New generation of leaders (soldiers); Blacks identifying themselves with the nation; American identity
White resistance; a little bit of unevenness
Inclusion instead of separation; new black leaders (soldiers/preachers)
Politics ben, billy, emmy
RECONSTRUCTION PHOTO ESSAYBen Gunning, Billy Van Cleve, & Emmy Sprong
THESIS: FONER’S “THE MEANING OF FREEDOM” According to Foner, the African American community knew that byachieving autonomy they would set the groundwork for a new blackcommunity and a better life, centered on stabilizing their families, creatingsocial organizations (including churches and schools), attempting to obtaineconomic independence, and striving for equal rights, all in the face ofconservative white resistance.
THESIS: RECONSTRUCTION POLITICSAfrican Americans desired integration rather than separation withinthe political sphere in order to obtain equality before the law, which—if achieved—would lead to independence from white control.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Foner, Eric. “The Meaning of Freedom.” A Short History of Reconstruction. HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.1990. 23-27. Print. http://blackhistory.harpweek.com/7Illustrations/Reconstruction/Pardon.htm http://blackhistory.harpweek.com/7Illustrations/Reconstruction/Franchise.htm http://blackhistory.harpweek.com/7Illustrations/Reconstruction/HRRevels.htm http://blackhistory.harpweek.com/7Illustrations/Reconstruction/NatColoredConv.htm http://blackhistory.harpweek.com/7Illustrations/Reconstruction/TimeWorksWonders.htm http://blackhistory.harpweek.com/7Illustrations/Reconstruction/ElectioneeringAtTheSouth.htm http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/05/0501001r.jpg http://digital.nypl.org/schomburg/images_aa19/aa19c_info.cfm?