AlternateAlternateThoughtsThoughts
ononYankeeYankee
Stress RelievingStress RelievingStress RelievingStress Relieving
By:
D...
ObjectiveObjective
During manufacturing, some steps are
taken to improve the performance of
yankee over its lifetime.
Howe...
Design of ConventionalYankeeDesign of ConventionalYankee
TypicalTypical
Yankee.
AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress
Releivin...
Overview of ProcessOverview of Process
T
• InitialTesting
P
• Plate & Dish Ends Bending
P
• Plate Bending &Welding
• Dish ...
Stress RelievingStress Relieving
The major problem with stress relieving is
that though it is done to remove
unwanted stre...
Force on Dish EndForce on Dish End
Steam pressure inside yankee imparts
great forces on both dish ends.
The force can be c...
Expansion of Dish EndsExpansion of Dish Ends
Due to the geometry, expansion tends to
increase diameter of dish ends.
As a ...
Tie RodsTie Rods
Again, the tie rods expand with increase
in temperature during operation.
That is why it becomes importan...
Tie Rods Under TensionTie Rods Under Tension
This way, tie rods remain under tension
for long duration.
Due to increased t...
Tie Rod Tension and SRTie Rod Tension and SR
The problem appears with stress relieving
after yankee is fabricated complete...
Partial SRPartial SR
Some yankee suppliers have initiated a
shortcut for SR.
They insulate yankee from outside and
fire it...
Internal HeatingInternal Heating
Requirement of heat can be calculated for
raising the temperature of a yankee cylinder
fr...
Effect of Internal HeatingEffect of Internal Heating
In fact, in most of the cases, temperature
does not increase more tha...
So,Which SR is Better?So,Which SR is Better?
Normally, one has to choose between the
two options. One does more harm than
...
Why SR?Why SR?
Remove Surface Stresses
Reduce Welding DefectsReduce Welding Defects
Maintain Tie Rod Stresses
AlternateTho...
Surface StressesSurface Stresses
Surface stresses develop during the
bending of plates and plate to plate joint
welding.
P...
Welding DefectsWelding Defects
As far as welding defects are concerned,
today good welding techniques ensure a
defect weld...
Tie Rod StressesTie Rod Stresses
Protection of tie rod stresses remains
problem with conventional SR.
Is it possible, if w...
SR Without Tie RodsSR Without Tie Rods
Only the area
in the vicinity
of welding
joint isjoint is
subjected to
SR.
Alternat...
SR with Few Tie RodsSR with Few Tie Rods
Another approach is to mount only a few
say 4, tie rods mounted, and carrying out...
ComparisonComparison
SR of Shell
Only
Treats shell
SR with few
Tie Rods
Treats shell as
Treats shell
only.
Uses lower
cost...
InvitationInvitation
Since long, yankee cylinders have been made
of cast iron. However, in India, there are
many manufactu...
ThankYou.ThankYou.
D K Singhal
deveshksinghal@gmail.com
AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress
Releiving,August, 2014
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Alternate thoughts on yankee stress relieving

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While fabricating a carbon steel yankee dryer, stress relieving (SR) is very important. This presentation aims to present some alternate ideas on how to do SR in a better way so that its side effects are minimized.

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Alternate thoughts on yankee stress relieving

  1. 1. AlternateAlternateThoughtsThoughts ononYankeeYankee Stress RelievingStress RelievingStress RelievingStress Relieving By: D K Singhal deveshksinghal@gmail.com
  2. 2. ObjectiveObjective During manufacturing, some steps are taken to improve the performance of yankee over its lifetime. However, some of the steps may be unnecessary, some requiring more focusunnecessary, some requiring more focus while some are really useless, and occasionally harm more than their benefits. The present work is aimed to discuss some of these. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  3. 3. Design of ConventionalYankeeDesign of ConventionalYankee TypicalTypical Yankee. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  4. 4. Overview of ProcessOverview of Process T • InitialTesting P • Plate & Dish Ends Bending P • Plate Bending &Welding • Dish Ends & JournalWeldingD • Dish Ends & JournalWelding R • RibsWelding T • Tie Rods Mounting S • Stress Relieving G • Grinding AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  5. 5. Stress RelievingStress Relieving The major problem with stress relieving is that though it is done to remove unwanted stresses, yet, useful stresses are also removed in the SR process.also removed in the SR process. Let us see how- AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  6. 6. Force on Dish EndForce on Dish End Steam pressure inside yankee imparts great forces on both dish ends. The force can be calculated as a multiplication of area and steam pressure.multiplication of area and steam pressure. Typical values exceed 500-700Tons. As a result, dish ends tend to expand. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  7. 7. Expansion of Dish EndsExpansion of Dish Ends Due to the geometry, expansion tends to increase diameter of dish ends. As a result, yankee ends tend to swell. To counter this process, ribs are weldedTo counter this process, ribs are welded on dish ends. Furthermore tie rods are used to connect (tie) both dish ends. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  8. 8. Tie RodsTie Rods Again, the tie rods expand with increase in temperature during operation. That is why it becomes important to mount these tie rods under tension.mount these tie rods under tension. For this tie rods are stretched by using cap nuts at both ends.After the tie rods are mounted properly, nuts are welded with tie rod and dish ends for safety. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  9. 9. Tie Rods Under TensionTie Rods Under Tension This way, tie rods remain under tension for long duration. Due to increased temperature inside yankee during operation, this tensionyankee during operation, this tension keeps on reducing slightly, however, the behavior is very slow at operating temperatures. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  10. 10. Tie Rod Tension and SRTie Rod Tension and SR The problem appears with stress relieving after yankee is fabricated completely. At 620-630˚C, almost all (>90%) the stresses are removed.stresses are removed. This way, the benefits of mounting tie rods under tension are lost completely. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  11. 11. Partial SRPartial SR Some yankee suppliers have initiated a shortcut for SR. They insulate yankee from outside and fire it from inside.fire it from inside. This being a crude method does not give adequate results in terms of yankee surface de-stressing. That is why, I have given the heading as “Partial SR”. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  12. 12. Internal HeatingInternal Heating Requirement of heat can be calculated for raising the temperature of a yankee cylinder from ambient to SR condition. For the same, quantity of fuel can also be calculated. For this amount of fuel, requirement of calculated. For this amount of fuel, requirement of stoichiometric air can be calculated. It can be shown that the calculated quantity of air cannot be fed to yankee through manhole, specially, if the exhaust has also being expected to come from the same manhole. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  13. 13. Effect of Internal HeatingEffect of Internal Heating In fact, in most of the cases, temperature does not increase more than 300-320˚C by internal heating. At these temperature levels, only lessAt these temperature levels, only less than 10-15% stresses are removed. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  14. 14. So,Which SR is Better?So,Which SR is Better? Normally, one has to choose between the two options. One does more harm than benefits, and the other does nothing except wasting money.except wasting money. I think, it becomes necessity to list our priorities. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  15. 15. Why SR?Why SR? Remove Surface Stresses Reduce Welding DefectsReduce Welding Defects Maintain Tie Rod Stresses AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  16. 16. Surface StressesSurface Stresses Surface stresses develop during the bending of plates and plate to plate joint welding. Plate to dish end welding stresses do notPlate to dish end welding stresses do not result in significant problems. This way, priority is surface to surface welding joint, and the surface to dish end welding joint becomes secondary. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  17. 17. Welding DefectsWelding Defects As far as welding defects are concerned, today good welding techniques ensure a defect welding joint. Furthermore, quality of weld can be easilyFurthermore, quality of weld can be easily checked by UT (ultrasonic testing) and MPT (magnetic particle testing).These tests do not cost much and can be done easily. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  18. 18. Tie Rod StressesTie Rod Stresses Protection of tie rod stresses remains problem with conventional SR. Is it possible, if we do the SR withoutIs it possible, if we do the SR without having tie rods mounted? Or, if we do the SR with only a few tie rods mounted? AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  19. 19. SR Without Tie RodsSR Without Tie Rods Only the area in the vicinity of welding joint isjoint is subjected to SR. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  20. 20. SR with Few Tie RodsSR with Few Tie Rods Another approach is to mount only a few say 4, tie rods mounted, and carrying out SR as usual.After SR is done completely, these tie rods are removed and all the tiethese tie rods are removed and all the tie rods are mounted in position. In the next sheet, a comparison between the two is given. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  21. 21. ComparisonComparison SR of Shell Only Treats shell SR with few Tie Rods Treats shell as Treats shell only. Uses lower cost and time Treats shell as well as shell to dish end joints. More cost and time is required. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  22. 22. InvitationInvitation Since long, yankee cylinders have been made of cast iron. However, in India, there are many manufacturers who are making carbon steel fabricated yankee cylinders. Worldwide also, some new companies haveWorldwide also, some new companies have emerged over the past couple of decades who have gained a good reputation in supplying good quality and better results. Through this presentation, I invite all concerned professionals to develop a good SR approach for yankee cylinder. AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014
  23. 23. ThankYou.ThankYou. D K Singhal deveshksinghal@gmail.com AlternateThoughts onYankee Stress Releiving,August, 2014

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