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Detecting Deception


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Using behavioral cues and emotion displays to detect deception in interpersonal communication.

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Detecting Deception

  1. Detecting Deception Using behavioral cues and emotion displays to detect deception in interpersonal communication David A. Berglund, 2010
  2. Goals of Presentation  To inform you about the role of deception in interpersonal communication  The primary concepts covered will include: 1. non-verbal communication 2. vocalics 3. lie-detection theory
  3. Benefits of Lie Detection  Lies are common in interpersonal communication (B. M. DePaulo & Kashy, 1998)  Being able to detect deception at work, home, and in social situations is beneficial because it allows individuals to ascertain other’s true (in contradiction to implicit) beliefs and thoughts  While some lies are told to comply with social norms (“you look great in that hat!”), others can be deleterious to society or the lie’s receiver
  4. Deception: Definition  “Deception is an intentional conscious act that fosters in another person a belief or understanding which the deceiver considers false”(Zuckerman, et al., 1981)  This presentation will extend this definition to also include any concealment, omission, or exaggeration of information  The term deception and lying (lies) will be interchanged throughout this presentation, as their functional definitions are much the same
  5. Lies: Motivation  Lying is a common communication strategy (Bok, 1978; Zuckerman et al., 1981)  It is often used to help minimizing costs and maximizing rewards in interpersonal communication  It can be an adaptive strategy for survival  For many, honesty is not always the best policy (Turner et al, 1975)  Turner et al. 1975 - led a study with a group of individuals to monitor conversations and found that only one-third were totally honest
  6. 5 Motivations for Lying 1. Save face (one’s self/other’s) 2. Maintain/maximize/terminate a relationship 3. Establish, maximize, maintain power or influence over the partner 4. Avoid tension/conflict 5. Maintain, redirect, or terminate social interactions (Turner et al., 1975)
  7. Deception Detection Theories  Many theories on deception detection have been postulated.  The most popular theory focuses on role of emotion in interpersonal communication
  8. Assumptions of Deception Detection 1. Individuals do not want to get caught lying  Sub-premise: People try to not give clues as to when they are lying 2. Emotional Reactions automatically occur in people when they lie 3. Emotional Reactions cause physiological reactions and lead to behavioral cues in individuals 4. Behavioral cues can be decoded to determine when people are lying
  9. Autonomic Emotional Arousal .  Deceivers have affective/physiological reactions from lies which are then reflected in non-verbal behavior (Zuckerman et. al., 1981)  Possible causes:  The question that evokes one to tell a lie, or the lie itself, is linked with unpleasant or traumatic experiences that took place during previous deceptions  Anxiety/guilt about potential detection  Overeagerness to be conclude communication  “Duping delight” about not being caught  Generalized arousal  Conflicting desire to tell truth/not tell truth  Anticipation of punishment
  10. Leakage of Emotion  Ekman and Friesen (1969) came up with leakage hypothesis of deception:  deceivers attempt to hide their nonverbal presentations during deception for fear of being detected, but behavioral cues continue to manifest  Displays of emotion are not necessarily signs of deception, but in concert with other behavioral clues, can indicate deceptive intent  Examples:  Less pleasant facial reactions and vocalic reactions  More nonverbal adapters  Less immediacy (decrease in eye contact, less direct body orientation, decreased proximity, less illustrators)  Increased Pupil dilation  Increased blinking rate  Increased vocal pitch  Increased speech disturbances
  11. Polygraphy Concepts  The science of polygraphy utilizes these theories of emotion expression and deception  Theory: Deviation from autonomic physiologic baseline established by truthful answers indicates that respondent is lying  Polygraph machines (lie detectors) monitor the physiological waveforms of: 1. Blood Pressure 2. Heart Rate 3. Respiration 4. Palmar Sweating Response
  12. Limbic Roots of Emotion  Limbic system:  Set of brain structures (hippocampus, thalamus, and amygdala among others) which moderates emotional expression (Mega et. al., 1997).  Humans have innate response to fear-inducing stimuli: 1. Freeze 2. Flight 3. Fight  Other emotions (joy, anger, sadness) produce categorically different behavioral/physiological reactions that can be categorized by various classifications  Researchers postulate that these innate reactions are evolutionary responses that allows species to both cope with their environment (e.g., predators, other threats) as well as to interact effectively as social groups (provide comfort, pacify)
  13. Primary Emotions  According to Paul Ekman (2007) there are five primary emotions 1. Sadness 2. Joyful emotions 3. Disgust 4. Fear/surprise 5. Anger  The ability to recognize these emotions is critical in deception detection, as many times individuals attempt to conceal their true emotions (and autonomic behavioral cues)  Answers to specific questions in an interview can then reveal genuine opinions/thoughts that one is otherwise trying to conceal
  14. Emotional Expressions  Ekman (2007) postulates that their are four ways for people to express emotions 1. Full 2. Microexpression 3. Restricted 4. Slight
  15. Emotional Expressions  Ekman (2007) postulates that their are four ways for people to express emotions 1. Full:  standard emotional response without suppression 2. Microexpression 3. Restricted 4. Slight
  16. Emotional Expressions  Ekman (2007) postulates that their are four ways for people to express emotions 1. Full 2. Microexpression:  immediate and autonomic emotional response that lasts for less than a second 3. Restricted 4. Slight
  17. Emotional Expressions  Ekman (2007) postulates that their are four ways for people to express emotions 1. Full 2. Microexpression 3. Restricted:  emotional reaction that individual attempts to conceal or disguise 4. Slight
  18. Emotional Expressions  Ekman (2007) postulates that their are four ways for people to express emotions 1. Full 2. Microexpression 3. Restricted 4. Slight:  Beginning/end of emotional reaction  Weak emotion  Diminished emotion  Failed attempt to conceal emotion
  19. Microexpressions  Microexpressions stem from two conditions:  Deliberate attempt to conceal emotion  Unconscious suppression of emotion  Unlike regular facial expressions, they are difficult to mask  They utilize same facial muscles as regular emotions and are expressed in the same manner, but are very brief in nature (up to 1/25th of a second)  The popular television series “Lie to Me” focuses on these types of expression (Ekman, 2007)
  20. Types of Liars  Liars express deception in different ways depending upon their type  Occasional liar: will display standard emotional response (most common, and discussed in this presentation)  Frequent liar: lie more often than occasional liars and are less uncomfortable with lying; therefore, they show restricted behavioral cues  Habitual liar: rare; show very few behavioral indicators of deception, though can be easy to catch due to carelessness in the stories/lies told  Professional liar: “lie for a purpose” (Dimitrius, & Mazzarella, 1999)  well-versed in lying; prepare for lies; hardest to identify; rarely display emotional reactions
  21. Behavioral Expectations of Honesty  General responses accompanying honest communication: 1. Relaxed posture 2. Open orientation 3. Good eye contact 4. Stable physiology  Habitual and professional liars cues:  have been modified over time and may not display emotional cues expected by the answers provided  Keep in mind that nonverbal cues displayed by a particular subject are a function of personality, motivation, planning, and age
  22. Behavioral Signs of Dishonesty  Shifting eyes/wandering eyes  Action that obscures eyes, face, mouth  Fidgeting  Running tongue over teeth  Rapid speech  Leaning forward  Changes in voice  Inappropriate familiarity -  Shifting back and forth on backslapping, other touching feet or in chair  Sweating  Signs of nervousness  Shaking  Exaggerated version of “sincere, furrowed-brow  Licking lips look” (Dimitrius, & Mazzarella, 1999)
  23. Behavioral Signs of Dishonesty cont.  Fiddling with pens, cups  Pupil dilation (correlate of emotional response)  Wringing hands  Increased blinking  Clearing throat (physiology)  Adaptor gestures  Smile randomly (repeatedly)  Shorter response length  Biting lip  Speech errors  Chewing nails  Speech hesitations  Becoming silent  Higher pitch (Navarro, 2008) (Burgoon, 1989)
  24. Behavioral Signs of Dishonesty cont.  It is too general of a statement to say that all signs of deception stem from increases in anxiety  we know that other emotions take place (e.g., fear of being detected, guilt from telling lie)  It is important to look for other emotions besides anxiety  Strategic anxiety (as a feigned emotion) can be confused with inadvertently leaked anxiety  this can make it difficult to gauge cue display  In monitoring affective reactions, also monitor for masking or simulated emotions (exaggerated reactions to questions)  Channel discrepancies  inconsistent messages being transmitted through various channels
  25. Concealing Leakage  Many people attempt to conceal leakage with goal of evading detection  Three factors that shape communications between individuals 1. Internal feedback  emotion response/regulation in individuals 2. Sending capacity  standard magnitude/style of expressed emotion 3. External feedback  reactions of environment/persons to answers provided  Each factor affects presentation of subject throughout the give and take of an interview
  26. Four Factors Affecting Leakage 1. Attempted control  does the subject try to convince you of his innocence? 2. Affective reactions  how strongly one feels the level of emotional during the point in question 3. Arousal  a general excited response or physical stimulation before questioning 4. Cognitive processing  capacity for intellectual thought and ability to evaluate the questions posed and potential outcomes of specific answers
  27. Machiavellianism  Person’s with Machiavellianism personality type: 1. see lying as justified means to end 2. do not have same strength of negative emotional reactions 3. are more skilled at controlling spontaneous reactions 4. are less likely to confess when pressured  Trait does not consistently affect deception, but when it does it results in more successful nonverbal presentations  Presentation: more eye contact, larger benefit is in “hamming”
  28. Traits Affecting Cue Display cont.  Self-monitoring  Personality type in which individuals focus intently on regulating their behavior to influence others’ perception of themselves in a positive manner  There is inconsistent whether those scoring high in the self- monitoring trait are more capable at avoiding detection  Character traits  dominance, extroversion, and exhibitionism: individuals less likely to control nervous movements and increase facial animation relative to deceivers  Demeanor Bias  some people are consistently successful at deception (Kraut, 1978)
  29. Traits Affecting Cue Display cont.  Planning  Planning deception increases individuals control over nonverbal display  Response latency is typically shorter than unplanned lies  Age  Ability to deceive increases with age (DePaulo et al., 1985)  Ability increases significantly during 4th/5th grade, and then through high school  First major development is ability to display naturalistic emotion known as “hamming”
  30. How to Assess for Deception  Based on the premises established earlier (slide 8), and by determining when emotional reactions take place during interview and decoding the nonverbal cues, it is possible to make informed judgements about a respondents veracity  First goal: Establish Baseline
  31. Establishing Baseline  There is no definite length of time required to establish a baseline  The more time you spend with a respondent in varying environments (e.g., controlled, amiable, non-confrontational), the easier it will be to notice when their behavior deviates from the “norm”  For instance, you spend more time with close family and friends than strangers, thus you are more likely to notice when they are acting “differently”
  32. Establishing Baseline  Establishing baseline can be done before actual contact takes place  have other individuals provide you with details on their appearance/behavior  if possible, view respondent from a distance without their knowing that you are observing them  In establishing baseline, be sure to observe each of the qualities used in final assessment: facial, body, and vocalic
  33. Building a Therapeutic Alliance to Establish Baseline  The clinical approach to establishing a baseline requires the evaluator to use “micro-skills of therapy”: 1. match posture and movements 2. match rate of speech 3. provide feedback  “I noticed that you are checking your watch, are you in a hurry?” 4. match key words - reflect certain aspects of subject’s behavior or speech  “So what you’re saying is...”  Placing emphasis on key words to display your recognition of their statements  Once an amiable rapport has been established, the subject should be displaying stable physiological and emotional reactions to your questions
  34. Polygraphy: Monitoring Waveforms  Note the Baseline established on the EEG waveform above  This evenness is indicative of stable physiology/ emotionality
  35. Polygraphy: Monitoring Waveforms (t)  Note the distinct change in the waveform above.  The x-axis of this graph denotes time, thus at the noted point in the questioning (t), a physical reaction took place.
  36. Polygraphy: Monitoring Waveforms (t)  What question was asked when reaction took place?  This same methodology is used in behavioral analysis described herein, requiring a keen eye for behavioral disjunction
  37. Big Picture  Look for patterns  Don’t make judgements based on one predictor  The interview and observation time should be considered clues - not truths  Even if you feel you have established a point of deception, look for more signs by allowing more information to flow
  38. Channel Accuracy  Channel accuracy is a measurement of the degree to which various channels are true reflections of emotional/affective reactions  Body and vocalic cues display more deception than facial cues  Accuracy:  body > facial  vocalic > facial  Because people have greater control over facial channels, deception detection accuracy is lower when facial cues are used as primary channel for deception detection (Burgoon, 1989)
  39. Channel Discrepancy  Take note of inconsistent nonverbal displays  When body language from one channel contradicts another  When verbal message varies with nonverbal message  Example: the statement “I’m not mad,” while red-faced, rigid body, clenching fists, and displaying furrowed brow  While saying yes - shaking head from left to right  While reporting feeling bad - smiling  Keep in mind that there are other explanations of this phenomenon  subjects may be embarrassed to be feeling certain emotions  subjects might not have required insight to recognize current feelings (more common in younger people or those with developmental delays)  subjects may be feeling ambivalence or uncertainty in regards to the questions posed
  40. Channel Discrepancy  Be aware of synchrony in emotion/statements/space  any deviation from synchrony may be indicative of pressured behavior due to emotional reaction or a manipulated response  Consider American Sign Language (ASL) - intensity of terms are communicated through facial expression  In this instance, two channels are intended to be in sync with one another with the visual channel (as opposed to verbal) providing emphasis and clarification
  41. Timing of Responses  Observe the timing of responses and the buildup of expression  If expressive behaviors (illustrators: hand waving for emphasis) take place after statement, it is often an afterthought to give impression of intensity  Imagine a patient saying “I am so angry” with semi-blunted expression and upon conclusion of statement, patient displays intense anger  This is clear sign that emotion expressed is purposeful rather than intrinsic  In same context, watch for rhythm of speech patterns and mechanical expression  natural or comfortable expression should be displayed as fluid and in accordance with statements  Initial reaction expression - initial expressed emotion (usually lasts less than 1 second) generally perceived to be true before it is able to be masked
  42. Problems in Detection
  43. Hospital Effects  Always consider how the environment of interaction can affect the emotional response of the subject  In a hospital environment, patients are already out of their comfort zone which might cause an increase in overall emotionality and can increase response magnitude.  Additionally, on a mental health unit, the recognition that staff are assessing behaviors will likely cause changes in behavior.  this change in behavior is known as “demand characteristics” and are a common error in psychological research  Demand Characteristics take place when participants (patients) change their behavior after forming a judgment of the experimenter’s purpose
  44. Biases in Assessing Deception  Over attribution effect- truth bias due to relational context is consistent with general bias  Initial impressions of source can anchor subsequent attributions about a message that is inconsistent with or contradicts initial impression  Problem: Interpretations change less than they should from an objective analysis  Example: close friends/family judged more trustworthy
  45. Feedback  Receivers do not always learn through experience  Feedback is often rare and it does not provide evaluator with necessary info to tell them if they were accurate in their judgement with detection  Does not mean you should just be more suspicious of others  Suspicious receivers often rely on imperfect theories and are less accurate in judgements
  46. Type 1 Errors  Type I error, also known as an “error of the first kind” or a “false positive”: the error of rejecting a null hypothesis when it is actually true.  In this context, it occurs when we say that someone is lying when they are not.  It proves that standards used for test have poor specificity.  Can be viewed as the error of excessive credulity.  This reminds us of importance of watching for patterns and establishing baseline  Question to ask: Is person simply nervous?  They might be nervous throughout interview process when this type of behavior is not expected
  47. Type II Error  Type II error, also known as an “error of the second kind” or a “false negative”: the error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is in fact not true.  In this context: reporting that subject was not lying when, in fact, they were  This is the error of failing to observe a difference when in truth there is one, thus indicating a test of poor sensitivity.  can be viewed as the error of excessive skepticism.
  48. Familiarity with Deceiver  Prior experience with deceiver's truthful communication improves accuracy in detecting deception (Knapp & Comadena, 1979):  Increase in experience makes it easier to see deviation from “honest behavior” (baseline)  Increase in experience seeing minor fluctuations due to stress/fatigue that otherwise might be decoded as deception  This increase in ability to detect deception with familiar partners is only true in certain contexts  Intimate long term partners become biased towards honesty attributions (“truth bias”) and display rigidity in appraisals, failing to see signs that are in conflict with desired valuations (Bauchner 1978; Miller et al. 1981)
  49. Age and Sex of Receiver  Young children don't have same understanding of moral values, cultural, social and interpersonal norms, or experience with deception as adults (Piaget, 1965)  They are unable to make same attributions of deception as adults.  Younger children (6 to 8th grade) distinguished deceptive messages from truthful messages solely on the basis of the affect expressed in them.  10th graders were able to discriminate between deceptive and truthful messages on the presence or absence of mixed feelings  12th graders were able to discriminate between deceptive messages and truthful messages in their judgement of deception, but were less accurate than younger children at detecting leakage cues. maybe due to politeness norm (younger children who may not be aware of this norm and and do not possess the ability to decode mixed messages and deception cues, decode the emotional content of the nonverbal cues more accurately). (Burgoon, 1989)
  50. Politeness Norm  The politeness norm is a bias in judgment that is rooted in the social norm of believing others are being truthful in the messages they encode  This bias is strongest among children who do not have established conceptualizations of deception.  Among adults, it is a more prevalent bias for women than men (Rosenthal, DePaulo, 1979)  Cause?  Women are more likely than men to decode the meaning intended by the source  Women display greater visual primacy especially when messages encoded are positive (agreeableness, positive attitudes) (DePaulo et al. 1978)
  51. Demand Characteristics  Behaviors typically follow one of four “roles” that shape their behavior: 1. Good participant: attempt to follow along with supposed experimenter hypothesis 2. Negative participant: attempt to refute experimenter hypothesis 3. Faithful participant: participant follows instructions provided by examiner to the letter 4. Apprehensive participant: participant is so concerned about evaluation by experimenter that their behaviors are blunted and fall in line with social norms
  52. Other Biases and Errors  Fundamental Attribution Error:  An error that occurs when researchers give more weight to the personality of a participant as a cause of behavior modification than to the environment (Ross et. al, 1977)  Hawthorne Effect:  A form of reactivity whereby subjects change their behaviors (typically in a positive manner) because they are aware they are being observed
  53. Heuristics  Heuristics are mental shortcuts that typically make decision making more efficient  We often use “rules of thumb” to help make snap-judgements, however these heuristics can often lead us off track in our assessments  This type of decision making occurs regularly when people compare one person to another prototypical group based on key characteristics  Seeing a person with long hair and laid-back attitude and categorizing them as a “Californian”  This heuristic can be evidenced in clinical assessment:  “Clinicians may have a natural inclination to compare patients to prototypes, but given that they are supposed to attend to the criteria contained in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders...they may attend to the criteria rather than compare patients to prototypes” (Garb, 1996).
  54. Heuristics cont.  When making judgements about observations, be sure to monitor self-bias:  Accessories and individual style (sunglasses, long hair, baggy pants, etc.) should not be viewed as unconditional qualities that indicate deception  Rather, these qualities should be considered as part of overall assessment and within the environmental context
  55. Nonverbal Communication  Nonverbal communication is broken down among four lines: 1. Proxemics: social and physical space and interpersonal distance used between multiple parties  use of space in room, physical distance, location in room, use of other objects 2. Kinesics: body movements, including those of the face 3. Paralanguage: the “how” of a message - voice qualities, speech errors, silent pauses, etc. 4. Use of time
  56. Body Language  Body Language: the means of communicating information (typically thoughts/feelings) in a nonverbal manner through conscious or unconscious gestures and patterns of movement  Body language can be considered to involve the proxemics and kinesics of nonverbal communication  Two-thirds of human communication involves nonverbal interaction (Birdwhistell, 1970; Okun, 2002)
  57. Leakage: Facial cues
  58. Leakage: facial cues  Physiologists estimate that the face is capable of producing 20,000 expressions (Birdwhistell, 1970)  According to Burgoon (1989) facial cues are the least likely to leak information about deception because:  encoders are highly aware of facial responses  cues are highly visible, and can send many different messages  receivers are likely to attend to and react to facial cues due to facial primacy and reading emotions (mixed messages)
  59. Common Facial Cues  While facial cues can be easily manipulated, there are many cues that can provide information about a subject given analysis of context and behavior patterns
  60. Signs of Distress  Clenched jaw  Note President Obama’s clenched jaw as he is meeting with French President Sarkozy (Monsivais-Martinez, 2008)
  61. Signs of Distress Forehead Furrow
  62. Signs of Distress  squinting - blocking out objectionable things  Analyze context: note eye strain/ability to see
  63. Signs of Distress Eye Blocking - touching eyebrows/ eyes while closing eyes
  64. Signs of Distress Facial Conceal - can take on numerous forms: one or two handed; hands may cover face and/ or reach up to hair grasp (Amy, 2008)
  65. Signs of Distress  Eye flash - often a response to excitement or surprise (Pentax Forums, 2009)
  66. Signs of Distress  Disappearing Lips (Lehr, 2009)
  67. Signs of Distress  Lip Licking (JS, 2009)
  68. Signs of Distress  Nose Flare (B.R., 2008)
  69. Facial Cue Context  As in all behavioral analysis, be sure to note the context of a facial cue  squinting may be a sign of inability to see  furrowing of brow can be a sign of anger/aggression or a response to danger  licking lips may be a nervous habit and may not provide information about a specific response unless noted as such
  70. The Smile  A smile is the most common mask of emotions  It conceals appearance in lower face of anger, disgust, sadness, and fear (though closely resembles contempt)  Look for ‘real’ smile in the eyes - crows feet and restricted visibility of eyes due to space between eyebrows and upper cheeks contracting Fake Smile Real Smile
  71. The Eyes  Poor eye contact is a classic sign of deception  can be related to guilt/shame  Theory: individuals have internal reaction of shame, and fear facing others’ gaze which might amplify this emotional state  Strong/focused eye contact is often a sign of truth and intention
  72. Facial Profiles of Emotion The opening of the eyes (as in eye flash) is a limbic reaction allowing a subject to prepare for possible action/defense Note the slight opening of the mouth. This helps distinguish fear from a simple purposeful gaze (Rups, 2009)
  73. Facial Profiles of Emotion Surprise has a similar eye response to fear, however the lower eyelid is tensed in the fear response and the lips are generally more open when one is surprised (Rups, 2009)
  74. Facial Profiles of Emotion The overall profile of sadness and depression shows a general relaxed muscle tone and blunted orientation (Rups, 2009)
  75. Facial Profiles of Emotion Happiness is generally evidenced by the raising of cheeks Remember that a ‘real’ smile can be differentiated from a fake smile by the crow’s feat around the orbital region Happiness is a gravity- defying emotion (Rups, 2009)
  76. Commonly Confused Emotions  Certain emotions may be manifested in similar ways which may lead to confusion in attempting to analyze responses  Contempt, Resentment, and Anger each have similar facial profiles that could be confused by an inexperienced observer.
  77. Contempt  Contempt is an attitude that one is better than another  Think of this as a form of pretension/or snobbery (Rups, 2009)
  78. Contempt  Note the pursing of lips with cheeks curving outward as in smile reaction
  79. Disgust  Contempt is an attitude that one is better than another  Think of this as a form of pretension/or snobbery (Rups, 2009)
  80. Anger Focused look in eyes along with narrowing ridge between eyes are classic sign of anger (Rups, 2009)
  81. Leakage: body cues  Body cues are common channels of leakage because:  they are less controllable  they have lower sending capacity  subjects receive less external feedback
  82. Kinesics  Kinesics: term derives from Greek term for “movement” and refers to all body movements, excluding physical contact between individuals  An estimated 700,000 different physical signs can be produced by humans (Pei, 1965)  Primary focus of analysis should be on identifying several key areas: 1. Subject’s spatial axis 2. Pacifying behavior 3. Territorial behaviors 4. Departure from subject norms
  83. Spatial Axis  In monitoring subject, take note of their orientation in relation to you  Watch for feet and shoulders turning away from you  this often represents reluctance or a reduced belief in what they are saying  One whom is passionate about what they are saying is more likely to face/be squared away with speaker  Movement in the direction of an exit is also a sign of discomfort  Represents desire to leave ongoing communication  Most notable when questioner is “turning up the heat”
  84. Spatial Axis and Emotion  Pay attention to when subject’s body posture is directed away from evaluator, or if the subject crosses legs to block themselves from speaker  these are signs of discomfort  Shifting head (and body) with slight shoulder lean away from speaker is indicative of a distancing behavior  distancing behaviors reduce the magnitude of emotional connection and often indicate discomfort  be aware of the role of social norms - for certain cultures direct spatial orientation is considered rude or hostile  This response is different from a head tilt which generally indicates interest and is a display of comfort (opening up the neck is a vulnerable position)  Subject will likely display additional cues to clarify the meaning of this response (Navarro, 2008)
  85. Pacifying Behaviors  Touching face (nose, ears, mouth)  Often done to soothe or distract oneself  May represent the thought “I don't like what I'm hearing”  Behaviors are often gender-specific  Women often touch the base of the neck or necklaces  Men often touch nose/upper lip or necktie  Not the same as posture of deep thought (Rodin’s “the thinker”)  Rodin’s statue is holding a pose, whereas pacifying behaviors are usually short distracters that last only a few seconds
  86. Pacifying Behaviors cont.  Creating behavioral distractions is a sign of discomfort  Self-created distractions can be accomplished with with body movements  Small movements: twitching, scratching, rubbing fingers/hand (may also be indicative of sweaty palms - a common physiological response to anxiety)  Global behaviors: like moving things, “doing” things when not required or repeatedly
  87. Territorial Displays  Territorial displays - can be signs of comfort or aggression (also, in teenagers can be sign of disrespect)  Examples:  Large motions with arms  Taking up large amounts of space compared to norms  Spreading out over arms chairs  Legs splayed while seated  Arms extended overhead while seated  The opposite of a territorial display is closure: crossing arms/legs with attempt to take up less space  is a sign of discomfort/anxiety (Navarro, 2008)
  88. Barriers/Roadblocks  Placing things in front of oneself is generally a sign of discomfort and is related to creating a “safe zone” for oneself  Things placed in front of oneself can be tangible - pillows, chairs, jacket or body parts such as arms, or, in extreme instances, subject may be curled up in fetal position  Behavior is similar to that of pacifying behaviors - is intended to distract self from emotional surge or to provide separation from evaluator  Taking center stage in room and facing evaluator head-on are a signs of comfort
  89. Lower Body Cues  Watch for Gravity Defying Behaviors (GDB): these are often indicative of nervousness or excitement (and other positive/joyful emotions)  Examples - subject seated:  Happy feet aka bouncing feet while seated  Wiggling/bouncing in chair - you can usually see these movements through torso if subject is seated behind table and legs are hidden  Examples - subject standing:  Rocking on balls of feet  Walking with bounce in step  You must distinguish between nervous energy, excitement, and impatience  Use contextual cues to determine the difference  Gravity Defying Behaviors are less common in subjects with depression (Navarro, 2008)
  90. Lower Body Cues  Note increases or stoppage of GDB after subject receives additional/ change of information  With crossed legs - foot jiggling increased to kicking - this may be in response to change in emotional reaction  Foot freeze - from loose rapid movement to freeze - can be limbic reaction to ‘danger’  Most subject don’t realize they are displaying these behaviors, so they are highly accurate of internal emotional reactions
  91. Lower Body Cues  Spatial orientation through lower body cues  Premise: We generally face things with which we are agreeable  Cue: Double-knee clasp while seated - signal that one is ready to leave room  Cue: Feet pointed away while hips and shoulders are oriented to other - another sign of disinterest or desire to leave conversation
  92. Lower Body Cues  Spatial orientation through lower body cues:  Cue: One foot forward, back heel elevated (see below) - another cue that observed person wants to leave conversation or is impatient (The Saint Pete Project Daily, 2008)
  93. Lower Body Cues  Spatial orientation through lower body cues: Cue:  We often cross legs in favor or towards those we like or are more comfortable with  Otherwise there is a barrier between individuals  Mirroring behaviors (isopraxism) displays are signs (Somodevilla, 2008) of comfort between individuals  Note mirroring of hand placement and legs in image on the right.
  94. Lower Body Cues  Note the crossing of legs in opposite direction and body lean away from one another in image on right. (CNN, 2008)
  95. Lower Body Cues  Again, note the barrier created by crossing legs away from those around us. (Gosselin2.jpg, 2009)
  96. Lower Body Cues  Territorial Lower Body Displays:  Cue: leg splay (right) - often used to dictate control/authority of others; also, when socially inappropriate can convey message of rebelliousness  Territorial imperative (Hall, 1969) - those with higher SES status, more confidence, and self- assurance take up more space (Celebrity Feet, 2009)
  97. Lower Body Cues  Restraining Behaviors  Cue: While seated, foot lock underneath seat or feet wrapped under chair legs  is a sign of distress  The restriction of leg movements (and arm movements) is related to deception and anxiety (Vrij, 2003)  This is a limbic-type response related to fear.
  98. The Torso  Shoulders -  A partial(abridged) shrug has numerous explanations  If shrug is reduced/partial or half-shrug, it may indicate a pacifying-type behavior  Displays that subject does not have confidence or commitment in what they are saying  May be that subject is trying to convince others that they are relaxed in their answer  Could be that subject’s shoulder's are unconsciously coming up as if trying to protect self (like a turtle hiding in shell) - sign of high discomfort  Full and fluid shrug often represents “I don't know” or “I don’t care”(Navarro, 2008)
  99. The Torso  Torso lean- distancing oneself from undesired things  also known as ventral denial  from evolutionary perspective, denying the ventral portion of yourself shows your desire to protect or hide the vulnerable portion of one’s body  Torso shield -crossing arms, using objects (notebook, folder, etc.) to cover chest as protection  note if subject is gripping object tightly as indicator of discomfort
  100. The Torso  Note the Gerhard Schröder’s torso lean away from President George Bush in the image on the right.  Schröder was known to have campaigned on an anti-American sentiments and had several disagreements with Bush during his term. (BBC, 2003)
  101. The Torso  Torso splays (O’Neil, 2009)  A sign of control/authority  When conducted by those not in positions of authority is a sign of disrespect  Chest puffing  An assertion of territorial dominance (e.g., Muhammad Ali)  Baring of torso  Sign of impending violence.
  102. Arms  Cue: arms moving freely  Imagine children playing in a care-free manner with arm movements defying gravity  This is a sign of comfort  Cue: arms down to sides or locked in front  Done to protect the core and vulnerable portion of body  Relates to survival instinct; a limbic response  Cue: arm freeze  Sign of nervousness or fear  Is a limbic response of freezing to avoid detection
  103. Arms  Cue: arms behind back  This makes the statement “I am of higher status” and “don’t come near me/touch me”  Note that hands are hidden which disallows hand shake  Is a withdrawal type behavior for when around people or things we do not like  Also called “regal stance” (John Ensign Nevada Senator)
  104. Arms  Territorial Displays:  Arm spreading behavior - we often take up space to assert control and to display confidence (Hall, 1969; Knapp and Hall, 2002)  Examples:  draping arms over chairs or spreading out things on table
  105. Arms  Territorial Displays:  Cue: standing arms akimbo  making V-pattern with thumbs pointed backwards  is a powerful nonverbal display of power  a stance used to declare dominance  is a territorial display
  106. Arms  Territorial Displays:  Cue: standing arms akimbo  making V-pattern with thumbs pointed backwards;  is a powerful nonverbal display of power  a stance used to declare dominance  is a territorial display  thumbs forward is less dominant stance - may be relaying message - “there are issues”
  107. Arms  Hooding effect - arms/hands interlocked behind head while leaning back  takes up large amount of space (territorial display)  is similar to cobra’s display of size to strike fear in prey
  108. Hand Displays (Richard Nixon Foundation, 2005)  Gravity Defying Behaviors  Cue: thumbs up - is a sign of confidence (see image above)  can be manipulated to give false sense of confidence  Cue: hands on lapels with thumbs up or hands in pockets with thumbs visible  a sign of confidence  Cue: thumbs down or hidden in pockets  sign of low confidence or discomfort;  is a protective behavior, sign of psychological flight  makes statement “I am unsure of myself”
  109. Hand Displays  Cue: freezing behavior  Is a sign of low confidence or fear  Liars tend to gesture less and move arms and legs less than honest people (Vrij, 2003)  this behavior is consistent with limbic reactions and evolutionary desire to be hidden from predators  Imagine a shoplifter at a store who has overly restricted arm movements and appears tense in shoulders  Cue: hands under table - sign of discomfort or fear  often a sign that subject trying to hide something
  110. Hand Displays  Cue: hand wringing - is indicative of stress or low-confidence  Often used as a pacifier  Look for blanching in hands as subject increases pressure  Related Cue: holding objects tightly or rubbing items repeatedly  People often rub hands when cold - determine the context of this behavior before making decision about it’s occurrence  Cue: rubbing hands on pants  possible indicator of palmar sweating - another sign of stress
  111. Hand Displays  Cue: neck touching - a reflection of discomfort, a pacifying behavior  brain is processing something threatening, objectionable or unsettling  variance: women also touch necklaces, men touch ties or collars of shirts as if to provide increase air flow
  112. Hand Displays  General Hand Observations:  Cue: overall hand appearance - can be sign of subject’s lifestyle and grooming habits.  calloused hands- sign of manual labor  chewed nails- sign of nervousness/insecurity  well maintained nails - sign of higher status  dirty hands - if coincides with other signs of poor hygiene can be indication of mental illness  Cue: shaking hands - sign of nervousness  shaking hands may also be sign of excitement (imagine a passenger shaking a ticket at airport) - must interpret context for accurate analysis  Note if this display is a departure from subject’s norm  those with Parkinson's, drug problems, or high caffeine intake will tremble more naturally
  113. Hand Displays  Cue: Pointing  Has almost universal negative connotations  often used to establish or display power
  114. Hand Displays  Hand displays of high confidence:  Cue: hand steepling - is sign of confidence and power  men often steeple higher than women  if confidence shaken, subject may quickly move to prayer- like hand gesture which is a sign of concern or distress (Navarro, 2008)
  115. Posture (Walking Tall, 2003)  Two distinctive postures differentiated by confidence:  Confident - head up, shoulders back, while walking with have significant stride and expressive free-flowing arm swing
  116. Posture (Poor Standing Posture, 2009)  Two distinctive postures differentiated by confidence:  Fearful - shoulders slouched, head down, restricted arm swing and shuffling of feet; can be a sign of depression  Of note: muggers more frequently attack subjects with slouching shoulders, shuffling feet
  117. Emblems  Emblems are Kinesics that meet following criteria (Ekman, 1976): 1. have direct verbal translation that can be substituted for the word or words they represent without affecting the meaning. 2. their precise meaning is known by most or all members of a social group 3. they are most often used with conscious intent to transmit a message 4. they are recognized by the receiver as meaningful and intentionally sent 5. the sender takes responsibility for them 6. they have clear meaning even when displayed out of context
  118. Common Emblems  Common american emblems (Burgoon, 1989):  palms turned up and lifted shoulders meaning “I don’t know”
  119. Common Emblems  Running extended forefinger across the front of the neck meaning “stop what you’re doing”
  120. Common Emblems  An outstretched arm with waving hand meaning “hello” (Allen, W.J., 2008)
  121. Illustrators  Kinesic acts accompanying speech used to aid in description of what is said  Illustrators trace the direction of speech, set rhythm of speech to gain and hold listener’s attention
  122. Fist Pump (Palin Fist Pump, 2008)
  123. Raised Finger
  124. Finger Pointing (Rowe, A. 1963)
  125. Open Palm Side (Sepinwall, A. 2009)
  126. Raised Forefinger Baton (John F. Kennedy Jr., 2008)
  127. Adapters  Adapters:  Are kinesic behaviors that help to satisfy personal needs or psychological needs.  Help to manage emotions, maintain interpersonal contact, and complete instrumental activities  Because they help individual adapt to stresses or needs, adaptors are habits that usually are not intended to communicate a message  However, they can be informative about the source’s internal state and may be used as an insult or message of disrespect  example: twirling hair as intentional indication of boredom
  128. Common adaptors  Self-soothing behaviors:  Twiddling with pen  Chewing on pen  Holding soft objects close to oneself
  129. Personal Hug
  130. Pen Chewing
  131. Twiddling with Hair
  132. Cheek Blow
  133. Leakage: Vocalic cues  Vocalic cues include:  speech patterns  word choice  Senders generally have high degree of control over larynx due to internal feedback  Vocalic cues leak as much as body cues  Automatic link between internal affective reactions and vocalic cues is particularly strong, and encoders may pay less attention to the vocalic portion of speech than is commonly assumed
  134. Verbal Channel Cues  Changes indicative of deceit in verbal channel (Burgoon, 1989):  negative statements  adding irrelevant information  leveling (overgeneralized information)  less verbal immediacy
  135. Hear Between the Lines  One of the skills of deception detection is the ability to recognize the unspoken subtext of a conversation  Hearing emotion: the ability to recognize how word choice or emphasis on words changes the underlying meaning of a statement  Not everyone can do it: this is a skill that takes time and focus  Remember that speech (as a behavior) may be manipulative in nature, or it may be a socialized response to the discomfort of expressing possibly negatively viewed emotions  Subject may be asking for help/attempts for sympathy
  136. Vocal Cues  Vocal traits to focus on:  Tirades: long, angry speech filled with derision or accusations  Indirect speech: also called ‘reported speech’; used to provide information second-hand  Direct- person says: “I will be there”  Indirect: “He said that he will be there”  Pauses, speech errors: an increase in these is a sign that subject is either trying to make up a story as they go, or are under emotional distress
  137. Vocal Cues  Voice pitch increase/decrease: signs of larynx constriction/ expansion, generally due to affective response  Soft, slow speech: generally viewed to be sign of calmness and lack of emotional distress; however, if extreme in nature compared to baseline, may be due to subject manipulating vocal cues  Vocal Emblems: as in “oh, that’s too bad”  the ‘oh’ serves to increase in amplitude of the statement  emblems are intended to provide direction in decoding a statement
  138. Speech Patterns  Question to ask while assessing:  Is subject’s voice elective or non-elective?  Nonelective: Is voice related to medical or emotional issues?  assess for physical/mental handicap  is subject familiar with language?  is this a regional variation on speech (e.g. vocalics from Southern U.S. have notable characteristics)  Elective: any changes in vocalics is likely an affective cue
  139. Speech Patterns  Slow speech: monitor comfort/discomfort  Sarcasm: interpreting this requires analyzing contextual/ relational cues; also recognizing hyperbole and irony in speech  Distancing language: responses such as “I wouldn’t do such a thing”, instead of “I didn’t do it”  Use and emphasis of pronouns to direct speech to other persons
  140. Speech Patterns  Halting speech:  A type of ‘broken speech pattern’ where subject seems to stop and start sentences abruptly  this is generally a sign of insecurity, nervousness or confusion  can be sign of deception as subject is trying to get out of lie by coming up with a story as they are speaking  This can also be a sign of a subject attempting to be precise in their answers  if this speech pattern is in response to nervousness, other behavioral signs should also be apparent (Dimitrius, & Mazzarella, 1999)
  141. Speech Patterns  Pitch  Generally nonelective though if it rises with additional behavioral cues, look for behavioral traits of fear and anxiety  Low pitch - often related to attempts at seduction (note increase in eye gaze) or depression/sadness (note slouched posture and other behavioral cues)  Lack of inflection/emphasis - can be depression, boredom, distraction, also not preceding conversation and questions
  142. Vocal Traits  Whining: appeal for something  Breathiness: sign of seduction (if voluntary)  may be sign of fatigue/illness if involuntary  Audible breathing (large rise/fall of chest)  Sign of anger, excitement, frustration, disbelief, nervousness  Singular large breath - could be a sigh of relief, or exasperation  can note difference by secondary behavioral traits  if relief - note relaxation in shoulders and facial muscles  if exasperation - note increased tension in shoulders and face; often accompanies change in eye gaze  Mumbling: if chronic can be sign of low confidence, insecurity, anxiety, self-conscious, preoccupation, depression
  143. Speech Patterns  Analyzing responses  Non-responsive  did they hear you/understand you?  if unsure, ask leading questions (see later slides)  it is likely that subject’s reluctance to respond to questions is due to emotional reaction  Negative inference: if a person has a chance to explain behavior, but doesn’t you can draw negative inference that they are then indeed ‘guilty’  Re-directed response: answering question with a question - generally an attempt to change the direction of a conversation  can be sign of deception if this is an unusual pattern, or if it occurs in response to direct questions
  144. Speech Patterns  Assess subject’s word choice: is it struggle for them to be accurate with their words?  If content of speech is scattered it can mean person is trying to lengthen conversation for attention (look for other cues) or with hopes that they can evade detection by stalling
  145. Vocal Dysentery  In response to questioning a liar will often attempt to fill time until questioner provides affirmation that answer provided is sufficient  This is different than a subject that provides a thorough response in one fluid statement  Use this trait to your advantage when possible.  A subject who is being deceptive will commonly dig themselves into a hole by providing elaborate back-stories and unnecessary details that can be investigated later
  146. How to Question  Steps in deception detection process: 1. Get a clear view 2. Look 3. Focus 4. Determine 5. Resolve
  147. How to Question  Steps in deception detection process: 1. Get a clear view  initiate contact while close to subject 2. Look 3. Focus 4. Determine 5. Resolve
  148. How to Question  Steps in deception detection process: 1. Get a clear view 2. Look - at the ‘Big Picture’  establish emotional/behavioral baseline  expect initial nervousness and pacifying behavior  evaluate context and content of responses  attempt to reduce nervousness - begin conversation from neutral position without accusations 3. Focus 4. Determine 5. Resolve
  149. How to Question  Steps in deception detection process: 1. Get a clear view 2. Look 3. Focus - on what stands out  When do you notice shifts from baseline?  Look for increased us of pacifying behaviors  Allow enough time for subject to have emotional response  do not use machine-gun questioning  Look for synchrony/emphasis in responses 4. Determine 5. Resolve
  150. How to Question  Steps in deception detection process: 1. Get a clear view 2. Look 3. Focus 4. Determine - if clues are indicative of a pattern  isolate the cause of emotional responses  continue to ask pointed questions on that subject 5. Resolve
  151. How to Question  Steps in deception detection process: 1. Get a clear view 2. Look 3. Focus 4. Determine 5. Resolve - move forward with your decision  challenge response or making appropriate recommendations
  152. How to Question  Before beginning to question a subject, evaluate the environment of interaction.  When possible, avoid an audience and remove physical barriers  Doing these two things will remove potential distractors  Establish emotional baseline of subject before initiating dialogue  make observations from a distance, or use other sources to establish baseline emotional/behavioral condition
  153. How to Question  Be in a position to reveal/receive info  You should be able to see subject’s face and be at eye- level  When initiating contact, identify the intensity of pressure you are placing on subject based on your spatial axis with subject  An orientation that is direct (face-to-face) and close in nature creates a higher intensity in interaction  Distance to subject: this depends on the situation but generally arms length is best  allows evaluator to see smaller-scale changes in expression
  154. How to Question  Be aware of your own body language  Your face and body can indicate your acceptance of subject’s response or can be a sign that you are ready to conclude conversation (e.g. body tilt away from respondent, spatial axis shift towards door)  Try to avoid indicators that might influence responses.  Maintain blunted affect and avoid judgmental vocal cues.  Notice if subject displays effort to change your opinion or effect response from you (bragging, adding dramatic details)
  155. Rules of Listening  Be involved, not overbearing  Match mannerisms  attempt to mirror shifts in posture (isopraxism) - this helps develop bond between individuals  Provide verbal feedback:  Nod appropriately  “hmm..,”  “okay,”  “Right”  Beware of saying “I understand” - can be a trigger for subjects and allows for conversational distraction
  156. How to Question  Volunteer info: use self-disclosure to gain additional information and increase subjects comfort to obtain confession  example: “I’ve screwed up lots of times...we all make mistakes”  Beware of deflections - stay on point and in control of conversation while allowing for spontaneity  keep questions focused  use pointed questions to avoid distractions  they also elicit behavioral manifestations;  Remember that idle chatter does not mean they are being honest  truth is not evidenced by volume of information - it may be a smoke screen
  157. How to Question  Questioning style:  Ask questions from least to most provoking  Starting with direct accusations/appeals for information can elicit an immediate defensive position and makes it difficult to generate thorough, reflexive responses  Allow subject to warm up to information  If you are aware of specific details, refrain from imparting this knowledge until you ascertain their responses to those key areas  Use open-ended questions  go from broad to specific - focus conversation over time  If time is a factor, or if subject is straying (deflecting) from questions, use leading questions  Argumentative questions- use only if subject is nonresponsive to other questioning styles
  158. Rules of Listening 1. Don’t interrupt  a key to detecting deception requires that you allow the subject to provide as much information and details as possible  Even if subject is rambling - let it play out  When you think the subject’s response has concluded, wait several counts to be certain 2. Analyze associations - co-occurrence of behaviors and statements 3. Allow subjects to develop spontaneity and rhythm in responses  this helps develop comfort in subjects and increases the likelihood of an increased flow of information 4. Eliminate distractions - these can break the flow of a conversation and can provide an ‘out’ for emotional relief 5. Try not to think about your next question 6. Resist urge to criticize, correct, or condemn
  159. Polygraphy Questioning  Polygraph experts generally use one of the following interview techniques 1. Relevant/Irrelevant 2. Control Question Test 3. Guilty Knowledge Test
  160. Polygraphy Questioning  Polygraph experts generally use one of the following interview techniques 1. Relevant/Irrelevant  Asking interviewees questions that are either relevant/irrelevant in regards to topic in question. Irrelevant: “Is today Wednesday,” “Are you laying down?” Relevant: “Did you stab Eric,” “Did you use a rope to kill Jan”  Theory: respondent’s physiological response will be be stronger when relevant questions are asked. Problem: Most respondents will have physiological reaction to questions related to “relevant” issues (imagine being hooked up to polygraph sensors and asked “Did you kill Jon Doe?”) 2. Control Question Test 3. Guilty Knowledge Test
  161. Polygraphy Questioning  Polygraph experts generally use one of the following interview techniques 1. Relevant/Irrelevant 2. Control Question Test  Control questions are asked in hopes of establishing “lie indexes”  Subjects are told to answer to to questions like the following: “have you ever stolen something from a friend” Supposition is that all subjects should say “Yes”, thereby establishing a physiological “lie” response Responses from control questions are then compared to relevant questions to determine if subject is telling the truth Problem: this test assumes that control questions can provide accurate gauge of “lie” response in comparison to relevant question; also, subjects can augment response pattern to control questions which disguises the “lie” response 3. Guilty Knowledge Test
  162. Polygraphy Questioning  Polygraph experts generally use one of the following interview techniques 1. Relevant/Irrelevant 2. Control Question Test 3. Guilty Knowledge Test  Theory: only individuals with intimate knowledge of a crime will know specific information about a crime scene or criminal event  Subjects are not required to provide responses in this type of interrogation  If a subject has a strong physiological response to a specific item or piece of information they must have been involved in crime  For example: subjects are told “I will give you a list of possible murder weapons: knife, gun, rope, pipe...” The actual implement is usually placed halfway through series Problem: this test does not use controls; requires investigators to have multiple pieces of “insider” information
  163. Improving Your Lie Detection Skills  Silent film  To better gauge emotions in others imagine (or actually) watch a silent film or watch a foreign movie and try to determine the nature of their conversations.  Alternatively, mute the television and watch facial expressions and body language in others.  Observations in the park: while in social situations, pay close attention to others’ body language  Identify patterns in different social situations, making informed guesses on the outcomes of the interactions you see on a daily basis  Visit Paul Ekman’s Emotion Recognition training page at: 
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