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PREPARED BY:
MARRY GRACE C. MARASIGAN
CRIS ALBERT C. LLENA
It

is learning a second
language after a first
language is already
established.
 Language

spoken at home
 Amount of opportunity to
practice the second language
 Internal motivation of the
learner
 ...
 By

setting
 By topic
 By speaker
NOTE: The ability of the a person to use a second language will depend on
his/her fa...
Let us have the following questions?






Is the nature of second language learning similar or
different to first lang...
Case 1


D is a boy growing up in Singapore. His father is
Malaysian Chinese. The father spoke Malay and
English as a chi...
PHONOLOGICAL RULES


Phonological Rules

Examples






1)Deletion







Vowels
Final consonants
unstressed syll...
PHONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT








Children begin to acquire an inventory of speech sounds from an early
age.(L1) Nevert...
PHONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS &
METALINGUISTIC AWARENESS
Phonological
awareness
and
metalinguistic awareness are closely
associat...
PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS &
METALINGUISTIC AWARENESS


At a simplest level phonemic awareness
means that the child becomes a...
PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS &
METALINGUISTIC AWARENESS


Phonemic awareness is often considered to be an
important pre- readin...
PHONEME SEGMENTATION



Other
aspect
of
phonological
awareness include the ability to
segment words, to recognize syllabl...
PHONEME SEGMENTATION
If you take /p/ form „pit‟, you
have „it‟

And if you take /p/ from „pin‟,
you have „in‟




Howev...
MORPHOPHONEMIC RULES
Morphophonemic rules are linguistic rules

that
address
connections
between
morphology and phonology....
MORPHOPHONEMIC RULES
Children also starts to learn when word
segments are meaningful as
part of
phonological awareness:
A ...
MORPHOPHONEMIC RULES

Development of phonological awareness is
helpful for early literacy skills as it facilitates
an unde...
What makes a successful beginner
reader?


will need to have skills in letter recognition,
phoneme segmentation, and word...
RHYMING
 Rhyming

is
also
part
of
phonological
development
as
children realize that some sound
are the same while others ...
RHYMING
 Rhyming

is
also
part
of
phonological
development
as
children realize that some sound
are the same while others ...
RHYMING













Ex.1
In the story, George is unhappy with the way he looks and so he decides
to make a cha...
ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE

FORM

MEANING

USE

MORPHOLOGY
SYNTAX
PHONOLOGY

SEMANTICS

PRAGMATICS
ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE
Form- can be described as the structure of language or the „what‟ of

language. Talking about form req...
ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE
ASPECTS OF
LANGUAGE FORM

FORM

MORPHOLOGY

MORPHEMES
WORDS

SYNTAX

PHRASES
CLAUSES

PHONOLOGY

PHONE...
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN
PRIMARY SCHOOL YEARS
MORPHOLOGY
Morphology is the study of morphemes and the way they combine to f...
3 Important areas of the development of language form (L2)
(morphemes, syntax, phonology)
All 3 areas(morphemes, syntax an...
3 Important areas of the development of language form (L2)
(morphemes, syntax, phonology)

explAIN
PHOtograph

Not always
...
3 Important areas of the development of language form (L2)
(morphemes, syntax, phonology)

Tongue twisters, like the one b...
Language Development in the Secondary School Years

Morphology-their development in derivational morphology continues
thro...
Phonological Development in Secondary School

Phonologically- they learn to vary word stress patterns according to the
typ...
Learner language
Learner language is the written or spoken

language produced by a learner. It is also the
main type of da...
Two Types of Learning that Second-language
Learners are engage in

ITEM learning, or the learning of formulaic
chunks of l...
Interlanguage

An interlanguage is an emerging language
system in the mind of a second-language
learner.
Three Different Processes of
Interlanguage
Language transfer. Learners fall back on their mother tongue to

help create th...
Language transfer
One important difference between firstlanguage acquisition and second-language
acquisition is that the p...
External Factors

The primary factor affecting language acquisition appears to be the
input that the learner receives. Ste...
Social Aspects
Three Types of Social Structure
 Socialinguistic setting
-the role of the second language in society
 Spe...
Internal Factors

Internal factors affecting second-language acquisition are those
which stem from the learner's own mind....
Cognitive Approaches

 Cognitive research is concerned with the mental processes
involved in language acquisition, and ho...
Sociocultural Approaches

 , it is a theory of mind and not of general
social explanations of language acquisition.
Accor...
Linguistic approaches

 consider language knowledge to be unique
and distinct from any other type of
knowledge.
 Two mai...
Linguistic approaches

 Typological universals are principles that hold for all
the world's languages.
 The theory of un...
Individual variation

 There is considerable variation in the rate at which
people learn second languages, and in the lan...
Affective Factors

 The learner's attitude to the learning process has also
been identified as being critically important...
Affective Factors

 The learner's attitude to the learning process has also
been identified as being critically important...
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second language acquisition

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second language acquisition

  1. 1. PREPARED BY: MARRY GRACE C. MARASIGAN CRIS ALBERT C. LLENA
  2. 2. It is learning a second language after a first language is already established.
  3. 3.  Language spoken at home  Amount of opportunity to practice the second language  Internal motivation of the learner  Reason that the second language is needed.
  4. 4.  By setting  By topic  By speaker NOTE: The ability of the a person to use a second language will depend on his/her family‟s ability to speak more than one language. It is important for parents to provide a strong language model.
  5. 5. Let us have the following questions?    Is the nature of second language learning similar or different to first language acquisition? Does the child bring something different to the process of second language acquisition? Is the linguistic environment the same for both first and second language acquisition?
  6. 6. Case 1  D is a boy growing up in Singapore. His father is Malaysian Chinese. The father spoke Malay and English as a child, but he rarely uses Malay now. His mother is monolingual English. The family speaks English at home. When D entered primary school at age 7, he began to take Malay classes. He sometimes asks his father about vocabulary, but his father isn‟t much help with the type of homework given by the school. His mother doesn‟t know much Malay, but she is taking a few Malay classes in the evening.
  7. 7. PHONOLOGICAL RULES  Phonological Rules Examples    1)Deletion      Vowels Final consonants unstressed syllables consonant in clusters     consonant TV-/ti:/ moon-/mu:/ banana-/nana/ cloud-/kaUd/, sleep -/si:p/ cry-/kaI/ carrot-/kaet/ 2) Back assimilation dog- /gag/: duck - /k^k/: 3) Reduplication scissors-/si:si:/ 4) Substitution fricatives w/plosives this-/dIs/ something- s^mpIn/        
  8. 8. PHONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT     Children begin to acquire an inventory of speech sounds from an early age.(L1) Nevertheless, it isn‟t until they reach early primary school(8) when they can produce most of the adult sounds and blends of the English language.(L2). In general pre- school children cannot maintain all the adult phonetic contrasts but they have systematic ways of reducing adult pronunciation of words to forms which are within their capabilities. Besides developing the ability to pronounce individual sounds(segmental features)children also begin to adopt the pitch movements in adult speakers intonation. In fact intonation develops pre verbally- that is even before children produce intelligible words , they may imitate pitch movements they hear in adult speech. Finer details of intonation and stress patterns develop more gradually into the primary school years.
  9. 9. PHONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT 
  10. 10. PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS & METALINGUISTIC AWARENESS Phonological awareness and metalinguistic awareness are closely associated. As children develop an awareness of language as an abstraction, one part of their awareness is that different sounds make up words. This include phonemic awareness as well as other areas of phonology.
  11. 11. PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS & METALINGUISTIC AWARENESS  At a simplest level phonemic awareness means that the child becomes aware that words are made up of individual sounds(Morrow,2001,p.142). As phonemic awareness develops, children realize that the word „bug” has three sounds: /b/, /^/, /g/. When reading or hearing the children‟s story, A bug, a Bear and a Boy (McPhail, 1998) for example, they realize that these key words all start with the same sound,/b/.
  12. 12. PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS & METALINGUISTIC AWARENESS  Phonemic awareness is often considered to be an important pre- reading behavior and is strengthened through phonics instruction. It can be developed through language play, through rereading children‟s books that make use of alteration and rhyme, and through discussing graphophonemic cues during child-adult shared reading. Phonemic awareness is simply hearing that there are different sounds in words and being able to segment the sounds, say them and then blend them together. It helps children to grasp a basic literacy concepts of alphabetic languages such as English. Sounds can be written down with letters
  13. 13. PHONEME SEGMENTATION  Other aspect of phonological awareness include the ability to segment words, to recognize syllables and to recognize systematic changes in words that are semantically related. Segmentation of words includes the ability to separate a sound from a word.
  14. 14. PHONEME SEGMENTATION If you take /p/ form „pit‟, you have „it‟  And if you take /p/ from „pin‟, you have „in‟   However, if you take /p/ from „pain‟ you have______?
  15. 15. MORPHOPHONEMIC RULES Morphophonemic rules are linguistic rules that address connections between morphology and phonology. For example, „long‟ is one syllable; adding the morpheme „er‟ makes it „longer‟- two syllables. Also, there is a change in the final consonant sound in order to make the second syllable distinct. Thus the final sound, the syllable structure, and even the meaning undergo a systematic change that is part of „morphophonemics‟.
  16. 16. MORPHOPHONEMIC RULES Children also starts to learn when word segments are meaningful as part of phonological awareness: A child begins to learn the distinctions before primary school, and continues development in this area through the primary school years.
  17. 17. MORPHOPHONEMIC RULES Development of phonological awareness is helpful for early literacy skills as it facilitates an understanding that letters can represent sounds, a crucial concepts for beginning literacy in alphabetic language.
  18. 18. What makes a successful beginner reader?  will need to have skills in letter recognition, phoneme segmentation, and word recognition, in order to be able to map letters onto appropriate phonetic units, to blend the phoneme segments into words, and then to connect the “sounded out” word to the appropriate meaning.( Snow,Tabors, Nicholson & Kurland, 1995,p.37)
  19. 19. RHYMING  Rhyming is also part of phonological development as children realize that some sound are the same while others are different.
  20. 20. RHYMING  Rhyming is also part of phonological development as children realize that some sound are the same while others are different.
  21. 21. RHYMING            Ex.1 In the story, George is unhappy with the way he looks and so he decides to make a change. A child and her tutor are discussing the story. T : (reading)So George decided there was only one thing to do. He would have to change his shape. “I‟m going to be slim, and I‟m going to be trim, and then my shape won‟t be so grim!” he said. Look at the words on this page .Can you tell me which are the words that sound the same? C: Slim, trim, T: yes, well done. “S L I M slim. T R I M trim.” Any more words which you can identify? C: T: C: And “ Grim” That‟s right. “G R I M grim. Shall we say the words together again Slim, trim , grim,
  22. 22. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE FORM MEANING USE MORPHOLOGY SYNTAX PHONOLOGY SEMANTICS PRAGMATICS
  23. 23. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE Form- can be described as the structure of language or the „what‟ of language. Talking about form requires a metalanguage -meta means beyond , a language about language. Meaning- The study of meaning in language is known as semantics. In semantics the focus is mostly on meaning which is relatively fixed and does not vary with content. Conceptual meaning (denotative)-is what a word refers to or denotes , such as person , thing or event. For example man means an adult who is not a female. Connotative meaning (associative)-is when a word has an additional sense that is beyond its conceptual meaning. Use- The study of the use of language in society and the myriad factors that influence it is called Pragmatics.
  24. 24. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE FORM FORM MORPHOLOGY MORPHEMES WORDS SYNTAX PHRASES CLAUSES PHONOLOGY PHONEMES SYLLABLES PROMINENCE TONE
  25. 25. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN PRIMARY SCHOOL YEARS MORPHOLOGY Morphology is the study of morphemes and the way they combine to form words. A morpheme can be define as the smallest meaningful unit in a language .Ex. The word „unwillingly‟ is formed from 4 morphemes: un + will + ing + ly. SYNTAX Is the way words combine to form sentences and the rules which govern those combinations. Syntactical structures in a language are arrangements of words into larger units called phrases, clauses and sentences. PHONOLOGY Involves describing the sound patterns of language. (beginning with phonemes, syllables, prominence, tone) Phonemes- is the smallest sound segment which can differentiate meanings.
  26. 26. 3 Important areas of the development of language form (L2) (morphemes, syntax, phonology) All 3 areas(morphemes, syntax and phonology) are interdependent. Development in phonology for example will influence morpheme acquisition which will in turn have an effect on the development of syntax. The order and the age of mastery of various language forms reflect a child‟s cognitive and social growth. By age 4 or 5, most will have acquired basic morphological and syntactic form. They will also have acquired many of the phonemic contrasts in adult pronunciation. They will also develop further in morphophonemic and stress and intonation patterns.
  27. 27. 3 Important areas of the development of language form (L2) (morphemes, syntax, phonology) explAIN PHOtograph Not always POIson HAPpy explaNAtion photoGRAphic POIsonous unHAPpy
  28. 28. 3 Important areas of the development of language form (L2) (morphemes, syntax, phonology) Tongue twisters, like the one below, can be even more challenging for children in primary school. There was a fisherman named Fisher who fished for some fish in a fissure Till a fish with a grin, Pulled the fisherman in, Now they‟re fishing the fissure for Fisher!
  29. 29. Language Development in the Secondary School Years Morphology-their development in derivational morphology continues throughout secondary school. Syntax- Syntactically, they process and produce compound complex& passive sentences with greater accuracy. Semantics- semantically, they become more accurate in their understanding and precise in their use of word. They multiple meanings for the same word and also learn many synonyms. Pragmatics- in terms of pragmatics have acquired some degree of competence in conversation, speech acts, narratives or social monologues.
  30. 30. Phonological Development in Secondary School Phonologically- they learn to vary word stress patterns according to the types of derivational morphemes. They are also able to vary their intonation forPragmatic purposes.
  31. 31. Learner language Learner language is the written or spoken language produced by a learner. It is also the main type of data used in second-language acquisition research.[Much research in secondlanguage acquisition is concerned with the internal representations of a language in the mind of the learner, and in how those representations change over time.
  32. 32. Two Types of Learning that Second-language Learners are engage in ITEM learning, or the learning of formulaic chunks of language. These chunks can be individual words, set phrases, or formulas like Can I have a ___? ___? The second kind of learning is SYSTEM learning, or the learning of systematic rules.
  33. 33. Interlanguage An interlanguage is an emerging language system in the mind of a second-language learner.
  34. 34. Three Different Processes of Interlanguage Language transfer. Learners fall back on their mother tongue to help create their language system. This is now recognized not as a mistake, but as a process that all learners go through. Overgeneralization. Learners use rules from the second language in a way that native speakers would not. For example, a learner may say "I goed home", overgeneralizing the English rule of adding -ed to create past tense verb forms. Simplification. Learners use a highly simplified form of language, similar to speech by children or in pidgins. This may be related to linguistic universals.
  35. 35. Language transfer One important difference between firstlanguage acquisition and second-language acquisition is that the process of secondlanguage acquisition is influenced by languages that the learner already knows. This influence is known as language transfer.[22] Language transfer is a complex phenomenon resulting from interaction between learners‟ prior linguistic knowledge, the target-language input they encounter, and their cognitive processes.
  36. 36. External Factors The primary factor affecting language acquisition appears to be the input that the learner receives. Stephen Krashen took a very strong position on the importance of input, asserting that comprehensible input is all that is necessary for second-language acquisition.Krashen pointed to studies showing that the length of time a person stays in a foreign country is closely linked with his level of language acquisition. Further evidence for input comes from studies on reading: large amounts of free voluntary reading have a significant positive effect on learners' vocabulary, grammar, and writing. Input is also the mechanism by which people learn languages according to the universal grammar model.[
  37. 37. Social Aspects Three Types of Social Structure  Socialinguistic setting -the role of the second language in society  Specific social factors -acquisition include age, gender, social class, and ethnic identity, with ethnic identity being the one that has received most research attention.  Situational factors --those which vary between each social interaction. For example, a learner may use more polite language when talking to someone of higher social status, but more informal language when talking with friends.
  38. 38. Internal Factors Internal factors affecting second-language acquisition are those which stem from the learner's own mind. three general strands:  cognitive,  sociocultural  linguistic.
  39. 39. Cognitive Approaches  Cognitive research is concerned with the mental processes involved in language acquisition, and how they can explain the nature of learners' language knowledge. The dominant model in cognitive approaches to secondlanguage acquisition, and indeed in all second-language acquisition research, is the computational model. The computational model involves three stages. In the first stage, learners retain certain features of the language input in short-term memory. (This retained input is known as intake.) Then, learners convert some of this intake into second-language knowledge, which is stored in long-term memory. Finally, learners use this second-language knowledge to produce spoken output.
  40. 40. Sociocultural Approaches  , it is a theory of mind and not of general social explanations of language acquisition. According to Ellis, "It is important to recognize ... that this paradigm, despite the label 'sociocultural' does not seek to explain how learners acquire the cultural values of the L2 but rather how knowledge of an L2 is internalized through experiences of a sociocultural nature."
  41. 41. Linguistic approaches  consider language knowledge to be unique and distinct from any other type of knowledge.  Two main strands of research can be identified in the linguistic tradition: approaches informed by universal grammar, and typological approaches.
  42. 42. Linguistic approaches  Typological universals are principles that hold for all the world's languages.  The theory of universal grammar was proposed by Noam Chomsky in the 1950s, and has enjoyed considerable popularity in the field of linguistics. It is a narrowly-focused theory that only concentrates on describing the linguistic competence of an individual, as opposed to mechanisms of learning. It consists of a set of principles, which are universal and constant, and a set of parameters, which can be set differently for different languages.
  43. 43. Individual variation  There is considerable variation in the rate at which people learn second languages, and in the language level that they ultimately reach. Some learners learn quickly and reach a near-native level of competence, but others learn slowly and get stuck at relatively early stages of acquisition, despite living in the country where the language is spoken for several years.
  44. 44. Affective Factors  The learner's attitude to the learning process has also been identified as being critically important to second-language acquisition. Age According to some researchers, the defining difference between a first language (L1) and a second language (L2) is the age the person learned the language. 
  45. 45. Affective Factors  The learner's attitude to the learning process has also been identified as being critically important to second-language acquisition. Age According to some researchers, the defining difference between a first language (L1) and a second language (L2) is the age the person learned the language. 

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