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Mechanical Webinar 2011


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A guide to how and where to use Flowmaster Electromechanical Components.

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Mechanical Webinar 2011

  1. 1. Modeling Mechanical System Interactions in Flowmaster Automotive Fuel Injection and Aircraft Hydraulics Actuation System Examples Sudhi Uppuluri Shayne Ziegler Arlie Nuetzel Computational Sciences Flowmaster USA Flowmaster USA Expert Group USA Call-in Number: 1-631-267-4890 Click “Global Call-in numbers for other regions Access Code: 958 533 404
  2. 2. Agenda• Overview of Flowmaster• Introduction to Electro-Mechanical Components• Case Study: Aircraft Hydraulic Actuation System• Case Study: Gasoline Fuel Injection System• Question & Answer Session 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  3. 3. Flowmaster Overview - Analysis Capabilities• Incompressible and compressible analysis • Water, Oil, Fuel, compressible air, natural gas, etc… • Mach Number / choking considerations for compressible• Steady state scenarios • Snapshot results for given system conditions• Transient scenarios • Time changing results in response to varying conditions. • Examples: • Aircraft flight profile (long transient) • Valve/ pump shutdown - Fluid Inertia Considerations (fast transient) • Bleed air pneumatics and boundary condition varying transients. • Thermal Transient 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  4. 4. Flowmaster Overview - Analysis Capabilities• Heat transfer • Pipe Heat Transfer • Heat Exchanger • Solids Components: Complex or Conjugate Heat Transfer (Convection, radiation, conduction) • Thermal analysis throughout the system.• Design Options • Sizing Flow Balancing • Parametric Analysis • Built – in Features • COM Automation with Excel 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  5. 5. Flowmaster Overview - Analysis Capabilities• Aerospace • Gas / Liquid Interface Tanks for Propulsion • Body Forces Analysis for Fuel Systems • ECS Pack Components and Humidity• Automotive • Under hood Airflows / Segmented Analysis • Lubrication Bearing Models • AC Systems / Cabin Comfort Model• Gas Turbine • Secondary Flows: Swirl Solver, Cavity Analysis, Radial, Axial, and Tangential flow vectors • Combustion: Conjugate Heat Transfer and Equilibrium Heat Release (custom)• Oil and Gas • GIS Data Import • Pipeline Profile (Excel Data / Pods) Import. • Pipeline Results Analyzer • Buried and Partially Buried Pipe Heat Transfer Options 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  6. 6. Flowmaster In AerospaceWhere Can Flowmaster Be Used In Aerospace?• ECS Systems• Bleed Air Systems• Ice Protection Systems• Fuel Systems• Hydraulic Systems• Potable Water Systems 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  7. 7. Aerospace Fuel System Example 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  8. 8. Flowmaster In Automotive 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  9. 9. Automotive Cooling Example Cooling System Cabin airside Under hood AirflowDrive Cycles Lubrication System 2011© Flowmaster Group ©
  10. 10. Introduction to Electro-Mechanical Components
  11. 11. Introduction to Electromechanical Components Damper Spring End Stop PortForce Solenoid Mass EarthLever Lever Spacer FrictionPiston: Piston: CompressibleDouble Single CylinderActing Acting 2011© Flowmaster Group ©
  12. 12. Introduction to Electromechanical Components DCV: DCV: DCV: DCV: 2 port 3 Port 4 Port 4 Port Hydraulic Hybrid Elastic PipePD Pump Motor Pump (MOC)Cylinder: Cylinder: Cylinder: Volume 1R1A 1R2A 2R2A 2011© Flowmaster Group ©
  13. 13. Introduction to Electromechanical Components Mechanical - Fluid Interaction Modeling • Spool Valve • Fuel Injector Valve Reference: 2011© Flowmaster Group ©
  14. 14. Introduction to Electromechanical Components: Fluid Transients 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  15. 15. Introduction to Electromechanical Components: Fluid TransientsPressure waves travel through the pipe at the speed of sound. The passage of thesewaves is calculated using the Method of Characteristics, assuming a constant wavespeed. Pressure in the system is directly related to velocity (flow rate).In transient events flow rate changes cause pressure fluctuations (and vice versa). Forrapid transient events the pressure rise is:∆P = a * ρ* ∆vWhere: ∆P = Pressure change in fluid ρ = Liquid density ∆v = Velocity change 1 a = Wave speed  1 d     k tE ‘Fluid Transients in Systems, Wylie & Streeter, Published by Prentice Hall 1993, ISBN 0-13- 322173 -3. 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  16. 16. Investigation: Pressure Surge Transient Analysis 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  17. 17. Investigation: Pressure Surge Transient Analysis 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  18. 18. Introduction to Electromechanical Components Force End StopEarth Port Spring Damper Mass 2011© Flowmaster Group ©
  19. 19. Introduction to Electromechanical Components 2011© Flowmaster Group ©
  20. 20. Aerospace Applications of Mechanical Components Arlie Nuetzel Applications Engineer Flowmaster USA, Inc
  21. 21. Mechanical System Challenges• System Sizing • Pump Capacity • Pressure Requirements • System Volume • Hydraulic Power vs. Speed • Packaging• Survivability • Failure Modes • Redundancy• System Interactions • Resonance • Cavitation • Controller Oscillation 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  22. 22. Standard PD Pump Component• Hydraulic PD pump• Pseudo-transient, time averaged output Pressure Gauge Speed Controller 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  23. 23. PD Pump Output ResultsPressure Gauge Speed Controller 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  24. 24. Developing a Mechanical PD Pump Model• Piston Based• Equation of Motion:• Controller Script:• Inlet/Outlet Valves • Simple Check Behavior 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  25. 25. PD Pump Model Performance 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  26. 26. Three Piston PD Pump 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  27. 27. Transient Results• fd 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  28. 28. RPM sweep to find resonance 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  29. 29. 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  30. 30. FFT2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  31. 31. Hydraulic System Modeling• Pump• Flap Actuator• Slats Actuator• Landing Gear • Door Actuator • Gear Actuator 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  32. 32. Flap/Slat Actuator• Directional Control Valve• Flow Restrictor• Hydraulic Motor• Jack Screw (controller) 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  33. 33. Landing Gear Actuator• Directional Control Valve• Flow Restrictor• Hydraulic Piston• Mechanicals • Mass • End Stop • Earth 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  34. 34. Control Surface positions• Master Controller 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  35. 35. 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  36. 36. Custom Display 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  37. 37. 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©
  38. 38. Fuel Injector Dynamics Modeling Sudhi Uppuluri Principal Investigator Computational Sciences Experts Group (781) 640-2329
  39. 39. Fuel Injector Dynamics Modeling Sudhi Uppuluri, Principal InvestigatorComputational Sciences Experts Group, LLC (
  40. 40. WE ARE CSEGWe don’t sell software. We bring our modeling expertise and make your CAE software do advanced stuff. The stuff you bought the software to do to begin with.
  41. 41. Where CSEG fits in Augment your team with expert simulation capability Your Design • Deep expertise on Team CSEG system modeling • Brings best-in-class tools to the table • Added resource to your design teamDon’t just buy software. Add simulation capability to your team.
  42. 42. A smart approach to simulation Traditional approach CSEG approach• Evaluate which software to buy • CSEG does the analysis and provides with a trial license you with a simulation answers• Purchase software tool quickly(CSEG bring the right tools and manpower to the table)• Schedule and pay for training• Go through the learning curve of • Choose the right software once the the tool while building the model analysis is done (CSEG provides the• Spend ~2-3 yrs gaining models) competence and confidence on modeling with the new tool  Very cost-effective Expensive approach  Have simulation answers quickly (with Lost opportunity costs confidence in them) Simulation tool not effective during  Meet your analysis deadlines the initial period  Significantly shorten the learning Software training does not cover your curve application.  Get calibrated model of your system built by experts immediately.
  43. 43. Our Approach• We focus on the problem, combining the right tools to provide accurate answers for your simulation challenge – not the tool any one company is selling. CSEG maintains licenses for best in class COTS tools providing instant technical capability expansion to your projects.System Tools CFD Tools• Flowmaster* • Ansys Fluent• Amesim • STAR-CD• Gamma Technologies OtherOptimization Tools • Matlab/Simulink• iSight* • Can integrate your• ModeFrontier in-house software with COTS
  44. 44. Gasoline Direct Injection• Simplified Example of electronically controlled gasoline direct injection system* Example layout from Wikipedia, retrieved Oct 2011
  45. 45. The system model Engine Control Unit (Simulink)Cylinder firing FuelTiming, Voltages consumption  Integrate with engine control to evaluate and optimize fuel consumption  Precise engine- management software to accurately tailor fuel-injection timing and duration
  46. 46. 1D translation of the injector * Reference from Advanced Engine Technology, Heinz Heisler
  47. 47. Modeling Considerations (Mechanical) Coefficient of restitution to model needle bouncing
  48. 48. Modeling Considerations (Fluid) Pressure waves inside the passagesCombustionchamberpressure Cd Discharge Coefficient
  49. 49. Injector Dynamics 1 2 3  Flow rate fluctuations from 1 supply pressure variations 2 Needle bouncing   Pressure waves from needle 3 closure
  50. 50. Overall Network
  51. 51. Which variables should I really spend a lot of time getting right ? What about: supply pressure fluctuations? Coefficient of Discharge? Needle mass?
  52. 52. Parameter study• Sensitivity study of select input parameters performed using Isight by Simulia.• Isight linked with Flowmaster through MS Excel• Automated input generation, runs and results extraction
  53. 53. Parameter Study (an example)  Shows effect of select variables on amount of fuel injected  Extremely Important that we get the needle port area, Cd and fluctuations in the supply pressure accurately characterized.  Variables such as Coefficient of Restitution, and fuel filter loss were not that important in this case. * Analysis using Isight by Simulia
  54. 54. Parameter Study (an example)Fluctuations in mass of fuel injected Fluctuations in input parameters * Analysis using Isight by Simulia
  55. 55. Calculating Cd• Discharge coefficient directly affects the fuel flow rate through the injector.• Cd is typically a function of injector port area.• Few ways of determining Cd – Literature indicates Cd range from 0.690.73 (references avbl) with some examples much higher. – CFD is a good way to determine the Cd for your particular injector (at varying port openings) (predictive) – Can back-calculate from available test data (non-predictive)
  56. 56. FURTHER Sudhi Uppuluri has over 14 years of experience in the simulation industry. HeDISCUSSION worked as a consulting engineer and sales manager at Flowmaster USA for 8 years .He has various technical publications on related subjects in SAE and AIAA journals. He holds a Masters in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a Certificate in Strategy and Innovation from the MIT Sloan School of business. Contact: Sudhi Uppuluri Principal Investigator (781) 640 2329
  57. 57. Question & Answer Session Thank you for attending! Please use the “Raise hand” icon to ask technical questions... For additional information, please contact…Flowmaster Sales inquires: Flowmaster Support 847-901-4224 847-901-4242 Sudhi Uppuluri Principal Investigator Computational Sciences Experts Group (781) 640-2329 2011© Flowmaster Group © ©