin analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spectral analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithology </li></ul></ul>
    24. 36. conclusion
    25. 37. Thanks! … time for discussion!?