Fabric training for retail staff extended version


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Since quite a few people found fabric training useful, here you are with the extended version which has a few more detail that I think makes it better and more complete. Thank you.

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Fabric training for retail staff extended version

  2. 2. Outline   Fibers     Fiber Classification Properties Characteristics Identification Methods  Yarns  Spinning processes  Identification of different types of yarn structure  Knits  Identification of various types of common knit fabrics  Wovens  Identification of various types of common woven fabrics  Care Labelling System  International labelling systems and symbols Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 2
  3. 3. FIBRES   Fibres are the base unit of all textile materials and products.  They are slender thread-like structures that can be spun into yarns and thread, and woven, knitted or felted into materials. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 3
  4. 4. Fibre Classifications   There are two types of fibres used in making textile products – those that come from the natural environment and those that are manufactured called man-made fibres. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 4
  5. 5. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 5
  6. 6. Natural Fibres   Natural fibres come from plants, animals and minerals. They usually have short fibres, called staple fibres. The exception to this rule is silk, a natural fibre whose continuous filaments are up to one kilometre in length! Sources of natural fibres  Cotton from the cotton plant  Linen from the flax plant  Wool from sheep  Silk from silkworms Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 6
  7. 7. Natural Plant Fibres   Cotton – King of fibres  Linen         Ramie Jute Hemp Pineapple Coir Banana Kapok Bamboo Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 7
  8. 8. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 8
  9. 9. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 9
  10. 10. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 10
  11. 11. Cotton  Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fibre that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium.  The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds. The English name derives from the Arabic (al) qutn , which began to be used circa 1400 CE. The Spanish word, "algodón", is likewise derived from the Arabic. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 11
  12. 12. Cotton   The fibre is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of cotton fabric dated from 5000 BCE have been excavated in Mexico and the Indus Valley Civilization (modern day Pakistan). Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that so lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, and it is the most widely used natural fibre cloth in clothing today.  Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world's arable land. China is the world's largest producer of cotton, but most of this is used domestically. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 12
  13. 13. Varieties of cotton  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sea Island Cotton Egyptian Cotton Pima Cotton American Upland Long Staple American Upland Short Staple Asia Short Staple Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 13
  14. 14. Properties of Cotton              It is soft It “breathes” It absorbs moisture It is comfortable It is strong and durable It is versatile It performs well It has good colour retention if dyed at the fibre stage It is easy to print on It wrinkles easily and requires heavy ironing It is easy to care for, easy to wash It is a natural resource that is fully renewable Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 14
  15. 15. Linen  Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 15
  16. 16. Properties of Linen        It is the strongest of the vegetable fibers. Known for the coolness and freshness in hot weather. It is smooth and gets softer the more it is washed. It has a high natural luster. It is strong and durable and dries quickly It has poor elasticity Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 16
  17. 17.  Linen is one of the oldest textiles sorts in the world which is produced from linen fiber. Even 5000 years B.C. linen garments were worn in Egypt. Linen is much more stronger and glossy than cotton. It has anti-allergic properties, good to absorb water, permeable for air and cool fabric. The Lithuanian people were growing linen many years ago. The national Lithuanian songs and tales are mentioning about linen: linen growing, snatching and spinning. The linen is named like sainted plant, sward of sun and corn of women.   Linen fibre is strong and not elastic, so linen fabrics crumple very easy. After each washing the fabric becomes softer and less wrinkly.  It is better to iron linen fabric with hot iron from the backside.  The linen fabric does not turn yellowish, it becomes whiter and gentler after time.  Linen fibre goes damp and dry very soon, that is why the fabric warms during cold night and cools the body during hot midday.  Linen fabric is resistant to static electric load. Also linen fibre is used for protective garments of the spacemen and for protection of the spaceships outside.  Linen fabric makes the best microclimate for the skin, i.e. it is permeable to air, absorbs dampness and sweat very quickly.  Linen fabrics are three times stronger than cotton fabrics.  Linen fabrics are five times more resistant to rubbing than cotton fabrics.  Linen fabrics absorb dampness and sweat better than cotton fabrics.  Linen fabric is ecological. It is the product which does not leave any waste and does not make any harm to nature and ecology. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 17
  18. 18. Natural Protein Fibers   Wool  Silk  Mohair  Cashmere  Camel  Alpaca  Llama  Vicuna  Musk Ox - Qiviut  Angora Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 18
  19. 19. Wool   Wool is the textile fibre obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.  Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped, it is elastic, and it grows in staples (clusters). Sheared or pulled from the skin of sheep. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 19
  20. 20. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 20
  21. 21. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 21
  22. 22. Types of Wool   Camel Hair As you would expect, it's made from a camel. The undercoat of a camel is extremely soft and fine, making it a good choice for clothing. Camel hair provides the best insulation of all the wools so it's usually used for coats. However, it's relatively weak and can become worn easily.  Qiviut This taupe-grey coloured fibre comes from the Alaskan domesticated musk ox and is as soft as cashmere. While it weighs the same as sheep's wool, it's eight times warmer. You'll see it used in sweaters, scarves, gloves, and hats.  Vicuna The most expensive of all specialty wools, vicuna sells for anywhere from $1,300 to $3,000 per yard. However, if you're lucky enough to afford it, you'll experience the softest and finest of fabrics. As the Peruvian government has strict guidelines on harvesting and exporting vicuna, it's also one of the rarest. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 22
  23. 23. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 23
  24. 24. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 24
  25. 25. Types of Wool   Merino Merino sheep, known for having softer coats than others, are the source of this soft and popular wool. It draws or "wicks" moisture away from the skin on one end of the fiber and repels outside moisture on the other.  Alpaca Supplied by the alpaca, this fine silky fabric is warmer than sheep wool. Look for it in sweaters, coats, gloves, scarves and sometimes in upholstery.  Mohair This lustrous fibre is made from the hair of the Angora goat. Like merino, mohair fibres are moisture-wicking and good insulators, but they have more sheen which makes fabric made from them more attractive. It's also wears better than sheep's wool.  Llama The llama produces a fibre which is naturally glistening. Although they're related to alpacas, llamas have fibres that are coarser and weaker. But they do give good warmth without being too heavy. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 25
  26. 26. Types of Wool   Angora Made from the hair of the Angora rabbit, this heat-retaining fibre is ideal for thermal clothing. As it's lightweight as well as soft, it's very comfortable to wear.  Cashmere. Like mohair, cashmere comes from the hair of a goat, the Kashmir goat. Soft to the touch so it's a pleasure to wear, it's also are extremely adept at keeping you warm. Cashmere is the most common type of fine wool used in clothing  Cashgora. This hybrid wool comes from a crossbreed of a Cashmere buck and an Angora doe. You'll find it finer than mohair but less so than cashmere. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 26
  27. 27. Properties of Wool            Warm and comfortable to wear Wrinkle resistance Good resiliency when dry Good drape and elasticity Damaged by chlorine bleach May shrink unless treated Looses strength when wet Shows pilling effect Poor lustre and expensive Felting of wool Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 27
  28. 28. Silk   Silk is a natural protein fibre, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fibre of silk is composed of fibroin and produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. The best-known type of silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism-like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles, thus producing different colours.  Silks are produced by several other insects, but generally only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing. There has been some research into other silks, which differ at the molecular level. Many silks are mainly produced by the larvae of insects undergoing complete metamorphosis, but some adult insects such as webspinners produce silk, and some insects such as raspy crickets produce silk throughout their lives. Silk production also occurs in Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants), silverfish, mayflies, thrips, leafhoppers, beetles, lacewings, fleas, flies and midges. Other types of arthropod produce silk, most notably various arachnids such as spiders (see spider silk). Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 28
  29. 29.   Silk is called Queen of Fibers  Silk is a natural protein secreted by the larvae of moths  Twin filaments of protein fibroin are secreted and bound together in a single strand with a protein gum knows as sericin. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 29
  30. 30. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 30
  31. 31. Types of Silk   Raw silk - Silk in its natural form is covered with a gum called Sericin. Raw silk still has all the gum which is dull & stiff and can be in many colours. Various processes can be used to remove the sericin to reveal the lustrous fibre beneath.  Wild Silk - This is usually not white and is from the tannins from eating plants other than the mulberry tree. It can be courser than cultivated silk, making it better for high wear items. It is cheaper. Wild silk cocoons are usually gathered after the moth has emerged, therefore the staples or fibres will have been cut, making it only suitable for spinning. It is also known as Tussah Silk  Cultivated Silk - This has become a highly technical and controlled industry where silk worms are raised and fed mainly on mulberry leaves to produce a near white coloured silk. Often the chrysalis or grub is destroyed before it has a chance to eat its way out of the cocoon, so that the fibre can be reeled off in one long fibre. See also Reeled Silk & Thrown Silk Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 31
  32. 32. Types of Silk   Thrown Silk - Made from the long filaments of silk up to 1500 mts long, and is nearly always made from cultivated silk. It is more expensive due to the extra work required in reeling off the single filaments. It requires very little twist so retains more lustrousness, and can be woven into fabric that are almost transparent. Also called Reeled silk. Some types of thrown silk fabrics include: voile, georgette, organza and crepe.  Dupion Silk - This is silk which retains the lumps where two threads join. It is a characteristic which is admired and should not be considered a flaw.  Noil Silk - Made from very short staple and contains little tangle balls of fibre Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 32
  33. 33. Types of Silk   Reeled Silk - See also Thrown Silk and Cultivated Silk  Spun Silk - Shorter staples can be carded and woven, much the same way as cotton or wool. Includes varieties such as Shantung, Mutka and Noil.  Cut Silk - See Spun Silk Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 33
  34. 34. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 34
  35. 35. Types of Silk   Mulberry – This type of silk is obtained from the silk worm Bombyx mori L. that primarily survives on the leaves of the mulberry plant. These silk worms are cultivated and reared indoors. Besides this variety, the others are usually called non-mulberry silks. India is one of the primary producers of mulberry silk.  Tasar – Pronounced Tussah, this is copper brownish in colour and is slightly coarse in texture. Tasar is mainly used for the upholstery and interior décor. Though it does not have the sheen of mulberry silk there is a unique appeal about this variety. It is obtained from the silkworm Antheraea mylitta which mainly survive on the food plants Asan and Arjun. Unlike the mulberry variety, these worms are reared outdoors in the open.  Oak Tasar – This is a finer variety of the previous one and is obtained from the silk worms Antheraea proyeli J. and Antheraea pernyi. China is the major producer of this silk type. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 35
  36. 36. Types of Silk   Eri – Eri is a unique variety and is spun from open ended cocoons. The silk worm species Philosamia ricini that thrives on castor leaves generate this variety. It is also primarily produced in India and used for the manufacture of wraps (called chaddars).  Muga – This has a lovely golden yellow colour and generated from the semi-domesticated multivoltine silkworm, Antheraea assamensis. They thrive on the leaves of aromatic plants Som and Saolu and found in Assam, India. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 36
  37. 37. Silk fabric Types   Charmeuse – This silk type is one of the most widely recognized fabrics that are available in the market today. It is typically characterized by its lustrous shine and sumptuous feel and is primarily used for the manufacture of skirts, dresses, eveningwear, nightgowns, lingerie, and gently shaped tops  Crepe de Chine or CDC – This kind of silk has a „matte‟ surface and a „pebbled‟ texture; besides it is also extremely durable and wrinkle resistant. Due to its light weight, it is a hot favorite among the designers and is primarily used for fashionable and sophisticated skirts, dresses, suits and evening wear. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 37
  38. 38. Charmeuse CDC Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 38
  39. 39. Silk fabric Types   Filament silk or reeled silk - Made of individual strands that vary in length, this versatile knit fabric maximizes silk‟s superb ability to insulate your body and wick away moisture. It is characterized by its light in weight yet highly durable. Its elastic and luxurious texture makes it ideal for the chic and opulent lingeries slips, and camisoles. The natural elastic quality of this fabric ensures all day comfort and is perfect for beneath casual & business clothes.  Georgette – Georgette reminds one of crepe de Chine. It is soft and lustrous that drapes very easily and falls into soft ripples. It is characterized by a „grainy‟ texture and is used for the manufacture of dresses, skirts, blouses, tops and evening wear.  Habutai – “Habutai”, meaning „soft and downy‟ in Japanese was first used for the making of Kimonos. It is soft, light, and lustrous with a very graceful drape and smooth surface and is utilized for making blazers, skirts, lingerie, suits, quilts, jacket linings, dresses and evening wear. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 39
  40. 40. Georgette Habutai Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 40
  41. 41. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 41
  42. 42. Properties of Silk           Most lustrous and luxurious. Lightweight and water absorbent. Good dye ability with rich colours. Stronger and moderately wrinkle resistant. Excellent drape and luxurious hand Expensive. Damaged by chemical exposure. Looses strength when wet. Silk treated with formaldehyde shows high strength, higher resistance and reduced solubility to chemicals. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 42
  43. 43. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 43
  44. 44. Man-made fibres   Man-made fibres are classified into three classes, those made from natural polymers, those made from synthetic polymers and those made from inorganic materials. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 44
  45. 45. Fibres from Natural Polymers   The most common natural polymer fibre is viscose, which is made from the polymer cellulose obtained mostly from farmed trees. Other cellulose-based fibres are Lyocell, Modal, Acetate and Triacetate. Less common natural polymer fibres are made from rubber, alginic acid and regenerated protein. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 45
  46. 46. Fibres from Synthetic Polymers   There are very many synthetic fibres i.e. organic fibres based on petrochemicals. The most common are polyester, polyamide (often called nylon), acrylic and modacrylic, polypropylene, the segmented polyurethanes which are elastic fibres known as elastanes (or spandex in the USA), and speciality high-tenacity fibres such as the high performance aramids and UHMwPE (Ultra High Molecular weight PolyEthylene). Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 46
  47. 47. Fibres from Inorganic Materials   The inorganic man-made fibres are fibres made from materials such as glass, metal, carbon or ceramic. These fibres are very often used to reinforce plastics to form composites. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 47
  48. 48. Viscose   There are several fibres made from the naturally occurring polymer cellulose, which is present in all plants. Mostly cellulose from wood is used to produce the fibres but sometimes cellulose from short cotton fibres, called linters, is the source. By far the most common cellulosic fibre is viscose fibre.  Viscose is defined by BISFA as being "a cellulose fibre obtained by the viscose process". It is known as rayon fibre in the USA. Although several cellulosic fibres had been made experimentally during the 19th century, it was not until 1905 that what has become the most popular cellulosic fibre, viscose, was produced. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 48
  49. 49. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 49
  50. 50. Properties  Acetate:  Acetate is soft and silky and drapes well  It dyes well but does not absorb moisture easily which means it dries quickly.  Acetate is resistant to mildew and shrinkage and is often used to make linings because it absorbs moisture from the body.  Acetate is also used to make home furnishings such as drapes and bedspreads. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 50
  51. 51. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 51
  52. 52. Properties  Acrylic  Is soft and luxurious and also drapes well.  It is not a heavy fabric but it gives warmth.  It was originally used to make outdoor goods but now is common in clothing and carpet although pure acrylic can result in pilling.  It can be dyed to bright colours.  Acrylic is made from a petrochemical called acrylontrile. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 52
  53. 53. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 53
  54. 54. Properties  Latex  Derives from the latex fibre which comes from the milky or colourless sap of certain plants.  It can be mixed with other fibres to make materials such as spandex.  It is resistant to light and heat and is waterproof.  Examples of latex products include gloves, soles and mattress pads. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 54
  55. 55. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 55
  56. 56. Properties  Nylon  Is a polymide which is made from petroleum.  It is durable and lightweight.  Nylon is quick drying and cleans easily because dirt does not cling.  It can be static and does not absorb moisture so, if used it clothing, it can be clammy in the heat.  Examples of nylon products include luggage, carpeting materials and hosiery because of its elastic recovery ability. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 56
  57. 57. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 57
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  59. 59. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 59
  60. 60. Properties  Polyester  Is soft and strong, resistant to shrinkage and does not stretch.  It is a polymer which is produced from coal, water, air and petroleum products.  It can blend with natural fibres such as cotton or wool or with artificial ones, to increase the fabric more durable and easier to wash.  It can be used in clothing, filling for upholstery, floor coverings and insulation. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 60
  61. 61. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 61
  62. 62. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 62
  63. 63. Properties  Rayon  Is created by the regeneration of natural materials.  It is made from wood pulp and its properties are similar to those of linen or cotton.  There are various types of rayon including regular, high tenacity, high wet modulus and microfibers.  High tenacity rayon is strong and used mainly in industry.  Regular rayon is often used in clothing.  High wet modulus has high wet strength and microfibers are fine and silky. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 63
  64. 64. Properties  Spandex  It can stretch up to 600 times and bounce back.  Because of its elasticity, spandex is often used in apparel.  It blends well with other fabrics, especially rayon, wool or silk.  It is light and very comfortable to wear. Spandex is easy to dye and absorbs moisture and body oils.  It is often used in hosiery and lingerie. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 64
  65. 65. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 65
  66. 66. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 66
  67. 67. YARNS   Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, em broidery, and rope-making. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Embroidery threads are yarns specifically designed for hand or machine embroidery. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 67
  68. 68. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 68
  69. 69. Carding   Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibres to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable for subsequent processing. This is achieved by passing the fibres between differentially moving surfaces covered with card clothing. It breaks up locks and unorganised clumps of fibre and then aligns the individual fibres to be parallel with each other. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 69
  70. 70. Carding Machine For Wool Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 70
  71. 71. Carding Machine For Cotton Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 71
  72. 72. Combing   Combing is a method for preparing carded fibre for spinning. It separates out the short fibres by means of a rotating ring of steel pins. The fibres in the 'top' it produces, have been straightened and lie parallel to each other.  The combs used have long metal teeth, and only barely resemble the comb used on hair. However, they are used in a similar fashion with one comb holding the fibre while the other is moved through, slowly transferring the fibre to the moving comb. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 72
  73. 73. Combing   Combing the fibres removes the short fibres and arranges the fibre in a flat bundle, with all the fibres going the same direction. This preparation is commonly used to spin a worsted yarn. Woollen yarns cannot be spun from fibre prepared with combs, instead the fibre must be carded. Cotton is combed when it is to be used for quality fabric with high thread counts.  In general, combing is done with fibres that are longer, and carding with fibres of a shorter length. Worsted yarns pass first through a gilling machine instead of a carder, which starts the combing process, and then through a comber. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 73
  74. 74.   http://www.automation.siemens.com/mcms/mc/e n/mechanical-engineering/textile-machine/staplefiber-spinning/combingmachine/PublishingImages/bannerkammmaschine.gif Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 74
  75. 75. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 75
  76. 76. Spinning   Spinning is a major industry. It is part of the textile manufacturing process where three types of fibre are converted into yarn, then fabrics, which undergo finishing processes such as bleaching to become textiles. The textiles are then fabricated into clothe or other products. There are three industrial processes available to spin yarn, and a handicraft community who use hand spinning techniques. Spinning is the twisting together of drawn out strands of fibres to form yarn, though it is colloquially used to describe the process of drawing out, inserting the twist, and winding onto bobbins. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 76
  77. 77. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 77
  78. 78. ROVING Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 78
  79. 79. Production of Cotton & Polyester   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kH_b3Heo48I  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJGbg6zIugs Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 79
  80. 80. PLYING   In the textile arts, plying is a process used to create a strong, balanced yarn. It is done by taking two or more strands of yarn that each have a twist to them and putting them together. The strands are twisted together, in the direction opposite that in which they were spun. When just the right amount of twist is added, this creates a balanced yarn, which is a yarn with no tendency to twist upon itself. Almost all store bought yarns are balanced, plied yarns. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 80
  81. 81. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 81
  82. 82. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 82
  83. 83. WEAVING   Weaving is a method of fabric production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. The other methods are knitting, lace making, felting, and braiding or plaiting. The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. (Weft or woof is an old English word meaning "that which is woven".) The method in which these threads are inter woven affects the characteristics of the cloth.  Cloth is usually woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this definition of cloth (warp threads with a weft thread winding between) can also be made using other methods, including tablet weaving, back-strap, or other techniques without looms.  The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 83
  84. 84. Types of weaves  I. II. III. IV. Plain weave a. b. Basket/ Matt weave Ribbed ( Warp & Wet ) Twill weave Satin and Sateen weave Variation of Basic weave. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Crepe Pile (Cut/Uncut) Double Cloth Gauze (Leno) Swivel Lappet Dobby Jacquard Tri-axial. WEFT WARP Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 84
  85. 85. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 85
  86. 86. Plain   The plain weave repeats on 2 Ends × 2 Picks. The plain fabric comprises a high percentage of the total production of woven fabrics and it can be produced on a loom with two harness. IT has the highest number of interlacing as compared with other weaves and therefore it produces the firmest fabric. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 86
  87. 87. PLAIN WEAVE Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 87
  88. 88. Twill   Twill weave, the second basic weave is characterized by diagonal lines running at angles varying between 15 and 75 degrees. A Twill Weave is denoted by using numbers above and below a line ( such as 2/1 Twill which may be interpreted as two up one down). There are sever types of basic twill weaves, such as  (a).1/2 Twill (b).2/1 Twill (c).2/2 Twill. (d).2/3 Twill, (e).3/2 (f) 3/3 Twill, (g).4/4 Twill Etc. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 88
  89. 89. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 89
  90. 90. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 90
  91. 91. Satin   Four or more shafts with warp floats or weft floats in interrupted diagonal. It is very lustrous, excellent drawable. It shows floated fashion. Its has some subcategories as, Satin, Slipper satin, Crepeback satin etc. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 91
  92. 92. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 92
  93. 93. Dobby   Dobby, a decorative weave results in small designs or geometric figures all over the woven fabric. It is done through dobby machines. This weave uses various yarns from very fine to coarse and fluffy yarns to produce a variety of fabrics. The standard dobby weave fabrics are flat and comparatively fine. Some examples are moss crepe, matelasse etc. Heavy dobby fabrics are used for home furnishings and for heavyapparel. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 93
  94. 94. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 94
  95. 95. Oxford   Oxford weave fabrics are made with modified plain weave or basket weave and are generally used for apparels, particularly cotton shirting materials. The fabric is fine, soft and lightweight. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 95
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  98. 98. Jacquard   Jacquard weaves, produced on a special loom, are characterized by complex woven-in designs, often with large design repeats or tapestry effects. Fabrics made by this method include brocade, damask, and brocatelle. Dobby weaves, requiring a special loom attachment, have small, geometric, textured, frequently repeated woven-in designs, as seen in bird‟s-eye piqué. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 98
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  100. 100. Herringbone   Herringbone describes a distinctive Vshaped weaving pattern usually found in twill fabric. It is distinguished from a plain chevron by the break at reversal, which makes it resemble a broken zigzag. The pattern is called herringbone because it resembles the skeleton of a herring fish. Herringbone-patterned fabric is usually wool, and is one of the most popular cloths used for suits and outerwear. Tweed cloth is often woven with a herringbone pattern. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 100
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  102. 102. Fil-a-Fil   End-on-end (also known by its French name, Fil-a-Fil) is essentially a plain weave where one colour yarn is interwoven with another colour yarn. Although one of the two colours is usually White, a great variety of end-onends have been produced in recent years. This type of weave yields a familiar two-tone appearance. For end-onend cloths that do not incorporate a white yarn then one of the yarn colours tends to be a darker shade of the same colour. For example Sky Blue might be used for the 'weft' yarn and Mid Blue for the 'warp' yarn. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 102
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  104. 104. Velvet   Velvet is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctive feel.  The word 'velvety' is used as an adjective to mean "smooth like velvet." Velvet can be either synthetic or natural. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 104
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  107. 107. Piqué   Piqué, or marcella, refers to a weaving style, normally used with cotton yarn, which is characterized by raised parallel cords or fine ribbing.  Pique fabrics are a type of dobby construction. Piques may be constructed in various patterns such as cord, waffle, honeycomb and birds-eye piques. These fabrics require the addition of extra yarns, called stuffer yarns. These stuffer yarns are incorporated into the back of the fabric to give texture and added depth to the fabric design. Some piques may be made using the Jacquard attachment on the loom. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 107
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  109. 109. KNITS   Knitted fabrics is the third major class of fabric, after woven and nonwoven fabrics.  Knitted fabrics are divided into two basic types: warp-knit fabrics such as tricot and weft-knit fabrics such as a hand-knit sweater. Weft-knit items have the drawback that they run when cut. Warpknit fabrics are often used in lingerie. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 109
  110. 110. Knits & Wovens: What's the Difference?   How to identify your fabric When you can't tell if a fabric is a knit or woven, put it through these tests: Look for loops or grain In knit fabric (left), one continuous yarn is looped repeatedly to create what looks like tiny rows of braids. In woven fabric (right), multiple yarns cross each other at right angles to form the grain, like a basket. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 110
  111. 111. Knits & Wovens: What's the Difference?   Apply the stretch test When knit fabric is stretched along its width, it will stretch significantly. Along its length, it will stretch slightly. If a knit fabric is stretched excessively, a run may form. Most woven fabrics can't stretch along the lengthwise grain (the length of the fabric), and there is minimal give along the crosswise grain (the width of the fabric). Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 111
  112. 112. Knits & Wovens: What's the Difference?   Check the wrinkle resistance When you ball up a knit in your hand, it will crush easily. When you release it, the fabric will spring back into shape with few, if any, wrinkles. When you wad up a woven fabric, it usually wrinkles easily.  Inspect the edges A knit is either sold as a tube or flat. On flat knits, factories apply round blobs of starch or glue along the lengthwise edges to prevent them from curling. Along the width, or cut edge, the fabric doesn't fray. The lengthwise edges of a woven fabric, called the selvages, are strong and don't move. The cut edge across the width of the fabric frays. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 112
  113. 113. What is the difference between a pique polo, a Jersey Knit Polo and a golf polo shirt?   The pique is a type of cotton weave, so is the jersey knit. The pique is a bit heavier and rougher. The jersey is thinner and smoother knit. The term golf polo can apply to both. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 113
  114. 114. Jersey   Jersey is a knit fabric used predominantly for clothing manufacture. It was originally made of wool, but is now made of wool, cotton, and synthetic fibres. Since medieval times Jersey, Channel Islands, where the material was first produced, had been an important exporter of knitted goods and the fabric in wool from Jersey became well known. The fabric can be a very stretchy single knitting, usually light-weight, jersey with one flat side and one piled side. When made with a light weight yarn, this is the fabric most often used to make T-shirts. Or it can be a double knitted jersey (interlock jersey), with less stretch, that creates a heavier fabric of two single jerseys knitted together to leave the two flat sides on the outsides of the fabric, with the piles in the middle. Jersey is considered to be an excellent fabric for draped garments, such as dresses, and women's tops. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 114
  115. 115. Jersey   The following types of jersey can be distinguished:  Single Jersey fabric - weight: 140 g / m²  Double Jersey  Interlock Jersey  Jacquard Jersey  Clocqué Jersey Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 115
  116. 116. SINGLE JERSEY Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 116
  117. 117. DOUBLE JERSEY Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 117
  118. 118. INTERLOCK JERSEY Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 118
  119. 119. JACQUARD JERSEY Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 119
  120. 120. FABRIC   A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together (felt).  The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres. Fabric refers to any material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc.). Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but often refers to a finished piece of fabric used for a specific purpose (e.g., table cloth). Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 120
  121. 121. Types of Cotton Fabrics   Broadcloth: A tightly woven lustrous cotton cloth with fine embedded crosswise ribs. Resembles poplin. Use: shirts and blouses, as well as home decorating.  Canvas: Rugged, woven cloth made with coarse yarn. Also called duck. Use: cushions, slipcovers, shower curtains, paint drop-cloths.  Chambray: Fabric woven with a mixture of coloured and white yarn. Use: curtains, shirts, dresses.  Chenille: A fuzzy cotton yarn or fabric that has pile protruding around it, named for the French word for caterpillar. Use: Heavyweight as upholstery; lightweight for bedspreads and robes. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 121
  122. 122. Types of Cotton Fabrics   Chintz: Glazed fabric, often printed with floral designs or stripes. Use: upholstery and curtains for the English country look and romantic bedrooms.  Corduroy: Ribbed pile fabric in various weights and weaves. Use: cushions, curtains, bedspreads, jumpers and pants.  Damask: Patterned fabric made on a jacquard loom. Use: table linens and tea towels.  Denim: Rugged, durable twill, most popular in indigo blue, but also white, tan, red, black. Use: jeans, slipcovers, bedspreads, casual curtains.  Flannel: Plain-weave soft cloth with napped surface. Use: winter pajamas, nightgowns and sheets. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 122
  123. 123. Types of Cotton Fabrics   Gingham: Yarn-dyed and woven usually in checks. Use: kitchen curtains and little girls' pinafores, and more recently sheets and pillowcases.  Jacquard: Fabric woven on the jacquard loom, which produces elaborate, figured weaves. Use: decorative fabrics such as tapestries, brocade and damask.  Knit: Stretchy fabric made by interlocking thread loops together. Use: Different weights for T-shirts, underwear, easy-care dresses and bedsheets.  Matelassé: Double-woven in different patterns on a jacquard loom to give a three-dimensional look. Use: Outer bedding and elegant tablecloths. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 123
  124. 124. Types of Cotton Fabrics   Oxford: Fabric made with a modified plain or basket weave. Use: button-down shirts and more recently, sheets and pillowcases.  Percale: A smooth, finely combed woven with a minimum thread count of 180 threads per square inch. Use: sheets and clothing.  Poplin: Fabric with a fine horizontal rib effect on the surface and high thread count. Use: high-quality shirting.  Plissé: Fabric treated with a solution that shrinks part of the threads to create a crinkle effect. Use: blanket covers and summer pajamas.  Sateen: A satin-weave cotton with a smooth, lustrous surface. Striped sateen mixes lustrous with matte-finish stripes. Use: sheets, tablecloths, curtains. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 124
  125. 125. Types of Cotton Fabrics   Seersucker: A lightweight cotton fabric with a woven crinkle achieved by altering tension in the warp yarns. Use: synonymous with the classic summer suit; also used in sportswear, curtains, slipcovers.  Sheers: Batiste, lawn, organdy, dimity, dotted Swiss and voile are all finely woven cotton sheers. Some are crisp, some are soft. Use: summer party dresses, curtains and summer see-through slipcovers for wooden chairs.  Terry cloth: Fabric with moisture-absorbing loop pile covering the entire surface on one or both sides. Use: bath towels, robes and cushion covers.  Twill: Durable fabric with diagonal lines on its face. Use: pants, shorts, slipcovers.  Velvet: A warp-pile fabric with short, densely woven cut pile, giving the fabric a soft, rich texture. Use: draperies, cushions and clothing. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 125
  126. 126. Types of Woolen Fabrics   Beaver cloth is a heavy woolen overcoating, napped and pressed down to resemble beaver fur.  Botany/Merino wool is a fine wool fabric made from worsted wool yarn.  Broadcloth is an all woolen or worsted fabric with a velvety feel.  Challis, a light weight soft wool fabric in plain weave, has a printed or woven design or flowers.  Cheviot, usually Scotch wool is a soft, fine wool that is heavier than serge.  Chinchilla cloth is a heavy, spongy woolen overcoat fabric with a long nap that has been rubbed into a curly, nubby finish. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 126
  127. 127. Types of Woolen Fabrics   Donegal was originally a thick and warm homespun or tweed woven by Irish peasants in Donegal, Ireland. Donegal now describes the wool tweed that has colorful thick slubs woven into the fabric.  Felt fabric is a compact sheet of entangled, not woven wool or fur fibers. The felt is produced by processing a mat of fibers with moisture, heat, and pressure.  Flannel wool is a soft, lightweight fabric with a nap on one or both sides.  Gabardine is a tightly woven wool twill with a high sheen. This fabric is excellent for tailoring and wears well.  Glen checks are usually seen in menswear and originated in Scotland. It is characterized by a variety of small, even check designs.  Harris tweed is a hand woven fabric from Scotland with a soft feel. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 127
  128. 128. Types of Woolen Fabrics   Heather Mixture describes tweeds and homespun‟s that have colors of heather and sand of the Scottish heather fields.  Herringbone wool is woven in a twill that is reversed at regular spacing, creating a sawtooth line.  Homespun is a loose, strong, durable woolen woven either by hand or machine with a coarse feel.  Houndstooth check has a four pointed star check in a broken twill weave.  Jersey is a knit fabric that is usually knit in fine wool but can also be found in silk, and man-made fibers.  Laine is French for “wool”. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 128
  129. 129. Types of Woolen Fabrics   Lambsdown is a heavy knit fabric that has a spongy fleeced nap on one side.  Linsey-woolsey is a coarse fabric first made in Lindsey, England, of wool combined with flax or cotton.  Loden fabric is a thick, soft, waterproof, windproof, wool used in outerwear that has a characteristic green color.  Mackinaw fabric is a heavy double fabric in striking colored patterns.  Melton, a heavy, thick, short napped woven fabric that has been fulled.  Merino wool is soft and luxurious, resembling cashmere. This term is also used to describe the finest wools. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 129
  130. 130. Types of Woolen Fabrics   Oatmeal Cloth is a durable, soft wool with a pebbled face.  Panama Cloth, a plain woven worsted wool, sometimes resembling the texture of Panama hat.  Petersham, a very thick, waterproof woolen coating, usually dark blue, is used for men‟s trousers or heavy coats.  Pilot Cloth is a coarse, heavy, stout twilled woolen that is heavily napped and navy blue. Used by seamen.  Poodle Cloth is made with a boucle yarn and resembles the Poodle dog.  Rabbit Hair is used in woven wool‟s as a substitute for vicuna to give a soft effect in the fabric. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 130
  131. 131. Types of Woolen Fabrics   Sharkskin is woven with warp and filling yarns of alternating white with black, brown or blue.  Tartan is a twilled plaid design, originally Scottish.  Tweed is a rough textured wool, originally homespun and slightly felted. This fabric is sturdy with a mottled color. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 131
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