ASK YOURSELF…
 What

is a confined space?
 What is difference between permitted
and non-permitted confined spaces?
 Lis...
COURSE OBJECTIVES
 Help

you understand the criteria of a
confined space
 Motivate you to evaluate your
workplace and wr...
COURSE GOAL
 Prevent

personal injuries/fatalities
relating to a confined space entry
COURSE WILL
ADDRESS…
Definitions

of terms, with

examples
The
The

basic entry procedure

components of a written
prog...
1. CONFINED SPACE:
 Is

large enough to enter into and work
 Has a limited means of entry/exit
 Is NOT designed for con...
CLASSES OF CONFINED
SPACE


Class A – IDLH atmosphere. May
contain oxygen deficiency,
explosive or flammable
atmospheres,...
CLASSES OF CONFINED
SPACES cont’d


Class B – space has potential for
causing injury if proper safety
steps are not follo...
CLASSES OF CONFINED
SPACES cont’d


Class C – space has potential
hazards, but would not require any
special modification...
TYPES OF CONFINED
SPACE…
 Non-Permitted

does NOT contain physical, chemical
or atmospheric hazards capable of causing
de...
NOTE:
The

classification of ANY
confined space SHALL be
determined ONLY BY Trained
AND Authorized persons
EXAMPLES OF
CONFINED SPACES:
 Tanks,

vessels, silos, storage bins,
hoppers, vaults, pump stations, scale
pits, crawl spa...
BOILER TANKS…
PIPE CHASES…
CRAWL SPACES…
MANHOLES…
PITS...
2. ENGULFMENT
A

liquid or a “flowable” solid like
sand or grain that can surround and
bury, smother, strangle, or crush ...
EGULFMENT cont’d
 Trenches

deeper than 4ft

 Engulfment

hazard: cave-in
 Preventive measure: shoring & evacuation
rou...
3. IDLH
 Immediately

Continued

Dangerous to Life and

Health
 Poses

an immediate or delayed threat to
life, OR…
 Cau...
3. IDLH,
 May

cont’d

be used to determine need for

PPE
 MSDS’s
 List

 If

of IDLH values

conditions meet or excee...
4. QUALIFIED PERSON


Designated by the employer in writing, as
CAPABLE (by education, training, or both) of:
Anticipatin...
5. ATTENDANT
An observant, competent/experienced
person stationed outside of a confined
space to assist the entrant
6. AUTHORIZED
ENTRANT
worker authorized to enter a
confined space

A
7. ENTRY
SUPERVISOR
 The

employee responsible for
overseeing the Confined Space
entry operations; permit signing; and
sa...
GENERAL CS ENTRY
PROCEDURE
 1.
 2.
 3.
 4.
 5.

Conduct an assessment
Post signage; Barricade
Write the Permit
Perfor...
GENERAL CS ENTRY
PROCEDURE, cont’d
 6.

Pre-entry briefing
 7. Perform entry & work
 8. Perform continuous atmospheric
...
ASSESSMENTS MUST
INCLUDE:
1. Pre-entry testing and monitoring
of/for:
Atmospheric conditions
Potential hazards in and aro...
POTENTIAL HAZARDS
Deficient
Safe

or enriched oxygen

level: 19.5% - 23.5%

Combustible,

flammable, and
explosive atmo...
POTENTIAL HAZARDS
cont’d
Physical

hazards–

Falling,tripping,moving

parts,engulfment,heat
extremes,etc…

Electrical

...
ASSESSMENTS MUST
ALSO INCLUDE:
2. Written procedures to remove
or control hazards including
ventilation, LOTO, PPE and
com...
POSTED SIGNAGE
 MUST

be in the immediate area
 MUST identify the Confined Space
 Restricts unauthorized personnel
 E....
BARRICADES
 MUST

prevent unwanted access to the
work area
 MUST ensure clear workspace for
attendant and emergency resc...
PERMITS
 Are

written authorization and
approval specifying the location and
type of work
 Certify that all existing haz...
Confined Space Permit
NOTE:
PERMITS ARE
ALWAYS POSTED IN
THE WORKPLACE
DURING ENTRY
TESTING STANDARDS
 Duration—Recommend

continuous
 Sample priority—Oxygen;
Flammable/combustible chemicals;
Toxic chemic...
TESTING METHODS
 Sample
 Every

in layers

four feet in direction of travel
 Different chemicals stratify
 Do not get ...
CHEMICAL
STRATIFICATION
*Chemicals will stratify
according to their
vapor density
*Strata changes with

environmental
cond...
REMEMBER TO
DOCUMENT ALL
ATMOSPHERIC
TESTING RESULTS!!
OTHER SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS
 PPE
 Lockout/Tag

out
 Verify emergency response
 Remove sources of hazardous
materials outs...
VENTILATION
 Exhaust
 Negative

pressure

Local - for specific sources
 General - for non-specific sources


 Purging...
PRE-ENTRY BRIEFING
 Conduct

meeting
 Include all affected persons
 Document topics discussed at the
briefing.
Entry documentation
 Each

entrant should sign an entry log

 Posted

in immediate area
Follow work
procedures and safety
rules for job task!!!
CONTINUOUS
MONITORING
 REMEMBER

methods!

the mentioned sampling
EXITING THE
CONFINED SPACE
 When

work is complete, when
replacement arrives, or if an alarm
sounds
 In the event of an ...
ON-SITE RESCUE
 Employer

determined if on/off-site
rescue will be used
 On-site, usually comprised of inhouse personnel...
OFF-SITE RESCUE
 Assessment
 Determine

necessary

the practicality of off-site

rescue
 If

used:

 Close

proximity
...
DEBRIEFING
 Discuss

the success of the work
 Identify concerns that occurred
 Verify completion of all documentation
...
VERIFY COMPLETION
 The

entry supervisor should remain for
at least 30 minutes after the entry to
ensure the security of ...
PROGRAM ELEMENTS:
Identification

and location of
ALL recognized confined
spaces
Hazard evaluation procedures
Warning p...
MORE ELEMENTS…
Written

procedures
for pre-entry and
entry
Written procedures
for permitting
MORE ELEMENTS…
Assignment

of responsibilities

Entrant
Attendant
Entry

supervisor
ENTRANT
 Know

the hazards associated with
the space
 Follow the instructions on the
permit
 Use required equipment pro...
ENTRANT cont’d
 Continually

communicate with

attendant
 Alert the attendant when necessary
 Exit the space quickly wh...
ATTENDANT
Continued

 Know

the hazards associated
with the space
 Be aware of the effects of
hazardous exposures
 Main...
ATTENDANT cont’d
 Remain

on duty until properly

relieved
 Monitor the status of the entrant
as appropriate
 Communica...
ATTENDANT cont’d
Continued

 Summon

rescue and/or
emergency assistance
 Monitor activities inside and
outside the space...
ATTENDANT cont’d
 Perform

no duties that interfere with
attendant duties
 Order evacuation of the space when
dictated
SUPERVISOR
Continued

 Know

the hazards associated
with the space
 Ensure all entries on the written
permit are appropr...
SUPERVISOR
 Terminate

cont’d

entry authorization
when appropriate
 Verify that rescue services are
available
 Verify ...
SUPERVISOR cont’d
 Remove

unauthorized
individuals attempting entry
 Determine when transfer of
responsibility takes pl...
SUPERVISOR cont’d
 Perform

non-entry rescue in
accordance with policy
 Perform no duties that interfere
with supervisor...
Emergency Response
 Attendant

alerts the rescue services
 Close off the area
 Get authorized entrants out of the
space...
EXAMPLES…
TRAINING
REQUIREMENTS
 New

employees

 At

time of employment, if affected…or…
 When delegated affected responsibility...
TRAINING CONTENT
All

aspects of the written
program
Emergency procedures
Document all training
activities
RECORD KEEPING
REQUIREMENTS
Written

program
Training records
Atmospheric testing records
Permitted and non-permitted
...
Let’s review…
 What

is a confined space?
 What is difference between permitted
and non-permitted confined spaces?
 Lis...
Let’s review…
 What

is the safe oxygen level?
 What are the 2 options for emergency
response?
 Where should the permit...
FOR ADDITIONAL
ASSISTANCE…

Call your Loss Prevention
Representative
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  • Do NOT give the answers…only take the proposed answers from the audience!!!
  • All confined space must be evaluated for hazards. If it is determined that the confined space does not have physical, chemical or atmospheric hazard, then the confined space is a “Non-Permitted” Confined Space.
  • An attendant should NEVER enter a confined space or leave the entrance to the confined space. The attendant should call for emergency rescue.
  • Deficient oxygen- 16% level-Your judgment & coordination suffer
    12% level- You will be unconscious
    6% level- You will be dead
    Enriched oxygen- Fire burns hotter.
  • Don’t forget to have a system for calibration of the testing meters using test gas.
    Also, meters must be periodically recalibrated by the manufacturer. (Follow manufacturers recommended factory calibration schedule.)
  • Answers:
    Any space that is not intended for permanent occupancy, limits egress, and can be bodily entered to perform work…
    Permitted spaces have recognized or anticipated hazards…
    Pits, manholes, tanks…(or any other)
    When a hazard has been identified…and MANDATORY for IDLH conditions
    Before ventilating, after ventilating, and continuously while downhole
  • 19.5 – 23.5 %
    Onsite & Offsite
    Near the point of entry outside of the hole
    If an alarm goes off, if the work is completed, or if replaced by another authorized entrant (Give credit if they indicate: if removed by emergency response)
  • Confined spaces-power-point

    1. 1. ASK YOURSELF…  What is a confined space?  What is difference between permitted and non-permitted confined spaces?  List 3 examples of permitted confined spaces.  When do I need PPE?  When should I test the atmosphere?  What is the safe oxygen level?
    2. 2. COURSE OBJECTIVES  Help you understand the criteria of a confined space  Motivate you to evaluate your workplace and written programs  Implement changes where necessary
    3. 3. COURSE GOAL  Prevent personal injuries/fatalities relating to a confined space entry
    4. 4. COURSE WILL ADDRESS… Definitions of terms, with examples The The basic entry procedure components of a written program
    5. 5. 1. CONFINED SPACE:  Is large enough to enter into and work  Has a limited means of entry/exit  Is NOT designed for continuous periods of occupancy
    6. 6. CLASSES OF CONFINED SPACE  Class A – IDLH atmosphere. May contain oxygen deficiency, explosive or flammable atmospheres, and /or concentrations of toxic substances.
    7. 7. CLASSES OF CONFINED SPACES cont’d  Class B – space has potential for causing injury if proper safety steps are not followed
    8. 8. CLASSES OF CONFINED SPACES cont’d  Class C – space has potential hazards, but would not require any special modification of the work procedures.
    9. 9. TYPES OF CONFINED SPACE…  Non-Permitted does NOT contain physical, chemical or atmospheric hazards capable of causing death or serious physical harm …  Permitted … DOES contain physical, chemical or atmospheric hazards capable of causing death or serious physical harm
    10. 10. NOTE: The classification of ANY confined space SHALL be determined ONLY BY Trained AND Authorized persons
    11. 11. EXAMPLES OF CONFINED SPACES:  Tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, pump stations, scale pits, crawl spaces, tunnels…
    12. 12. BOILER TANKS…
    13. 13. PIPE CHASES…
    14. 14. CRAWL SPACES…
    15. 15. MANHOLES…
    16. 16. PITS...
    17. 17. 2. ENGULFMENT A liquid or a “flowable” solid like sand or grain that can surround and bury, smother, strangle, or crush a person.
    18. 18. EGULFMENT cont’d  Trenches deeper than 4ft  Engulfment hazard: cave-in  Preventive measure: shoring & evacuation route
    19. 19. 3. IDLH  Immediately Continued Dangerous to Life and Health  Poses an immediate or delayed threat to life, OR…  Causes irreversible adverse health effects, OR…  Interferes with ability to escape unaided from a permit space
    20. 20. 3. IDLH,  May cont’d be used to determine need for PPE  MSDS’s  List  If of IDLH values conditions meet or exceed IDLH values, implement PPE
    21. 21. 4. QUALIFIED PERSON  Designated by the employer in writing, as CAPABLE (by education, training, or both) of: Anticipating, recognizing, and evaluating employee exposure to hazardous substances or other unsafe conditions in a confined space; AND of Specifying necessary control and/or protective action to ensure employee safety
    22. 22. 5. ATTENDANT An observant, competent/experienced person stationed outside of a confined space to assist the entrant
    23. 23. 6. AUTHORIZED ENTRANT worker authorized to enter a confined space A
    24. 24. 7. ENTRY SUPERVISOR  The employee responsible for overseeing the Confined Space entry operations; permit signing; and safety compliance
    25. 25. GENERAL CS ENTRY PROCEDURE  1.  2.  3.  4.  5. Conduct an assessment Post signage; Barricade Write the Permit Perform pre-entry tests Follow all other safety procedures  PPE  LO/TO  Ventilation
    26. 26. GENERAL CS ENTRY PROCEDURE, cont’d  6. Pre-entry briefing  7. Perform entry & work  8. Perform continuous atmospheric tests  9. Exit the confined space  10. Debrief employees/contractors  11. Verify completion
    27. 27. ASSESSMENTS MUST INCLUDE: 1. Pre-entry testing and monitoring of/for: Atmospheric conditions Potential hazards in and around the area 
    28. 28. POTENTIAL HAZARDS Deficient Safe or enriched oxygen level: 19.5% - 23.5% Combustible, flammable, and explosive atmospheres Toxic gases and vapors Corrosive chemicals or biological agents
    29. 29. POTENTIAL HAZARDS cont’d Physical hazards– Falling,tripping,moving parts,engulfment,heat extremes,etc… Electrical hazards— Shock hazard, static electricity, sparks, etc… Rodents,snakes, and insects
    30. 30. ASSESSMENTS MUST ALSO INCLUDE: 2. Written procedures to remove or control hazards including ventilation, LOTO, PPE and communication 3. Written emergency response
    31. 31. POSTED SIGNAGE  MUST be in the immediate area  MUST identify the Confined Space  Restricts unauthorized personnel  E.G.: “DANGER—PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE, DO NOT ENTER”
    32. 32. BARRICADES  MUST prevent unwanted access to the work area  MUST ensure clear workspace for attendant and emergency rescue (if needed)
    33. 33. PERMITS  Are written authorization and approval specifying the location and type of work  Certify that all existing hazards have been assessed  Ensure the safety of each worker  Specify the date & length of time it applies
    34. 34. Confined Space Permit
    35. 35. NOTE: PERMITS ARE ALWAYS POSTED IN THE WORKPLACE DURING ENTRY
    36. 36. TESTING STANDARDS  Duration—Recommend continuous  Sample priority—Oxygen; Flammable/combustible chemicals; Toxic chemicals
    37. 37. TESTING METHODS  Sample  Every in layers four feet in direction of travel  Different chemicals stratify  Do not get equipment wet!!
    38. 38. CHEMICAL STRATIFICATION *Chemicals will stratify according to their vapor density *Strata changes with environmental conditions (ex. Temperature and pressure)
    39. 39. REMEMBER TO DOCUMENT ALL ATMOSPHERIC TESTING RESULTS!!
    40. 40. OTHER SAFETY PRECAUTIONS  PPE  Lockout/Tag out  Verify emergency response  Remove sources of hazardous materials outside of confined space  Ventilation
    41. 41. VENTILATION  Exhaust  Negative pressure Local - for specific sources  General - for non-specific sources   Purging  Positive pressure Using inert gases in flammable/combustible environment  Causes need for additional PPE 
    42. 42. PRE-ENTRY BRIEFING  Conduct meeting  Include all affected persons  Document topics discussed at the briefing.
    43. 43. Entry documentation  Each entrant should sign an entry log  Posted in immediate area
    44. 44. Follow work procedures and safety rules for job task!!!
    45. 45. CONTINUOUS MONITORING  REMEMBER methods! the mentioned sampling
    46. 46. EXITING THE CONFINED SPACE  When work is complete, when replacement arrives, or if an alarm sounds  In the event of an emergency, utilize emergency rescue  Remember to update the entry log!!
    47. 47. ON-SITE RESCUE  Employer determined if on/off-site rescue will be used  On-site, usually comprised of inhouse personnel—  Motivated team  Extensive training  Practical exercises (min. once/12 months)  Regular reinforcement of training
    48. 48. OFF-SITE RESCUE  Assessment  Determine necessary the practicality of off-site rescue  If used:  Close proximity  Extensive pre-coordination  Must understand the hazards to be faced  Must have access to all spaces for preplanning
    49. 49. DEBRIEFING  Discuss the success of the work  Identify concerns that occurred  Verify completion of all documentation  Document meeting, if possible
    50. 50. VERIFY COMPLETION  The entry supervisor should remain for at least 30 minutes after the entry to ensure the security of the site and that no hazards remain (ex. Fires)
    51. 51. PROGRAM ELEMENTS: Identification and location of ALL recognized confined spaces Hazard evaluation procedures Warning procedures Ex: Signs at entrance
    52. 52. MORE ELEMENTS… Written procedures for pre-entry and entry Written procedures for permitting
    53. 53. MORE ELEMENTS… Assignment of responsibilities Entrant Attendant Entry supervisor
    54. 54. ENTRANT  Know the hazards associated with the space  Follow the instructions on the permit  Use required equipment properly
    55. 55. ENTRANT cont’d  Continually communicate with attendant  Alert the attendant when necessary  Exit the space quickly when required
    56. 56. ATTENDANT Continued  Know the hazards associated with the space  Be aware of the effects of hazardous exposures  Maintain accountability of entrants
    57. 57. ATTENDANT cont’d  Remain on duty until properly relieved  Monitor the status of the entrant as appropriate  Communicate with the entrant as appropriate
    58. 58. ATTENDANT cont’d Continued  Summon rescue and/or emergency assistance  Monitor activities inside and outside the space  Perform non-entry rescue in accordance with policy
    59. 59. ATTENDANT cont’d  Perform no duties that interfere with attendant duties  Order evacuation of the space when dictated
    60. 60. SUPERVISOR Continued  Know the hazards associated with the space  Ensure all entries on the written permit are appropriate  Ensure all tests, procedures and equipment are used
    61. 61. SUPERVISOR  Terminate cont’d entry authorization when appropriate  Verify that rescue services are available  Verify methods are in place to summon rescue services
    62. 62. SUPERVISOR cont’d  Remove unauthorized individuals attempting entry  Determine when transfer of responsibility takes place  Ensure operations are consistent with the permit
    63. 63. SUPERVISOR cont’d  Perform non-entry rescue in accordance with policy  Perform no duties that interfere with supervisor duties
    64. 64. Emergency Response  Attendant alerts the rescue services  Close off the area  Get authorized entrants out of the space  Perform first aid if needed.  Chest or body harnesses are worn by authorized entrant to allow for safe rescue.
    65. 65. EXAMPLES…
    66. 66. TRAINING REQUIREMENTS  New employees  At time of employment, if affected…or…  When delegated affected responsibility  Existing employees  Refresher training  Rescue drills at least annually
    67. 67. TRAINING CONTENT All aspects of the written program Emergency procedures Document all training activities
    68. 68. RECORD KEEPING REQUIREMENTS Written program Training records Atmospheric testing records Permitted and non-permitted entries into confined spaces
    69. 69. Let’s review…  What is a confined space?  What is difference between permitted and non-permitted confined spaces?  List 3 examples of permitted confined spaces.  When do I need PPE?  When should I test the atmosphere?
    70. 70. Let’s review…  What is the safe oxygen level?  What are the 2 options for emergency response?  Where should the permit be maintained during entry?  When should an entrant exit the confined space?
    71. 71. FOR ADDITIONAL ASSISTANCE… Call your Loss Prevention Representative

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