New generation of leaders (soldiers); Blacks identifying themselves with the nation; American identity
White resistance; a little bit of unevenness
Inclusion instead of separation; new black leaders (soldiers/preachers)
Politics ben, billy, emmy
Ben Gunning, Billy Van Cleve, & Emmy Sprong
THESIS: FONER’S “THE
MEANING OF FREEDOM”
According to Foner, the African American community knew that by
achieving autonomy they would set the groundwork for a new black
community and a better life, centered on stabilizing their families, creating
social organizations (including churches and schools), attempting to obtain
economic independence, and striving for equal rights, all in the face of
conservative white resistance.
African Americans desired integration rather than separation within
the political sphere in order to obtain equality before the law, which—
if achieved—would lead to independence from white control.
Foner, Eric. “The Meaning of Freedom.” A Short History of Reconstruction. HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.
1990. 23-27. Print.