Illinois Botany 101 and Wildflower Quiz

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This slideshow covers the basics of plant identification, common plant families in Illinois, and concludes with a spring wildflower quiz. Botanical focus is on northeastern Illinois (Chicago area).

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  • L. fasciatus banded, bearing stripes — ref. dorsal stripes, females and young males "resemble bundled staves" 
  • Illinois Botany 101 and Wildflower Quiz

    1. 1. Habitat 2030 - Botany 101
    2. 2. Christopher David Benda – Visiting Plant Ecologist, Illinois Natural History Survey Degognia Canyon – Jackson County
    3. 3. Illinois Native Plant Society Southern Chapter Technical Expert Consultant www.facebook.com/southernillinoisplants
    4. 4. Basic Plant Reproduction, Structure, and Terminology
    5. 5. Flowers Complete (monoecious plants) Vs. Incomplete (monoecious and dioecious plants)
    6. 6. Monoecious (one house) Vs. Dioecious (two houses)
    7. 7. Two Types of Flowers: • 1. Complete (perfect): flowers containing BOTH male (stamen) and female (pistil) sexual parts. • Automatically monoecious
    8. 8. • The male part is termed the Stamen which consists of the anther and filament. • The female part is the Pistil, which consists of the stigma, style and ovary.
    9. 9. • 2. Incomplete (imperfect): Flowers containing the reproductive parts of only one sex. • These imperfect flowers may be on the same plant (monoecious), • or on separate plants (dioecious).
    10. 10. Staminate Vs. Pistillate
    11. 11. Obligate Vs. Facultative
    12. 12. Symbiosis Can Be One Of Two Conditions: • 1. Obligatory: one organism cannot live without the other. • 2. Facultative: can live symbiotically but can survive without one another.
    13. 13. Plant Taxonomy •Non-Vascular •Early Plants (spores) •Archaeplastida (algae) •Bryophyta (mosses) •Marchantiophyta (liverworts) •Anthocerophyta (hornworts) •Vascular •Seedless plants •Pteridophyta (Ferns) •Equisetaceae (Horsetail) •Isoetaceae (Quillwort) •Lycopodiaceae (Clubmoss) •Marsileaceae (Water-Clover) •Selaginellaceae (Spikemoss) •Seed Plants •Gymnosperms (Conifers/Evergreens) •Juniperus, Pinus, Taxodium •Angiosperms (Flowering Plants) •Monocots (Orchids, Lilies, Irises, Grasses, Sedges, Rushes, aquatic plants) •Dicots (most other flowering plants)
    14. 14. Gymnosperms Vs. Angiosperms
    15. 15. • 1. Gymnosperms (“Naked Seeds”): plants that don’t produce a protective fruit around the seed. • Ex: all the conifers-pines, cedar, spruce, and cypress.
    16. 16. • 2. Angiosperms (“Hidden Seeds”): flowering plants, seed is encased in a protective fruit. • This is the dominant group of plants on Earth today. • * Fruit- anything formed from the enlarged plant ovary.
    17. 17. Plants Monocot Vs. Dicot
    18. 18. One cotyledon in seed
    19. 19. Leaf veins form a parallel pattern
    20. 20. Flower parts in threes and multiples of three, irregular (nonsymmetrical)
    21. 21. Two cotyledons in seed
    22. 22. Leaf veins form a net pattern
    23. 23. Flower parts in fours or fives and their multiples
    24. 24. Leaf Characteristics
    25. 25. Leaf Characteristics Alternate leaves, American beech Simple leaf, magnolia Palmately compound leaf, buckeye Whorled leaves, bedstraw Pinnately compound leaf, black walnut a. Simple versus compound leaves Opposite leaves, maple b. Arrangement of leaves on stem
    26. 26. Simple leaf, magnolia
    27. 27. Palmately compound leaf, buckeye
    28. 28. Pinnately compound leaf, black walnut
    29. 29. Alternate leaves, American beech
    30. 30. Whorled leaves, bedstraw
    31. 31. Opposite leaves, maple MADCapHorseBuck (buttonbush)
    32. 32. Gee whiz?! information If you can’t tell a joke about it, explain where the name comes from, or tell story about the plant then: WHO CARES!!!
    33. 33. Plant Humor Q. How can you ID a dogwood tree?
    34. 34. Plant Humor A. By its bark!
    35. 35. Flowering Dogwood – Cornus florida
    36. 36. What is a Natural Area? High Quality Natural Communities 0.07% in a natural condition
    37. 37. Binomial Nomenclature “The beginning of wisdom is to call things by their rightful names.” Kingdom Animalia Phylum Cordata Class Reptilia Order Testudines Family Emydidae Genus Emydoidea Species E. blandingii
    38. 38. Latin Pronunciation O Pronounce every letter except diphthongs  Echinacea, Tradescantia, Opuntia humifusa, Ambrosia artemisiifolia O “ch” is a “k” sound: Polystichum, Heuchera O If a word has two syllables, the accent always goes with the next to the last (called the penult); e.g., Àcer. O If a word has three or more syllables, the accent always goes either with the next to the last (penult) or the third from the last (called the antepenult).  Synandra hispidula, Onoclea sensibilis, Liriodendron tulipifera  phyllum – rhizophyllum, Podophyllum, triphyllum  ae Pellaea atropurpurea, Arisaema  au Daucus carota  Eu Teucrium, Leucanthemum  Oe (phoebe), Platanthera peramoena, Ipomoea  Ui Equisetum O “oi” is not a diphthong!  Pleopeltis polypodioides O Pronounce when ending with “e”  Silene, canadense, sessile, hyemale O Latinized last names (one or two i’s)  Dodecatheon frenchii, Emydoidea blandingii O Most trees have been feminized!  Quercus rubra, Fagus grandifolia, Ulmus americana
    39. 39. Plant Resources for Illinois Field Guide Books & Websites
    40. 40. Plant Resources for Illinois Field Guide Books & Websites
    41. 41. Common Plant Families
    42. 42. Apiaceae (Carrot family)
    43. 43. Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed family)
    44. 44. Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed family)
    45. 45. Mead’s Milkweed – Asclepias meadii
    46. 46. Asteraceae (Composite family)
    47. 47. Prairie Dock - Silphium terebinthinaceum
    48. 48. Blazing Stars – Liatris scabra & aspera
    49. 49. False Dandelion - Krigia biflora
    50. 50. Boraginaceae (Borage family)
    51. 51. Boraginaceae (Borage family)
    52. 52. Marbleseed – Onosmodium molle var. hispidissimum
    53. 53. Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
    54. 54. Cactaceae (Cactus family)
    55. 55. Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle family)
    56. 56. Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle family)
    57. 57. Campanulaceae (Bellflower family)
    58. 58. Campanulaceae (Bellflower family)
    59. 59. Caryophyllaceae (Pink family)
    60. 60. Convolvulaceae (Morning-glory family)
    61. 61. Cuscutaceae (Dodder family)
    62. 62. Euphorbiaceae (Spurge family)
    63. 63. Fabaceae (Pea family)
    64. 64. Pencil Flower - Stylosanthes biflora
    65. 65. Caesalpiniaceae (Caesalpinia family)
    66. 66. Redbud - Cercis canadensis
    67. 67. Lamiaceae (Mint family)
    68. 68. Hypericaceae (St. Johnswort family)
    69. 69. Onagraceae (Evening-primrose family)
    70. 70. Onagraceae (Evening-primrose family)
    71. 71. Polemoniaceae (Phlox family)
    72. 72. Ranunculaceae (Buttercup family)
    73. 73. Rosaceae (Rose family)
    74. 74. Carolina Rose - Rosa carolina
    75. 75. Rubiaceae (Madder family)
    76. 76. Rubiaceae (Madder family)
    77. 77. Buttonbush – Cephalanthus occidentalis
    78. 78. Scrophulariaceae (Snapdragon family)
    79. 79. Skullcaps – Scutellaria sp.
    80. 80. Cyperaceae (Sedge family)
    81. 81. Iridaceae (Iris family)
    82. 82. Blue-eyed Grass – Sisrhynchium albidum
    83. 83. Juncaceae (Rush family)
    84. 84. Liliaceae (Lily family)
    85. 85. Orchidaceae (Orchid family)
    86. 86. Orchidaceae (Orchid family)
    87. 87. Adam & Eve Orchid – Aplectrum hyemale Cranefly Orchid -Tipularia discolor
    88. 88. Twayblade Orchid – Liparis lilifolia
    89. 89. Poaceae (Grass family)
    90. 90. Questions?
    91. 91. Erigenia bulbosa – Harbinger of Spring
    92. 92. Symplocarpos foetidus– Skunk Cabbage
    93. 93. Claytonia virginiana - Spring Beauty
    94. 94. Arisaema triphyllum – Jack-in-the-pulpit
    95. 95. Arisaema dracontium – Green Dragon
    96. 96. Galium aparine– Bedstraw
    97. 97. Anemone quinquefolia - Wood Anemone
    98. 98. Caulophyllum thalictroides - Blue Cohosh
    99. 99. Hydrastis canadensis - Goldenseal
    100. 100. Dentaria laciniata – Cut-leaved Toothwort
    101. 101. Dicentra cucullaria – Dutchman’s Breeches
    102. 102. Dicentra canadensis – Squirrel Corn
    103. 103. Corydalis flavula – Pale Corydalis
    104. 104. Hepatica nobilis - Liverleaf
    105. 105. Actaea pachypoda - Doll’s Eyes
    106. 106. Asarum canadense - Wild Ginger
    107. 107. Aquilegia canadensis - Wild Columbine
    108. 108. Camassia scilloides - Wild Hyacinth
    109. 109. Dodecatheon meadia – Shooting Star
    110. 110. Enemion biternatum – False Rue Anemone
    111. 111. Rue Anemone vs. False Rue Anemone
    112. 112. Allium tricoccum - Wild Leek
    113. 113. Erigeron philidelphicus – Daisy Fleabane
    114. 114. Erythronium americanum - Yellow Trout Lily
    115. 115. Erythronium albidum – White Trout Lily
    116. 116. Sanguinaria canadensis - Bloodroot
    117. 117. Jeffersonia diphyla - Twinleaf
    118. 118. Fragaria virginiana – Wild Strawberry
    119. 119. Caltha palustris - Marsh Marigold
    120. 120. Geranium maculatum – Wild Geranium
    121. 121. Hybanthus concolor – Green Violet
    122. 122. Podophyllum peltatum – Mayapple
    123. 123. Hydrophyllum canadense - Waterleaf
    124. 124. Hypoxis hirsuta – Yellow Star Grass
    125. 125. Luzula multiflora – Wood Rush
    126. 126. Osmorhiza claytonii – Sweet Cicely
    127. 127. Pedicularis canadensis - Wood Betony
    128. 128. Phlox divaricata – Wild Blue Phlox
    129. 129. Collinsia verna – Blue-eyed Mary
    130. 130. Phlox bifida – Cleft Phlox
    131. 131. Polemonium reptans - Jacob’s Ladder
    132. 132. Polygonatum biflorum - Soloman’s Seal –
    133. 133. Smilacina racemosa - Soloman’s Plume
    134. 134. Smilacina stellata - Starry False Soloman’s Seal
    135. 135. Frasera caroliniensis - Wild Columbo
    136. 136. Tradescantia virginiana – Virginia Spiderwort
    137. 137. Trillium recurvatum – Purple Trillium
    138. 138. Trillium flexipes - White Trillium
    139. 139. Trillium grandiflorum - Large Trillium
    140. 140. Silene virginica - Fire Pink
    141. 141. Uvularia grandiflora - Bellwort
    142. 142. Viola pedata– Bird’s-foot Violet
    143. 143. Viola pubescens – Yellow Violet
    144. 144. Viola striata – Cream Violet
    145. 145. Amelanchier arborea – Serviceberry
    146. 146. Cercis canadensis - Redbud
    147. 147. Cornus florida – Flowering Dogwood
    148. 148. Viburnum rifidulum – Rusty Black Haw

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