What happened in the1850’s?•Lincoln makesspeech “A housedivided against itselfcannot stand”•Ad in paper reads,“Cheap wives for poor The atmosphere was not female anddeserving young African American friendlymen”
Societies beliefs were primitive to say theleast. For example, burying a person witha shovel or pickaxe just in case they werein a coma and not actually dead. Proof ofa underdeveloped country with potentialand a great imagination.
Pro-slavery and abolitionists groupsclashed while the women’s rightsmovement was not to be ignored.Sojourner Truths "Aint I A Woman?" givenat the 1851 Womens Rights convention inAkron, added fuel to the fight.
Migration created a mixture of people anda mixture of loyalty and customs werecreated. Religion became a serious issuewhich intertwined with politics causingeyebrow raising and moral questioning. VS
Immigration caused by unjust foreigngovernments pushed 4.2 million immigrantsto enter the United States during the periodof Old Immigration (1840’s and 1850’s).Hope for a better life and labor wasmotivation enough. This motivation wasalso the root of the division/diversity of theUnited States.
Immigration brought cultural and religiousdifferences. Islamic mosques, Buddhistand Hindu temples are seen throughoutthe country. In 2000, 800 Chinese Protestantchurches were counted in the United States.We were and are divided by our loyalty towhom and whatever we believed in. The Pledgeof Allegiance was a way to unite the dividedpeople. The plan was for the people to pledge thereallegiance to where they are now considered part ofthe same nation, one nation under God. Was it a formof conformity? Were we all considered part of this greatnation?
Nationalism is a political ideology that involves astrong identification of a group of individuals with apolitical entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. Inthe modernist image of the nation, it is nationalism thatcreates national identity. There are various definitions forwhat constitutes a nation. It can be a belief thatcitizenship in a state should be limited to one ethnic,cultural, religious, or identity group, or that multinationality in a single state should necessarily comprisethe right to express and exercise national identity evenby minorities.
It can also include the belief that thestate is of primary importance, or thebelief that one state is naturally superiorto all other states. It is also used todescribe a movement to establish orprotect a homeland (usually anautonomous state) for an ethnic group.In some cases the identification of anational culture is combined with anegative view of other races or cultures.
Conversely, nationalism might also beportrayed as collective identities towardimagined communities which are notnaturally expressed in language, race orreligion but rather socially constructedby the very individuals that belong to agiven nation.
Nationalism is sometimesreactionary, calling for a return to anational past, and sometimes for theexpulsion of foreigners. Other forms ofnationalism are revolutionary, calling forthe establishment of an independentstate as a homeland for an ethnicunderclass.
Nationalism emphasizes collective identity - a people must be autonomous, united, and express a single national culture. Integral nationalism is a belief that a nation is an organic unit, with a social hierarchy, co-operation between the different social classes and common political goals. However, liberal nationalists stress individualism as an important part of their own national identity.
During the 1950’s communism andcapitalism was a heated conversationpiece. The Korean War (1950-1953) andthe launch of Sputnik 1 was not far frommind. Let’s not forget the decolonizationof Africa and Asia, the attemptedassassination of Harry S. Truman, and racialissues. Emotions ran highduring the 1950’s.
When the war ended a lot of theservicemen made there way back toAmerica to create a new life, newfamilies and new jobs. They broughtback with them the potential to“BOOM”. The industries were boomingwith new material not availableduring the war and thebabies were booming!
Important Historic and Cultural Events 1950 - Pres. Harry Truman ( til 1952) approves production of the hydrogen bomb and sends air force and navy to Korea in June. 1951 - Transcontinental television begins with a speech by Pres. Truman. 1953 - 1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower is president. 1952 - The Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952 removes racial and ethnic barriers to becoming a U.S. citizen. 1953 - Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are electrocuted for their part in W.W.II espionage. 1953 - Fighting ends in Korea. 1954 - U. S. Senator Joseph McCarthy begins televised hearings into alleged Communists in the army. 1954 - Racial segregation is ruled unconstitutional in public schools by the U.S. Supreme Court.
With wars beginning and ending, naturaldisasters like Hurricane Diane in 1955 thatdevastated the northeastern UnitedStates and Hurricane Audrey that beatdown Cameron, LA the people neededto have something in common and thatwas that they were apart of the samegreat nation whom they should pledgethere allegiance to.
A plan to unify a country divided by race,religion, politics and war was in need of atransformation. The Pledge of Allegiancewas to bring people to common ground.It was a plan to reduce the tension of justhow different we all are and to keep theNation from turning on itself.
Rock and Roll seemed to rulethe 50’s as far as culturalconnections. Music was notblack or white it was just music.From Sam Cooke and LittleRichard to Elvis Presley to JerryLee Lewis music seemed toconnect the youth. It still does.
To each his/her own. Immigration inthe 40’s prepared us for the differentreligious groups. Perhaps one of thethings which most characterizes the1950s was the strong element ofconservatism and anticommunistfeeling which ran throughout much ofsociety. One of the best indicators ofthe conservative frame of mind wasthe addition of the phrase "underGod” to the Pledge of Allegiance.Religion was seen as an indicator ofanti-communism.
A House bill that excludes parochial schools from education funding is rejected by the Education and Labor Committee. In May, two Southern Baptist seminaries are recognized, one at Berkeley, California, the other at Wake Forest, North Carolina. On May 22, the American Baptist Convention extends an invitation to all organized Baptist Conventions (including Southern Baptists and two African- American Conferences) to join the National Baptist Convention. The Supreme Court assumes the right to review cases of state interference in religious freedom. The Supreme Court agrees to review the constitutional status of released-time programs for religious study in public schools in New York City. Because of the fighting in Korea, American missionaries are no longer accepted in China. Several Jewish synagogues are bombed in Miami, Florida.
Throughout the 1950s bothunemployment and inflationremained low. At this time, thoughthe war was over, many womenkept their careers. This is evident bythe constant increase in thefemale employment datacompiled in the Economic Reportof the President. From 1950 to 1959,the total number of femalesemployed increased by 18%. Thestandard of living during the fiftiesalso steadily rose. Most peopleexpected to own a car and ahouse, and believed that life fortheir children would be evenbetter.
Although the early development of ournation did not encompass everyone, it wasthe foundation for our laws and rights fortoday. Diversity is alive and well and themajority is slowly becoming the minority.Under God we are all the same and anation of Humankind.