jean watson

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  • Carative factors/caritas Process- give use insight as to who/what Watson believes is person, health, nursing, and environment
  • “Core” of nursing- aspects of nursing actions including therapeutic healing processes and relationships; the deeper aspects of nursing care“Trim”- medical based nursing care including functional tasks, procedures, focused upon treatment and technology
  • 1.) Formation of a humanistic-altruistic system of values- begins at an early age and is developed in congruence with your parent’s values, then is shaped by your own life experiences2.) Instillation of faith-hope- particularly where medicine has failed, the utilization of faith-hope is essential, can provide a sense of well-being for the patient3. )Cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others- Employing empathy, sensitivity, and genuine emotion when serving patient; a therapeutic use of self (This is the basis for factor #4)4.) Development of a helping-trusting, human caring relationship- Characteristics include communication (verbal and non-verbal, with an emphasis on the importance of listening), congruence, empathy, and warmth5.) Promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings- Allow for feelings and thoughts that can alter behavior; the awareness of feelings assists in the understanding of subsequent behaviors
  • 6.) Systematic use of a creative problem-solving caring process- utilization of the scientific method allows for control, prediction, and self-correction7.) Promotion of transpersonal teaching-learning- as caring nurses, we must focus equally on both the teaching and learning processes; understanding a patient’s perception of something is essential to nursing8.)Provision for a supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment- providing safety, comfort, and privacy is essential to the factor. These internal and external variables can be manipulated to possibly predict and then support a patients physical and psychological well-being9.)Assistance with gratification of human needs- a hierarchy of needs (think of Maslow’s) starting with biophysical needs (food, fluid, elimination, psychophysical (activity, sexuality), psychosocial (achievement, affiliation), finally intrapersonal-interpersonal (self actualization)10.)Allowance for existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces- this factor assists the nurse in finding the strength or courage for a patient to confront life or death
  • 1.) Practice of loving kindness and equanimity within the context of caring consciousness- “I’ve always liked this patient”--Validates the uniqueness of yourself and others, honors the gifts and talents of the individual. Treating others with kindness, respect, and dignity2.) Being authentically present, and enabling and sustaining the deep belief system and subjective life world of self and one-being-cared-for- Instilling genuine hope when things are becoming overwhelming for the patient--Achieved through active listening, eye contact, and touch. Promotes the human connection, assists in viewing the person as a human being, not an object3.) Cultivation of one’s own spiritual practices and transpersonal self, going beyond ego self, opening to others with sensitivity and compassion--Achieved through self-reflection, meaningful rituals (prayer, meditation), nurturing your own spiritual beliefs and practices
  • 4.)Developing and sustaining a helping-trusting, authentic caring relationship- “I feel a connection with this patient” or “I know this patient well, I’ve taken care of him during his previous hospitalizations”---Practicing being authentically present with patients, non-judgemental interactions, utilizes constructive and respectful communication5.) Being present to, and supportive of, the expression of positive and negative feelings as a connection with deeper spirit of self and the one-being-cared-for- “What are your goals for today/your hospitalization?” “How do you feel”--Allows for uncertainty and the unknown, accepts and helps with the development and dealings of negative feelings6.) Creative use of self and all ways of knowing as part of the caring process; to engage in artistry of caring-healing practices- “I’ve had to use some creative ways to encourage this patient to take their medication”---Employing all sorts of knowledge, not just the empirical, but also aesthetic, ethical, persona, etc. Involves the therapeutic use of self
  • 7.) Engaging in genuine teaching-learning experience that attends to unity of being and meaning, attempting to stay within other’s frames of reference- ---Actively listening and employing communication that is quiet, respectful and calming. Allows for collaboration8.) Creating healing environment at all levels- Physical, non-physical, guarding dignity, privacy, and comfort; arranging the patient’s room , pictures, etc.---Creates a healing environment for the human connection/ transpersonal caring relationship to occur. Allows for the patient to help in deciding routines, plan of care, comfort measures, etc.9.) Assisting with basic needs, with an intentional caring consciousness, administering ‘human care essentials’, which potentiate alignment of mindybodyspirit, wholeness, and unity of being in all aspects of care, tending to both embodied spirit and evolving spiritual emergence- assisting a patient to the bathroom with dignity, helping the patient to find some harmony and balance in their life as they are adjusting to possibly a new diagnosis or treatment regimen---Views others as an integrated whole, respecting unique individual needs, involves the family and others in care
  • 10.) Opening and attending to spiritual-mysterious, and existential dimensions of one’s own life-death; soul care for self and the one-being-cared-for- helps you as the nurse to understand where they are coming from/their frame of mind. ---Allowing miracles to happen, the unknown to occur, surrendering control, believing in the fundamental goo
  • Person, environment, health, nursing
  • Curative Factor/Caritas Process 8: Supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment9: Completing human care essentials, the environment your care creates
  • -very incongruent with current settings
  • Person, environment, health, nursing
  • Most Carative Factors focus on defining thisMost incongruent with actual current nursing practiceFawcett- interview of Watson
  • -A spiritual practice, a calling: similar to Nightingale's views. Nursing is a healing role, working in harmony with nature
  • Bi-directional, we as the nurse are also benefiting and learning from the relationship
  • Acknowledge or advertise this type of nursing care, but fail in the actual implementation
  • One of the main three aspects of Human Caring Theory (CF/ CP, TCR, CE)Nursing care driven by most CF/CP, this one draws specifically from 4- Developing and sustaining a helping-trusting, authentic caring relationship5- being present to, and supportive of the expression of positive and negative feelings as a connection with deeper spirit of self and the one-being-cared-forNursing, healthBidirectional, both parties benefit from the relationship
  • Third and final main central aspect to Human Caring TheoryActual implementation of care
  • Environment: loud, impersonal
  • We all have examples of how we have failed to deliver nursing care ideal to Jean Watson’s Human Caring Theory-neglected holistic aspects of care-only had time to meet physical needsEx from practice-Hospital I work at heavily advertises family centered care-redo staffing to save money-many babies who should or need to be 1:1 are 2:1
  • jean watson

    1. 1. Jean Watson’s Caring Science and Human Caring Theory<br />Emily Becker<br />Laura Dryjanski<br />Kristen Neigebauer<br />
    2. 2. A Brief Background<br />The Theory of Human Caring was developed between 1975 and 1979, first published in 1979<br />According to Watson, “It was my initial attempt to bring meaning and focus to nursing as an emerging discipline and distinct health profession […]” (Parker, 2001)<br />“[…] I tried to make explicit that nursing’s values, knowledge, and practices of human caring were geared toward subjective inner healing processes and the life world of the experiencing person, requiring unique caring-healing arts and a framework called “carative factors” which complemented conventional medicine but stood in stark contrast to “curative factors” (Parker, 2001)<br />
    3. 3. The Basics<br />The philosophy of caring and science examines the relatedness of everything, including:<br />Human Science<br />Human Caring Processes<br />Experiences<br />Phenomena<br />Watson’s Caring Science and Human Caring Theory blends the sciences and humanities<br />Watson likes to cite Eastern Philosophy and the foundations of Buddhism<br />Focus on holism<br />
    4. 4. A Three Part Foundation<br />According to Watson (2001), there are three main conceptual elements comprising her theory:<br />1.) The Carative Factors/Caritas Process<br />2.) The development and utilization of the transpersonal caring relationship<br />3.) The caring occasion or caring event<br />
    5. 5. Carative Factors<br />Goal was to guide the “core” of nursing<br />In contrast to medicine’s “curative factors”<br />Interdependent<br />Used to “honor the human dimensions of nursing’s work and the inner life world and subjective experiences of the people we serve” (Watson,2007)<br />First three factors are the philosophical foundation for the science of caring<br />The final seven build upon these<br />Transitioned to the “caritas processes”, expanding on the original factors<br />
    6. 6. “It is when we include caring and love in our work and our life that we discover and affirm that nursing, like teaching, is more than just a job; it is also a life-giving and life-receiving career for a lifetime of growth and learning” (Parker, 2001). <br />
    7. 7. Original 10 Carative Factors<br />Formation of a humanistic-altruistic system of values<br />Instillation of faith-hope<br />Cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others<br />Development of a helping-trusting, human caring relationship<br />Promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings (Watson, 1985)<br />
    8. 8. Carative Factors Continued<br />Systematic use of a creative problem-solving caring process<br />Promotion of transpersonal teaching-learning<br />Provision for a supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment<br />Assistance with gratification of human needs<br />Allowance for existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces (Watson, 1985)<br />
    9. 9. Moving Forward<br />As Watson continued her work, the 10 Carative Factors transitioned to the 10 “Caritas Processes”<br />Caritas meaning “to cherish” (Greek)<br />The processes allow for the intersecting of the personal and professional aspects of nursing care<br />Gives us clues as to who/what Watson views as the person, health, environment, and nursing<br />
    10. 10. 10 Caritas Processes<br />Practice of loving kindness and equanimity within the context of caring consciousness<br />Being authentically present, and enabling and sustaining the deep belief system and subjective life world of self and one-being-cared-for<br />Cultivation of one’s own spiritual practices and transpersonal self, going beyond ego self, opening to others with sensitivity and compassion (Parker, 2001)<br />
    11. 11. 10 Caritas Processes Continued<br />Developing and sustaining a helping-trusting, authentic caring relationship<br />Being present to, and supportive of, the expression of positive and negative feelings as a connection with deeper spirit of self and the one-being-cared-for<br />Creative use of self and all ways of knowing as part of the caring process; to engage in artistry of caring-healing practices (Parker, 2001)<br />
    12. 12. 10 Caritas Processes Continued<br />Engaging in genuine teaching-learning experience that attends to unity of being and meaning, attempting to stay within other’s frames of reference<br />Creating healing environment at all levels <br />Assisting with basic needs, with an intentional caring consciousness, administering ‘human care essentials’, which potentiate alignment of mindybodyspirit, wholeness, and unity of being in all aspects of care, tending to both embodied spirit and evolving spiritual emergence (Parker, 2001)<br />
    13. 13. 10 Caritas Processes Continued <br />Opening and attending to spiritual-mysterious, and existential dimensions of one’s own life-death; soul care for self and the one-being-cared-for (Parker, 2001)<br />
    14. 14. The Person<br />A complex, holistic being; an evolving soul<br />People have value, meaning<br />Not an object, and cannot be separated from self, other, nature, or the larger universe <br />Impacted and influence by the surrounding environment<br />A human being has complex needs including physical, psychological, psychosocial<br />A person is to be cared for, nurtured, and both valued and respected<br />
    15. 15. The Person Continued<br />Comprise of three ‘spheres of being’: mind, body, and spirit<br />“[…] a valued person in and of him or herself is to be cared for, respected, nurtured, understood, and assisted; in general a philosophical view of a person as a fully functional integrated self. He, human is viewed as greater than and different from the sum of his or her parts” (Watson, 1985)<br />“The core of human caring theory is about human caring relationships and the deeply human experiences of life itself, not just health-illness phenomena, as traditionally defined within medicine” (Fawcett, 2002).<br />
    16. 16. The Environment<br />Driven by Curative Factors/ Caritas Process 8 and 9<br />Should be conducive to holistic healing<br />Designed to be comfortable, not the typical hospital environment<br />An open system containing both internal (mental, spiritual, and cultural) and external (physical, environmental, and safety) variables that we as caregivers can manipulate<br />Can serve to expand the person’s “awareness and consciousness”, to promote mind-body-spirit healing, wholeness, and well-being (Watson, 1999)<br />Is comprised of“[…] noise, privacy, light, access to nature, color, space and smells that can have an impact on the caring-healing process” (Watson, 1999)<br />
    17. 17. Environment Continued<br />“The person is split apart and the soul is replaced with narcissism of self or denied all together. The human soul is further destroyed with a depersonalized, manmade environment, advanced technology, and robot treatment for cure, delivered by strangers in a strange environment” (Watson, 1988)<br />The typically employed medical model reduces humans to body systems, individual cells or atoms, in order to treat and cure<br />Calls for a balance between the high tech environments of the typical hospital setting with a high touch environment<br />To “[…] transform the environment into one in which healing can occur” (Ryan, 2005)<br />
    18. 18. Health<br />Holistic- “When the human being is considered from a holistic perspective, health implies harmony and balance among the various dimensions of human experience- physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, and so on” (Parker, 2001)<br />defined as a high level of overall physical, mental, spiritual, and social well-being and functioning<br />Can be defined as the absence of illness, but health can be obtained even when physical wholeness cannot be obtained <br />Adaptive-maintenance in daily functions, harmony<br />
    19. 19. Nursing<br />Driven by most Curative Factors/ Caritas Process<br />“This caring science seeks to honor the depth, humility, connection, compassion, responsibility, and concern for human welfare and optimal human development/evolution” (Watson, 2008)<br />Watson defines as “A human science of persons and human health-illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic, and ethical human transactions” (Watson, 1985)<br />“[…] being present, attentive, conscious, and intentional as the nurse works with another person” (Fawcett, 2002)<br />“Nurses and practitioners who are literate with caring relationships are capable of having loving, caring, kind, and sensitively meaningful, personal connections with an increasingly enlightened public: a public seeking wholeness and spiritual connections for their wellbeing, not just sterile, depersonalized medical technological interventions, void of human-to-human caring relationships” (Watson, 2009)<br />Comprised of loving kindness, caring, compassion, gentleness, calmness, wholeness/healing<br />Occurs during the caring event<br />
    20. 20. Nursing Continued<br />Starts with an authentic presence<br />Connection with another person<br />A spiritual practice, a calling<br />Both a science and an art<br />Acknowledges science, art, intuitive, cultural, and spiritual knowledge<br />Like Carper, also acknowledges and places high value on aesthetic, ethical, and personal ways of knowing<br />Caring is just as valuable and essential to our patients as curing<br />Nursing is complimentary to curing<br />You can have caring without curing, but you cannot have true curing without caring<br />
    21. 21. Nursing Continued<br />Caring affects self and others<br />Bidirectional relationship, we also benefit, learn<br />The transpersonal care/transpersonal relationship is central to Watson’s theory and what she calls of nurses<br />A true presence<br />Moving toward a unitary-transformative perspective from a more general, multiple paradigm view<br />
    22. 22. Nursing Continued<br />Nursing’s tasks according to Watson<br />“Healing our relationship with self and other/s, and our place in the wider universe;<br />Finding meaning in our own life and health-illness concerns, as we re-awaken to our profound compassionate, caring and healing service in the world;<br />Understanding and transforming our own and other’s suffering;<br />Deepening our understanding and acceptance of impermanence, the expanding-contracting of all life cycles (birthing-dying/the dark and light), including preparing for our own death” (Watson, 2002)<br />Waton’s definition of caring is often incongruent with current hospital systems and policy<br />
    23. 23. The Transpersonal Caring Relationship<br />Occurs during the ‘caring event’, central to Watson’s view of nursing<br />Calls the nurse to go beyond the objective, physical assessment with concern for the person’s deeper, subjective well-being<br />The nurse “[…] seeks to connect with and embrace the spirit or soul of the other, through the process of caring and healing and being in authentic relation, in the moment” (Parker, 2001)<br />Goal is to protect, enhance, and preserve the person’s dignity, humanity, wholeness, inner harmony, and overall well-being<br />Can be nurtured by movements, gestures, facial and bodily expressions, the sharing of information, touch, sound, etc. <br />
    24. 24. The Caring Event<br />“Two persons (nurse and other) together with their unique life histories and phenomenal field in human care transaction comprise an event” (Watson, 1985)<br />“An event, such as an actual occasion of human care, is a focal point in space and time from which experience and perception are taking place, but the actual occasion of caring has a field of its own that is greater than the occasion itself” (Watson 1985)<br />Implementation of nursing actions<br />Every encounter has the opportunity to be a caring occasion<br />
    25. 25. Implications for Nursing Practice<br />Need for an extensive understanding and appreciation of the caritas process <br />Very complex, can be difficult to understand<br />No defined parameters<br />Reality:<br />Nurses generally like her theory, emphasis on care and compassion<br />Values aspects of nursing central to why nurses become nurses and not doctors<br />How realistic is the implementation of this theory in current practice with constrains such as<br />“Working conditions that inhabit caring are lack of accountability for nurses, poor staffing, unreasonable workloads, and poor patient care” (Quinn et al 2003)<br />
    26. 26. Implications for Nursing Practice Continued<br />Person:<br />Our healthcare system acknowledges that humans are holistic beings, but often treats them more as objects<br />Environment:<br />Sterile, non-home-like, not conducive to healing <br />
    27. 27. Implications for Nursing Continued<br />Health:<br />Generally accepted as overall physical, emotional, psychosocial, psychological, etc.<br />Implementing practices to better achieve this<br />Ex: Child Life, complimentary medicine, music therapy<br />Still falling short, placed on back burner, first to be forgotten<br />Nursing: <br />Congruent with how most nurses feel about nursing care<br />Grounded in the discipline of nursing and nursing science<br />Incongruent with current institution standards, policy, and how nursing is actually implemented<br />
    28. 28. Discussion of Implications for Nursing<br />
    29. 29. References<br />Bevis, E. O., & Watson, J. (1989). Toward a caring curriculum: a new pedagogy for nursing. New York, New York: National League for Nursing Press.<br />Fawcett, J. (2002) The nurse theorists: 21st century updates- Jean Watson. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15(3), 214- 219)<br />Parker, M. E. (2001). Nursing theories and nursing practice. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.<br />Quinn, J., Smith, M., Swanson, K., Ritenbaugh, C., Swanson, K., & Watson, J. (2003) Research guidelines for assessing the impact of the healing relationship in clinical nursing. Alternative Therapies, 9(3). A65-A79. <br />Ryan, L. (2005). The journey to integrate Watson’s Caring Theory with clinical practice. International Journal of Human Caring, 9(3), 26-30. <br />Watson, J. (1979). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. Boston: Little Brown.<br />Watson, J. (1985). Nursing: Human Science and Human Care. Connecticut, USA: Appleton-Century-Crofts.<br />Watson, J. (1997). The theory of human caring: Retrospective and prospective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(1), 49-52.<br />Watson, J. (1999). Postmodern nursing and beyond. Toronto, Canada: Churchill Livingstone.<br />Watson, J. (2000). Via negativa: Considering caring by way of non-caring. The Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, 7(1), 4-8.<br />Watson, J. (2001). Jean Watson: Theory of human caring. In M.E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories and nursing practice (pp. 343-354). Philadelphia: Davis. <br />Watson, J. (2002). Guest editorial: Nursing: Seeking its source and survival. ICU NURS WEBJ Issue 9, pp 1-7 Spring.<br />

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