Confined Space Entry Training by Montana Safety & Health Bureau

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Confined Space Entry Training by Montana Safety & Health Bureau

  1. 1. Confined Space Entry
  2. 2. Confined Space (1) Large enough for an employee to bodily enter and perform work AND (2) Has limited or restricted entry or exit AND (3) Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy
  3. 3. Permit Required Confined Space A confined space that: (1) contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere OR (2) has the potential for engulfment OR (3) Has an internal configuration that could trap or asphyxiate OR (4) Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard
  4. 4. Confined Space Question… • Why are we entering this space?
  5. 5. Limited Or Restricted Entry • Any space where an occupant o Must crawl, climb, twist o Be constrained in a narrow opening o Follow a lengthy path o Exert unusual effort to enter or leave o May become trapped  Entrance may become sealed or secured against opening from inside
  6. 6. Confined Spaces
  7. 7. Hazardous Atmosphere • Potential exposure to o Risk of death o Incapacitation o Impairment of ability to self-rescue o Injury o Acute illness • If none of the above o Does not apply to this standard
  8. 8. Reclassify • Reclassify to a non-permit space if o All potential for a hazardous atmosphere is eliminated AND o All other hazards and potential hazards are eliminated/controlled
  9. 9. Air & Oxygen • Air and oxygen are NOT synonymous. • Air contains o 20.9% oxygen o 78.1% nitrogen o 1% argon o Trace amounts of other gases
  10. 10. Hazardous Atmosphere • Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL) • Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL o Or visibility 5’ or less
  11. 11. Hazardous Atmosphere • Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent • Atmospheric concentration of any toxic substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published • Any other atmospheric condition that is IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE OR HEALTH. (IDLH)
  12. 12. Delayed Threat • Cadmium vapor and hydrogen fluoride o May seem ok; immediate symptoms go away o Fatal 12 to 72 hours later
  13. 13. Conditions That Can Cause Oxygen Deficiency • Adsorption by porous surfaces o Activated charcoal • Consumed by chemical reactions o Rusting o Fermentation • Displaced o Inert gasses  Argon  CO2  Nitrogen
  14. 14. Conditions That Can Cause Oxygen Enrichment • Poorly designed or malfunctioning O2 storage or dispensing equipment • Leaks from oxy-acetylene welding or cutting equipment o Couplings, fittings hoses • Ventilating with pure oxygen
  15. 15. Flammable Atmospheres • Vapor burns, not liquid • Flammability based on o Amount of vapor o Temperature
  16. 16. Tank Residue • Explosions often caused by residue in “empty” tanks or spaces
  17. 17. Residue In Tanks 99% Empty TANK SIZE (GALLONS) 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 5,000 2,500 1,000 RESIDUE (GALLONS) 500 400 300 200 100 50 25 10
  18. 18. Upper & Lower Flammable Limits AIR100% 0% GAS 0% 100% LEAN RICH EXPLOSIVE RANGE LEL UEL
  19. 19. Flammable Atmosphere: Propane
  20. 20. Flammable Atmospheres
  21. 21. Ignition Sources • Open flame • Electrical arcing • Hot surfaces o Light bulbs • Static electricity • Frictional sparks • Chemical reactions 230o C
  22. 22. Control Of Ignition Sources • Non-sparking tools • Approved electrical equipment • Purged & pressurized equipment • Intrinsically safe equipment • Explosion proof equipment • Vessel inerting
  23. 23. Control Of Ignition Sources: Hot Work Precautions • Hot work permits • Welding & cutting precautions o Control of torches & control valves o Hoses & regulators  In good condition  Inspected  Minimal tape o Fire prevention & protection
  24. 24. Toxic Atmospheres TOXIC: • Harmful, destructive • Deadly • Poisonous (THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY)
  25. 25. Sources of Toxic Atmospheres • Products stored in space • Work being performed in space o Painting, cleaning & degreasing o Welding, cutting & brazing • Adjacent areas o Toxins enter & accumulate o Leaching o Chemicals dumped into sewers, streams
  26. 26. Toxic Gasses • Irritant Gas o Serious effects may be delayed o Examples  Ammonia, chlorine, sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide • Asphyxiate Gas o Smothers due to lack of oxygen o Two classes  Simple asphyxiates  Chemical asphyxiates
  27. 27. Simple Asphyxiates Displaces oxygen: • Acetylene • Argon • Ethane • Ethylene • Helium • Hydrogen • LP gas • Methane • Neon • Nitrogen
  28. 28. Chemical Asphyxiates Cause asphyxiation through biochemical reaction • Hydrogen sulfide • Carbon monoxide • Hydrogen cyanide
  29. 29. Engulfment "The surrounding and effective capture of a person" by • A liquid • Finely divided (flowable) solid OR
  30. 30. Engulfment • Quicksand effect • Material drawn from bottom • Bridges created by air pockets Air Pocket
  31. 31. Mechanical Hazards • Manually isolate each piece of equipment o Prevent vapor leaks, flashbacks, etc. • All pipes must be physically disconnected or isolation blanks bolted in place o Closing valves not sufficient o Inspect & test for leakage • Also consider steam valves, pressure lines, chemical transfer pipes
  32. 32. Lockout - Tagout • Render ALL hazardous equipment related to space inoperable o Including accidental startup by others Refer to Lockout/Tagout Standard: 1910.147
  33. 33. Control, Isolation Methods • Lockout/tagout • Purging • Block & bleed • Inerting • Ventilating • Flushing
  34. 34. Noise • Noise usually intensified in spaces o Exposure may be higher than in open environment • May disrupt verbal communication o Especially with attendant
  35. 35. Air Testing Instruments • Many different kinds of instruments • Results not instantaneous o Delay for portable instruments 30-60 seconds • Assure properly calibrated • Proper care & maintenance o Per manufacturer
  36. 36. Air Testing Instruments • Understand use & limitations o Accuracy may be +/- 2%, 5%… o May be affected by extremes of temperature o May be affected by rich CO2 atmosphere o May only operate properly within certain temperatures and relative humidity
  37. 37. Air Testing • Test in order o Oxygen o Flammables o Toxins • Test at various levels • Test various places • Continuously monitor • Test around cover before opening
  38. 38. Air Testing
  39. 39. Alarm Devices • ”Alarm only" devices which do not provide readings are not acceptable o For initial (pre-entry) or o Periodic (assurance) testing • Not enough information to establish acceptable entry conditions • Combination units may be acceptable o Benefit of automatic alarming at predetermined value.
  40. 40. Ventilation Equipment • Wide variety of types of ventilation equipment o Size & portability o Air volume capabilities o Power sources
  41. 41. Ventilation Only Entry Required • Demonstrate: only hazard is actual or potential hazardous atmosphere • Demonstrate: continuous forced air ventilation alone is sufficient to maintain safe entry • Develop monitoring and inspection data to support these demonstrations
  42. 42. Hazard Control Hierarchy • Eliminate hazard o Engineering controls o Process modification • Substitute less hazardous o Materials o Methods o Techniques • Personal protective equipment
  43. 43. Personal Protective Equipment • Proper fit • Cleaning & maintenance • Replacement • Proper use • Will not interfere with movement within space • Employee training
  44. 44. Respiratory Protection • Vast selection o Types, styles o Limitations o Specific uses • Have selection made by qualified person
  45. 45. Permit-required Spaces General Requirements • Evaluate: • Identify all confined spaces • Evaluate to determine if any spaces are permit required confined spaces.
  46. 46. Permit-required Spaces General Requirements • Notify employees of o Existence o Location and o Danger • Post signs There, and there, and over there...
  47. 47. Permit-required Spaces General Requirements • If employees will enter permit spaces: o Develop & implement a written permit space program
  48. 48. Written Program • Ensure that EVERY confined space is o Evaluated as a possible permit space o Reevaluated when its uses or surroundings change.
  49. 49. Entry “IS CONSIDERED TO HAVE OCCURRED AS SOON AS ANY PART OF THE ENTRANT'S BODY BREAKS THE PLANE OF AN OPENING INTO THE SPACE”
  50. 50. Permit Required Confined Space Entry Team • Entrant • Attendant • Entry supervisor • Rescuers
  51. 51. Rescuers • 60% OF CONFINED SPACE VICTIMS ARE WOULD BE RESCUERS (NIOSH STUDY)
  52. 52. Dial 911 - ? • Must be informed of hazards • Must have access to all permit spaces • Must be trained • Should be available o Make arrangements BEFORE need arises
  53. 53. Non-entry Rescue • Use non-entry rescue whenever possible • Use retrieval systems or methods whenever an entrant enters a permit space o Unless the retrieval equipment would increase the overall risk of entry or would not contribute to the rescue of the entrant
  54. 54. Non-entry Rescue • A mechanical device must be available for rescue for vertical type permit spaces more than 5 feet deep.
  55. 55. Entry Permit • Actual document • Contains specific required information about entry • Provides history of entry • Retain for at least 1 year Enter space #12
  56. 56. QUESTIONS ????
  57. 57. SANDRA A. MIHALIK Safety & Health Specialist Montana Safety & Health Bureau 406.444.6418 e-mail: smihalik@mt.gov

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