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Cook County Master Naturalist
Botany 101
Instructor: Christopher David Benda
Plant Ecologist
Illinois Natural History Survey
President
Illinois Native Plant Society
Instructor, Flora of Southern Illi...
Illinois Botanizer
Facebook Group
Illinois Botany
Illinois Native
Plant Society
www.ill-inps.org
Illinois Natural Areas Inventory
Category I – High Quality Natural Communities
6
1
2
345
7
Rose Pink
Marigold
New England Aster
ButtonbushPrickly Pear CatcusCardinal Flower
Orange Jewelweed
0.07% in a natural condition
Natural Community
Soil Moisture Gradient
Xeric
Dry
Dry-mesic
Mesic
Wet-mesic
Wet
Hydric
Simple leaf, magnolia
a. Simple versus compound leaves
Pinnately compound leaf,
black walnut
Palmately compound leaf,
buck...
Simple leaf
Magnolia
petiole
Palmately compound leaf
Ohio Buckeye
Aesculus glabra
petiole
Pinnately compound leaf
Black Walnut
Alternate leaves
American beech
Whorled leaves
Bedstraw
Galium pilosum
Galium aparine
Opposite leaves
Maples
MADCapBuckHorse
Exceptions to the rule:
1. Bladdernut
2. Euonymous (Wahoo)
3. Wild Hydrangea
4. Catalpa
5. Buttonbush
4. Catalpa
5. Button...
petiole
vs.
petiolule
vs.
rachis
Basic Flower Anatomy
• The male part is termed the Stamen, which consists of the anther
and filament.
• The female part is...
Flower Structure
Perfect
(bisexual flowers)
Vs.
Imperfect
(unisexual flowers)
Perfect Flowers
• Flowers containing BOTH male (stamen)
and female (carpel)
sexual parts.
• Automatically
monoecious
Imperfect Flowers
• Flowers containing the reproductive parts
of only one sex.
• These imperfect flowers may be on the
sam...
Monoecious
(one house)
Vs.
Dioecious
(two houses)
Imperfect
flowers
Staminate
Vs.
Pistillate
Typha angustifolia
staminate
pistillate
Imperfect, monoecious Imperfect, dioecious
Carex grayi Thalictrum dioicum
Obligate
(requires a specific habitat
for survival)
Vs.
Facultative
(requires a general habitat
for survival)
The Top Ten reasons for
using scientific names
Understand the meaning of the
names!
Latin Pronunciation
Pronounce every letter except diphthongs
Echinacea, Tradescantia, Opuntia, Ambrosia
“ch” is a “k” soun...
Latin Pronunciation
English pronunciation of vowels
A – E – I – O - U
Latin pronunciation of vowels
Ah – Eh – EE – Oh - OO
Plant Resources for Southern Illinois
Field Guide Books & Websites
Plant Resources for Southern Illinois
Field Guide Books & Websites
Plant Taxonomy
•Non-Vascular
•Early Plants (spores)
•Archaeplastida (algae)
•Bryophyta (mosses)
•Marchantiophyta (liverwor...
Binomial Nomenclature
“The beginning of wisdom is to call
things by their rightful names.”
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Fami...
Ferns
&
Fern Allies
Sphagnum Moss – Sphagnum compactum
Netted Chain Fern – Woodwardia areolata
Royal Fern – Osmunda spectabilis
Silvery Spleenwort Fern– Deparia acrostichoides
Mosquito Fern – Azolla mexicana
Shining Clubmoss – Huperzia lucidula
Scouring Rush – Equisetum hyemale
Gymnosperms
Vs.
Angiosperms
• plants that don’t produce a protective fruit
around the seed.
• all the conifers - pines, red cedar, white
cedar, tamara...
Illinois Gymnosperms
• Ginkgoaceae – Ginkgo family
– Ginkgo – 1 species
• biloba (Ginkgo)
• flowering plants where the seed is encased
in a protective fruit.
• This is the dominant group of plants on
Earth today....
Angiosperms
Monocot
Vs.
Dicot
One cotyledon in seed
Leaf veins form a parallel pattern
Flower parts in threes and multiples
of three, irregular (nonsymmetrical)
Two cotyledons in seed
Leaf veins form a net pattern
Flower parts in fours or fives
and their multiples
Seed
MonocotsEudicots
One cotyledon in seed
FlowerRoot
Root xylem and
phloem in a ring
Vascular bundles
scattered in stem
...
FLOWERS
Coefficient of Conservatism
The native species most successful in badly
damaged habitats were given C values of 0.
At the ...
Erigenia link
http://www.ill-inps.org/Erigenia
T & E Species Link
http://www.dnr.illinois.gov/ESPB/Documents/2015_Ch
eckli...
Gee whiz?! information
If you can’t tell a joke about it,
explain where the name comes
from, or tell story about the plant...
Plant Humor
How can you ID a dogwood tree?
By its bark!
Dichotomous Keys
and
Plant Collections
Dichotomous key demonstration
1.Needle-like or scale-like leaves
1. Leaves broad and flat
2. Leaves simple
2. Leaves compo...
Dichotomous Key Exercise
list the group number in the dichotomous key you
would choose for each of these species
Swamp Milkweed
Prickly Pear Cactus
Eastern Red Cedar
Yellow Lady Slipper Orchid
Dodder (parasitic vine)
Flowering Dogwood
Fragrant Water Lily
Sedges
Panic Grass
Clubmoss
Bedstraw
Break
Illinois Native Gymnosperms
Eastern Red Cedar
White Cedar (rare)
Tamarack (rare)
Pines (many rare)
Yew (rare)
Bald Cypress...
Common Plant Families
Angiosperms
Dicots & Monocots
DICOTS
Araliaceae (Spikenard family)
Wild Ginseng
Panax quinquefolia
Wild Petunia - Ruellia sp.
Acanthaceae (Acanthus family)
Water Willow – Justicia americana
Acanthaceae (Acanthus family)
Apiaceae (Carrot family)
Zizia aurea Osmorhiza claytonii
Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort family)
Wild Ginger – Asarum canadense
Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed family)
Mead’s Milkweed – Asclepias meadii
Asclepias tuberosa & A. perennis
Asclepias syriaca & A. variegata
Asclepias exaltata & A. purpurescens
Asclepias hirtella & A. verticillata
Asclepias incarnata
Asclepias sullivantii
Asclepias quadrifolia
Asclepias viridiflora & A. viridis
Climbing Milkweed – Matelea gonocarpos
Climbing Milkweed – Matelea obliqua
Asteraceae (Composite family)
Helenium autumnale Leucanthemum vulgare
Prairie Dock - Silphium terebinthinaceum
Blazing Stars – Liatris scabra & aspera
False Dandelion - Krigia biflora
Pussytoes – Antennaria parlinii
Boraginaceae (Borage family)
Lithospermum canescens
Heliotropium indicum & Cynoglossum virginianum
Lithospermum latifolium & Mertensia virginica
Marbleseed – Onosmodium molle var.
hispidissimum
Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Dentaria laciniata & Cardamine bulbosa
Cactaceae (Cactus family)
Opuntia humifusa
Campanulaceae (Bellflower family)
Lobelia cardinalis & Lobelia puberula
Campanulaceae (Bellflower family)
Lobelia spicata & Lobelia siphilitica
Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle family)
Lonicera reticulata
Elderberry – Sambucus canadensis
Coralberry – Symphoricarpus orbiculatus
Rusty Black Haw – Viburnum rufidulum
Caryophyllaceae (Pink family)
Stellaria longifolia
Silene stellata
Fire Pink – Silene virginica
Convolvulaceae (Morning-glory family)
Calystegia sepium Ipomoea pandurata
Flowering Dogwood – Cornus florida
Cornaceae (Dogwood family)
Crassulaceae (Stonecrop family)
Sedum pulchellum
Wild Orpine - Sedum telephioides
Cucurbitaceae (Gourd family)
Sicyos angulatus
Cuscutaceae (Dodder family)
Cuscuta gronovii
Ericaceae (Heath family)
Chamaedaphne calyculata
Wild Azalea - Rhododendron prinophyllum
Farkleberry – Vaccinium arboreum
Lowbush Blueberry - Vaccinium pallidum
Vaccinium venation
Vaccinium arboreum Vaccinium stamineum Vaccinium pallidum
Euphorbiaceae (Spurge family)
Euphorbia corollata Acalypha gracilens
Rushfoil – Crotonopsis elliptica
Fabaceae (Pea family)
Lotus corniculatus Tephrosia virginiana
Pencil Flower - Stylosanthes biflora
Caesalpiniaceae (Caesalpinia family)
Chamaecrista fasciculata Senna marilandica
Redbud - Cercis canadensis
Blackjack Oak - Quercus marilandica
Fagaceae (Beech family)
Post Oak - Quercus stellata
Rock Chestnut Oak - Quercus prinus
Gentianaceae (Gentian family)
Obolaria virginica
Gentiana andrewsii
Wild Columbo – Frasera caroliniensis
Hippocastanaceae (Horse Chestnut family)
Aesculus paviaAesculus glabra
Hypericaceae (St. Johnswort family)
Hypericum prolificumAscyrum multicaule
Pineweed - Hypericum gentianoides
Lamiaceae (Mint family)
Bee-balm - Monarda bradburiana & fistulosa
Pagoda Plant – Blephilia hirsuta
Wild Oregano (Dittany) – Cunila origanoides
Skullcaps – Scutellaria sp.
Blue Curls - Trichostema dichotomum
Loganiaceae (Logania family)
Indian Pink - Spigelia marilandica
Lythraceae (Loosestrife family)
Ammannia coccinea Decodon verticillatus
Magnoliacaeae (Magnolia family)
Magnolia acuminata
Tulip Tree – Liriodendron tulipifera
Malvaceae (Mallow family)
Hibiscus lasiocarpos
Melastomaceae (Meadow Beauty family)
Rhexia virginica
Monotropaceae (Indian Pipe family)
Monotropa uniflora
Nelumbo lutea
Nelumbonaceae (Water Lotus family)
Onagraceae (Evening-primrose family)
Oenothera linifoliaLudwigia alternilfolia
Oenothera pilosella & O. fruticosa
Orobanchaceae (Broomrape family)
Orobanche unifloraEpifagus virginiana
Polemoniaceae (Phlox family)
Phlox bifida
Polygonaceae (Smartweed family)
Persicaria coccineaPersicaria amphibia
Virginia Knotweed - Antenoron virginianum
Portalacaceae (Purslane family)
Phemeranthus parviflorus
Dodecatheon frenchii, Steironema ciliatum,
& Hottonia inflata
Ranunculaceae (Buttercup family)
Delphinium tricorne Ranunculus septentrionalis
Aquilegia canadensis & Thalictrum dioicum
Goldenseal – Hydrastis canadensis
Rosaceae (Rose family)
Potentilla simplex Rosa setigera
Carolina Rose - Rosa carolina
Indian Physic – Porteranthus stipulatus
Rubiaceae (Madder family)
Diodia teresGalium aparine
Houstonia lanceolata & H. pusilla
Partridge-berry – Mitchella repens
Buttonbush – Cephalanthus occidentalis
Saxifragaceae (Saxifrage family)
Small-flowered Alumroot - Heuchera parviflora
Scrophulariaceae (Snapdragon family)
Physostegia virginiana Penstemon pallidus
Castilleja coccinea & Chelone obliqua
Mimulus alatus & Veronicastrum virginicum
Ulmaceae (Elm family)
Winged Elm - Ulmus alata
Urticaceae (Nettle family)
Boehmeria cylindrica & Laportea canadensis
Valerianaceae (Valerian family)
Valeriana pauciflora & Valerianella radiata
Violaceae (Violet family)
Viola palmata
Viola striata & V. pubescens
Bird’s-foot Violet - Viola pedata
MONOCOTS
Agavaceae (Agave family)
American Agave - Manfreda virginiana
Arrowhead - Sagittaria latifolia
Alismataceae (Water Plantain family)
Spider Lily – Hymenocallis caroliniana
Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis family)
Araceae (Arum family)
Arisaema dracontium & A. triphyllum
Araceae (Arum family)
Symplocarpos foetidus & Peltrandra virginica
Commelinaceae (Dayflower family)
Tradesantia subaspera & Commelina communis
Cyperaceae (Sedge family)
Carex grayi & Carex davisii
Iridaceae (Iris family)
Iris fulva & Iris schrevei
Blue-eyed Grass – Sisrhynchium albidum
Juncaceae (Rush family)
Luzula multiflora & Juncus balticus
Sedges
Vs.
Rushes
Vs.
Grasses
Sedges have edges, rushes are round,
grasses have joints when the cops aren’t
around!
Sedges vs. Rushes vs. Grasses
Sedges (Cyperaceae) have one bract
subtending each flower, tristichous leaves
(though some a...
Sedges vs. Rushes vs. Grasses
Juncaceae (Rush family)
Juncus tenuis
Liliaceae (Lily family)
Erythronium americanum Lilium michiganense
Alliaceae (Onion family)
Wild Leek – Allium tricoccum
Wild Onion – Allium cernuum
False Garlic – Nothoscordum bivalve
Colchicaceae (Colchicicum family)
Bellwort – Uvularia grandiflora
Hyacinthaceae (Hyacinth family)
Wild Hyacinth – Camassia scilloides
Ruscaceae (Ruscus family)
Smilacina racemosa
Polygonatum biflorum
Trilliaceae (Trillium family)
Trillium flexipes
Trillium recurvatum
Melanthiaceae (Melanthium family)
Melanthium virginicum
Pontederiaceae (Pickerelweed family)
Pickerelweed – Pontederia cordata
Cypripedium pubescens & Calopogon oklahomensis
Orchidaceae (Orchid family)
Spring Coralroot Orchid - Corallorhiza wisteriana
Crested Coralroot Orchid– Hexalectris spicata
Cranefly Orchid -Tipularia discolor
Adam & Eve Orchid – Aplectrum hyemale
Galearis spectabilis & Goodyera pubescens
Twayblade Orchid – Liparis lilifolia
Platanthera peramoena & P. flava var. flava
Spiranthes vernalis & S. cernuus
Orchidaceae (Orchid family)
Triphora trianthophora & Isotria verticillata
Poaceae (Grass family)
Large Fruited Panic Grass – Dichanthelium boscii
Poverty Oats Grass - Danthonia spicata
Japanese Stiltgrass – Microstegium vimineum
Smilacaceae (Greenbrier family)
Greenbrier – Smilax ecirrhata
Sparganiaceae (Bur-reed family)
Sparganium eurycarpum
Typhaceae (Cattail family)
Typha angustifolia & T. latifolia
Rapid Color Guide
Rapid Color Guide
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Master Naturalist Botany Cook County
Master Naturalist Botany Cook County
Master Naturalist Botany Cook County
Master Naturalist Botany Cook County
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Master Naturalist Botany Cook County

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This is the program I presented to the Cook County Master Naturalist in October 2015.

Published in: Environment
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Master Naturalist Botany Cook County

  1. 1. Cook County Master Naturalist Botany 101 Instructor: Christopher David Benda
  2. 2. Plant Ecologist Illinois Natural History Survey President Illinois Native Plant Society Instructor, Flora of Southern Illinois Southern Illinois University Instructor, Tree ID and Ecology The Morton Arboretum Technical Expert Consultant Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board CHRISTOPHER DAVID BENDA, M.S.
  3. 3. Illinois Botanizer Facebook Group Illinois Botany
  4. 4. Illinois Native Plant Society www.ill-inps.org
  5. 5. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory Category I – High Quality Natural Communities
  6. 6. 6 1 2 345 7
  7. 7. Rose Pink Marigold New England Aster ButtonbushPrickly Pear CatcusCardinal Flower Orange Jewelweed
  8. 8. 0.07% in a natural condition
  9. 9. Natural Community Soil Moisture Gradient Xeric Dry Dry-mesic Mesic Wet-mesic Wet Hydric
  10. 10. Simple leaf, magnolia a. Simple versus compound leaves Pinnately compound leaf, black walnut Palmately compound leaf, buckeye b. Arrangement of leaves on stem Opposite leaves, maple Whorled leaves, bedstraw Alternate leaves, American beech Leaf Characteristics
  11. 11. Simple leaf Magnolia petiole
  12. 12. Palmately compound leaf Ohio Buckeye Aesculus glabra petiole
  13. 13. Pinnately compound leaf Black Walnut
  14. 14. Alternate leaves American beech
  15. 15. Whorled leaves Bedstraw Galium pilosum Galium aparine
  16. 16. Opposite leaves Maples MADCapBuckHorse
  17. 17. Exceptions to the rule: 1. Bladdernut 2. Euonymous (Wahoo) 3. Wild Hydrangea 4. Catalpa 5. Buttonbush 4. Catalpa 5. Buttonbush
  18. 18. petiole vs. petiolule vs. rachis
  19. 19. Basic Flower Anatomy • The male part is termed the Stamen, which consists of the anther and filament. • The female part is the Carpel, which consists of the stigma, style and ovary.
  20. 20. Flower Structure Perfect (bisexual flowers) Vs. Imperfect (unisexual flowers)
  21. 21. Perfect Flowers • Flowers containing BOTH male (stamen) and female (carpel) sexual parts. • Automatically monoecious
  22. 22. Imperfect Flowers • Flowers containing the reproductive parts of only one sex. • These imperfect flowers may be on the same plant (monoecious), • or on separate plants (dioecious) Sparganium eurycarpum Thalictrum dioicum
  23. 23. Monoecious (one house) Vs. Dioecious (two houses)
  24. 24. Imperfect flowers Staminate Vs. Pistillate Typha angustifolia staminate pistillate
  25. 25. Imperfect, monoecious Imperfect, dioecious Carex grayi Thalictrum dioicum
  26. 26. Obligate (requires a specific habitat for survival) Vs. Facultative (requires a general habitat for survival)
  27. 27. The Top Ten reasons for using scientific names Understand the meaning of the names!
  28. 28. Latin Pronunciation Pronounce every letter except diphthongs Echinacea, Tradescantia, Opuntia, Ambrosia “ch” is a “k” sound Polystichum, Heuchera, Aristolochia If a word has two syllables, the accent always goes with the next to the last (called the penult); e.g., Àcer. If a word has three or more syllables, the accent always goes either with the next to the last (penult) or the third from the last (called the antepenult). Synandra hispidula, Onoclea sensibilis, Liriodendron tulipifera phyllum – rhizophyllum, Podophyllum, triphyllum ae Pellaea, Arisaema, Chamaecrista au Daucus carota Eu Teucrium, Leucanthemum Oe (phoebe), Platanthera peramoena, Ipomoea Ui Equisetum “oi” is not a diphthong! Pleopeltis polypodioides Pronounce when ending with “e” Silene, canadense, sessile, hyemale Latinized last names (one or two i’s) Dodecatheon frenchii, Emydoidea blandingii Most trees have been feminized! Quercus rubra, Fagus grandifolia, Ulmus americana
  29. 29. Latin Pronunciation English pronunciation of vowels A – E – I – O - U Latin pronunciation of vowels Ah – Eh – EE – Oh - OO
  30. 30. Plant Resources for Southern Illinois Field Guide Books & Websites
  31. 31. Plant Resources for Southern Illinois Field Guide Books & Websites
  32. 32. Plant Taxonomy •Non-Vascular •Early Plants (spores) •Archaeplastida (algae) •Bryophyta (mosses) •Marchantiophyta (liverworts) •Anthocerophyta (hornworts) •Vascular •Seedless plants •Pteridophyta (Ferns) •Fern Allies •Equisetaceae (Horsetail) •Isoetaceae (Quillwort) •Lycopodiaceae (Clubmoss) •Marsileaceae (Water-Clover) •Selaginellaceae (Spikemoss) •Seed Plants •Gymnosperms (Conifers/Evergreens) •Juniperus, Pinus, Taxodium •Angiosperms (Flowering Plants) •Monocots (Orchids, Lilies, Irises, Grasses, Sedges, Rushes, aquatic plants) •Dicots (most other flowering plants)
  33. 33. Binomial Nomenclature “The beginning of wisdom is to call things by their rightful names.” Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Animalia Cordata Reptilia Testudines Emydidae Emydoidea E. blandingii
  34. 34. Ferns & Fern Allies
  35. 35. Sphagnum Moss – Sphagnum compactum
  36. 36. Netted Chain Fern – Woodwardia areolata
  37. 37. Royal Fern – Osmunda spectabilis
  38. 38. Silvery Spleenwort Fern– Deparia acrostichoides
  39. 39. Mosquito Fern – Azolla mexicana
  40. 40. Shining Clubmoss – Huperzia lucidula
  41. 41. Scouring Rush – Equisetum hyemale
  42. 42. Gymnosperms Vs. Angiosperms
  43. 43. • plants that don’t produce a protective fruit around the seed. • all the conifers - pines, red cedar, white cedar, tamarack, yew, and cypress. Gymnosperms (“naked seed”) Pinus echinata Taxodium distichum Larix laricina
  44. 44. Illinois Gymnosperms • Ginkgoaceae – Ginkgo family – Ginkgo – 1 species • biloba (Ginkgo)
  45. 45. • flowering plants where the seed is encased in a protective fruit. • This is the dominant group of plants on Earth today. Angiosperms (“hidden seeds”)
  46. 46. Angiosperms Monocot Vs. Dicot
  47. 47. One cotyledon in seed
  48. 48. Leaf veins form a parallel pattern
  49. 49. Flower parts in threes and multiples of three, irregular (nonsymmetrical)
  50. 50. Two cotyledons in seed
  51. 51. Leaf veins form a net pattern
  52. 52. Flower parts in fours or fives and their multiples
  53. 53. Seed MonocotsEudicots One cotyledon in seed FlowerRoot Root xylem and phloem in a ring Vascular bundles scattered in stem Leaf veins form aparallel pattern Flower parts in threes and multiples of three Flower parts in fours or fives and their multiples Leaf veins form anet pattern Vascular bundles in a distinct ring Root phloem between arms of xylemTwo cotyledons in seed Stem Leaf Monocot vs. Dicot
  54. 54. FLOWERS
  55. 55. Coefficient of Conservatism The native species most successful in badly damaged habitats were given C values of 0. At the other end of the spectrum, species virtually restricted to natural areas in Illinois received C values of 10. (Taft et al. 1997) Further reading http://www.conservationresearchinstitute.org/assets/illinoisfqa.pdf http://www.fws.gov/verobeach/Home/S1029%20Mortellaro%20mo nograph.pdf
  56. 56. Erigenia link http://www.ill-inps.org/Erigenia T & E Species Link http://www.dnr.illinois.gov/ESPB/Documents/2015_Ch ecklistFINAL_for_webpage_051915.pdf
  57. 57. Gee whiz?! information If you can’t tell a joke about it, explain where the name comes from, or tell story about the plant then: WHO CARES!!!
  58. 58. Plant Humor How can you ID a dogwood tree? By its bark!
  59. 59. Dichotomous Keys and Plant Collections
  60. 60. Dichotomous key demonstration 1.Needle-like or scale-like leaves 1. Leaves broad and flat 2. Leaves simple 2. Leaves compound 3. Leaves opposite or whorled 3. Leaves alternate 4. Leaves not toothed or lobed 4. Leaves toothed or lobed 5. Leaves toothed 5. Leaved lobed
  61. 61. Dichotomous Key Exercise list the group number in the dichotomous key you would choose for each of these species
  62. 62. Swamp Milkweed
  63. 63. Prickly Pear Cactus
  64. 64. Eastern Red Cedar
  65. 65. Yellow Lady Slipper Orchid
  66. 66. Dodder (parasitic vine)
  67. 67. Flowering Dogwood
  68. 68. Fragrant Water Lily
  69. 69. Sedges
  70. 70. Panic Grass
  71. 71. Clubmoss
  72. 72. Bedstraw
  73. 73. Break
  74. 74. Illinois Native Gymnosperms Eastern Red Cedar White Cedar (rare) Tamarack (rare) Pines (many rare) Yew (rare) Bald Cypress (coastal plain)
  75. 75. Common Plant Families Angiosperms Dicots & Monocots
  76. 76. DICOTS
  77. 77. Araliaceae (Spikenard family) Wild Ginseng Panax quinquefolia
  78. 78. Wild Petunia - Ruellia sp. Acanthaceae (Acanthus family)
  79. 79. Water Willow – Justicia americana Acanthaceae (Acanthus family)
  80. 80. Apiaceae (Carrot family) Zizia aurea Osmorhiza claytonii
  81. 81. Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort family) Wild Ginger – Asarum canadense
  82. 82. Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed family) Mead’s Milkweed – Asclepias meadii
  83. 83. Asclepias tuberosa & A. perennis
  84. 84. Asclepias syriaca & A. variegata
  85. 85. Asclepias exaltata & A. purpurescens
  86. 86. Asclepias hirtella & A. verticillata
  87. 87. Asclepias incarnata
  88. 88. Asclepias sullivantii
  89. 89. Asclepias quadrifolia
  90. 90. Asclepias viridiflora & A. viridis
  91. 91. Climbing Milkweed – Matelea gonocarpos
  92. 92. Climbing Milkweed – Matelea obliqua
  93. 93. Asteraceae (Composite family) Helenium autumnale Leucanthemum vulgare
  94. 94. Prairie Dock - Silphium terebinthinaceum
  95. 95. Blazing Stars – Liatris scabra & aspera
  96. 96. False Dandelion - Krigia biflora
  97. 97. Pussytoes – Antennaria parlinii
  98. 98. Boraginaceae (Borage family) Lithospermum canescens
  99. 99. Heliotropium indicum & Cynoglossum virginianum
  100. 100. Lithospermum latifolium & Mertensia virginica
  101. 101. Marbleseed – Onosmodium molle var. hispidissimum
  102. 102. Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Dentaria laciniata & Cardamine bulbosa
  103. 103. Cactaceae (Cactus family) Opuntia humifusa
  104. 104. Campanulaceae (Bellflower family) Lobelia cardinalis & Lobelia puberula
  105. 105. Campanulaceae (Bellflower family) Lobelia spicata & Lobelia siphilitica
  106. 106. Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle family) Lonicera reticulata
  107. 107. Elderberry – Sambucus canadensis
  108. 108. Coralberry – Symphoricarpus orbiculatus
  109. 109. Rusty Black Haw – Viburnum rufidulum
  110. 110. Caryophyllaceae (Pink family) Stellaria longifolia Silene stellata
  111. 111. Fire Pink – Silene virginica
  112. 112. Convolvulaceae (Morning-glory family) Calystegia sepium Ipomoea pandurata
  113. 113. Flowering Dogwood – Cornus florida Cornaceae (Dogwood family)
  114. 114. Crassulaceae (Stonecrop family) Sedum pulchellum
  115. 115. Wild Orpine - Sedum telephioides
  116. 116. Cucurbitaceae (Gourd family) Sicyos angulatus
  117. 117. Cuscutaceae (Dodder family) Cuscuta gronovii
  118. 118. Ericaceae (Heath family) Chamaedaphne calyculata
  119. 119. Wild Azalea - Rhododendron prinophyllum
  120. 120. Farkleberry – Vaccinium arboreum
  121. 121. Lowbush Blueberry - Vaccinium pallidum
  122. 122. Vaccinium venation Vaccinium arboreum Vaccinium stamineum Vaccinium pallidum
  123. 123. Euphorbiaceae (Spurge family) Euphorbia corollata Acalypha gracilens
  124. 124. Rushfoil – Crotonopsis elliptica
  125. 125. Fabaceae (Pea family) Lotus corniculatus Tephrosia virginiana
  126. 126. Pencil Flower - Stylosanthes biflora
  127. 127. Caesalpiniaceae (Caesalpinia family) Chamaecrista fasciculata Senna marilandica
  128. 128. Redbud - Cercis canadensis
  129. 129. Blackjack Oak - Quercus marilandica Fagaceae (Beech family)
  130. 130. Post Oak - Quercus stellata
  131. 131. Rock Chestnut Oak - Quercus prinus
  132. 132. Gentianaceae (Gentian family) Obolaria virginica Gentiana andrewsii
  133. 133. Wild Columbo – Frasera caroliniensis
  134. 134. Hippocastanaceae (Horse Chestnut family) Aesculus paviaAesculus glabra
  135. 135. Hypericaceae (St. Johnswort family) Hypericum prolificumAscyrum multicaule
  136. 136. Pineweed - Hypericum gentianoides
  137. 137. Lamiaceae (Mint family) Bee-balm - Monarda bradburiana & fistulosa
  138. 138. Pagoda Plant – Blephilia hirsuta
  139. 139. Wild Oregano (Dittany) – Cunila origanoides
  140. 140. Skullcaps – Scutellaria sp.
  141. 141. Blue Curls - Trichostema dichotomum
  142. 142. Loganiaceae (Logania family) Indian Pink - Spigelia marilandica
  143. 143. Lythraceae (Loosestrife family) Ammannia coccinea Decodon verticillatus
  144. 144. Magnoliacaeae (Magnolia family) Magnolia acuminata
  145. 145. Tulip Tree – Liriodendron tulipifera
  146. 146. Malvaceae (Mallow family) Hibiscus lasiocarpos
  147. 147. Melastomaceae (Meadow Beauty family) Rhexia virginica
  148. 148. Monotropaceae (Indian Pipe family) Monotropa uniflora
  149. 149. Nelumbo lutea Nelumbonaceae (Water Lotus family)
  150. 150. Onagraceae (Evening-primrose family) Oenothera linifoliaLudwigia alternilfolia
  151. 151. Oenothera pilosella & O. fruticosa
  152. 152. Orobanchaceae (Broomrape family) Orobanche unifloraEpifagus virginiana
  153. 153. Polemoniaceae (Phlox family) Phlox bifida
  154. 154. Polygonaceae (Smartweed family) Persicaria coccineaPersicaria amphibia
  155. 155. Virginia Knotweed - Antenoron virginianum
  156. 156. Portalacaceae (Purslane family) Phemeranthus parviflorus
  157. 157. Dodecatheon frenchii, Steironema ciliatum, & Hottonia inflata
  158. 158. Ranunculaceae (Buttercup family) Delphinium tricorne Ranunculus septentrionalis
  159. 159. Aquilegia canadensis & Thalictrum dioicum
  160. 160. Goldenseal – Hydrastis canadensis
  161. 161. Rosaceae (Rose family) Potentilla simplex Rosa setigera
  162. 162. Carolina Rose - Rosa carolina
  163. 163. Indian Physic – Porteranthus stipulatus
  164. 164. Rubiaceae (Madder family) Diodia teresGalium aparine
  165. 165. Houstonia lanceolata & H. pusilla
  166. 166. Partridge-berry – Mitchella repens
  167. 167. Buttonbush – Cephalanthus occidentalis
  168. 168. Saxifragaceae (Saxifrage family) Small-flowered Alumroot - Heuchera parviflora
  169. 169. Scrophulariaceae (Snapdragon family) Physostegia virginiana Penstemon pallidus
  170. 170. Castilleja coccinea & Chelone obliqua
  171. 171. Mimulus alatus & Veronicastrum virginicum
  172. 172. Ulmaceae (Elm family) Winged Elm - Ulmus alata
  173. 173. Urticaceae (Nettle family) Boehmeria cylindrica & Laportea canadensis
  174. 174. Valerianaceae (Valerian family) Valeriana pauciflora & Valerianella radiata
  175. 175. Violaceae (Violet family) Viola palmata
  176. 176. Viola striata & V. pubescens
  177. 177. Bird’s-foot Violet - Viola pedata
  178. 178. MONOCOTS
  179. 179. Agavaceae (Agave family) American Agave - Manfreda virginiana
  180. 180. Arrowhead - Sagittaria latifolia Alismataceae (Water Plantain family)
  181. 181. Spider Lily – Hymenocallis caroliniana Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis family)
  182. 182. Araceae (Arum family) Arisaema dracontium & A. triphyllum
  183. 183. Araceae (Arum family) Symplocarpos foetidus & Peltrandra virginica
  184. 184. Commelinaceae (Dayflower family) Tradesantia subaspera & Commelina communis
  185. 185. Cyperaceae (Sedge family) Carex grayi & Carex davisii
  186. 186. Iridaceae (Iris family) Iris fulva & Iris schrevei
  187. 187. Blue-eyed Grass – Sisrhynchium albidum
  188. 188. Juncaceae (Rush family) Luzula multiflora & Juncus balticus
  189. 189. Sedges Vs. Rushes Vs. Grasses Sedges have edges, rushes are round, grasses have joints when the cops aren’t around!
  190. 190. Sedges vs. Rushes vs. Grasses Sedges (Cyperaceae) have one bract subtending each flower, tristichous leaves (though some are round) Grasses (Poaceae) have two bracts subtending each flower (palea and lemma), distichous leaves, hollow stem Rushes (Juncaceae) have six petals/sepals (called tepals) that subtend a capsule, leaves reduced or absent, pithy stem
  191. 191. Sedges vs. Rushes vs. Grasses
  192. 192. Juncaceae (Rush family) Juncus tenuis
  193. 193. Liliaceae (Lily family) Erythronium americanum Lilium michiganense
  194. 194. Alliaceae (Onion family) Wild Leek – Allium tricoccum
  195. 195. Wild Onion – Allium cernuum
  196. 196. False Garlic – Nothoscordum bivalve
  197. 197. Colchicaceae (Colchicicum family) Bellwort – Uvularia grandiflora
  198. 198. Hyacinthaceae (Hyacinth family) Wild Hyacinth – Camassia scilloides
  199. 199. Ruscaceae (Ruscus family) Smilacina racemosa Polygonatum biflorum
  200. 200. Trilliaceae (Trillium family) Trillium flexipes Trillium recurvatum
  201. 201. Melanthiaceae (Melanthium family) Melanthium virginicum
  202. 202. Pontederiaceae (Pickerelweed family) Pickerelweed – Pontederia cordata
  203. 203. Cypripedium pubescens & Calopogon oklahomensis Orchidaceae (Orchid family)
  204. 204. Spring Coralroot Orchid - Corallorhiza wisteriana
  205. 205. Crested Coralroot Orchid– Hexalectris spicata
  206. 206. Cranefly Orchid -Tipularia discolor Adam & Eve Orchid – Aplectrum hyemale
  207. 207. Galearis spectabilis & Goodyera pubescens
  208. 208. Twayblade Orchid – Liparis lilifolia
  209. 209. Platanthera peramoena & P. flava var. flava
  210. 210. Spiranthes vernalis & S. cernuus
  211. 211. Orchidaceae (Orchid family) Triphora trianthophora & Isotria verticillata
  212. 212. Poaceae (Grass family) Large Fruited Panic Grass – Dichanthelium boscii
  213. 213. Poverty Oats Grass - Danthonia spicata
  214. 214. Japanese Stiltgrass – Microstegium vimineum
  215. 215. Smilacaceae (Greenbrier family) Greenbrier – Smilax ecirrhata
  216. 216. Sparganiaceae (Bur-reed family) Sparganium eurycarpum
  217. 217. Typhaceae (Cattail family) Typha angustifolia & T. latifolia
  218. 218. Rapid Color Guide
  219. 219. Rapid Color Guide
  220. 220. botanizer@gmail.com www.facebook.com/illinoisbotanizer www.illinoisbotanizer.blogspot.com www.illinoisbotanizer.com

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