Modeling Mechanical System Interactions in Flowmaster
Automotive Fuel Injection and Aircraft Hydraulics
Actuation System Examples
Shayne Ziegler Arlie Nuetzel
Flowmaster USA Flowmaster USA
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System Tools CFD Tools
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Gasoline Direct Injection
* Example layout from Wikipedia, retrieved Oct 2011
The system model
Engine Control Unit
Cylinder firing Fuel
Timing, Voltages consumption
engine control to
1D translation of the injector
* Reference from
Which variables should I really spend a lot of
time getting right ?
supply pressure fluctuations?
Coefficient of Discharge?
• Sensitivity study of select
performed using Isight by
• Isight linked with
Flowmaster through MS
• Automated input
generation, runs and
Shows effect of select variables on
amount of fuel injected
Extremely Important that we get the
needle port area, Cd and fluctuations in
the supply pressure accurately
Variables such as Coefficient of
Restitution, and fuel filter loss were not
that important in this case.
* Analysis using Isight by Simulia
Fluctuations in mass of fuel
Fluctuations in input
* Analysis using Isight by Simulia
• Discharge coefficient directly affects the fuel flow rate
through the injector.
• Cd is typically a function of injector port area.
• Few ways of determining Cd
– Literature indicates Cd range from 0.690.73 (references
avbl) with some examples much higher.
– CFD is a good way to determine the Cd for your particular
injector (at varying port openings) (predictive)
– Can back-calculate from available test data (non-predictive)
FURTHER Sudhi Uppuluri has over 14 years of
experience in the simulation industry. He
worked as a consulting engineer and sales
manager at Flowmaster USA for 8 years
.He has various technical publications on
related subjects in SAE and AIAA journals.
He holds a Masters in Aerospace
Engineering from the University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign and a Certificate
in Strategy and Innovation from the MIT
Sloan School of business.
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