LEARNING OBJECTIVES• Historical Question: What were the objectives and conditions of the World War II Japanese Internment camps with in the United States?• Learning Objectives:• What were the government’s objectives for the camps?• What were the living conditions like for the Japanese in the camps?• Locations: California, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado, and Arkansas
GOVERNMENT OBJECTIVES • Rumors after Pearl Harbor • Eliminate Japanese competition • Fear of spies • First generation- Issei • Second generation- Nisei or Sansei • Politicians gain popularity • Keep Japanese away fromhttp://www.sacbee.com/2012/02/17/4272434/unknown-japanese-internment-people.html Military Area
CONDITIONS OF CAMPS • Families put in different camps • Bring few possessions • Communal areas • Simple frames, no plumbing or cooking facilitieshttp://questgarden.com/64/19 • No coals, few blankets/3/080417100246/process.htm • Families of four or up to ten people in one room • “cots and oil burning stoves for heat” • Used latrines • Makeshift classrooms • Gangs- Black Dragon Society, White Terror and Blood Brothers http://history.howstuffworks.com/world-war-ii/japanese- internment-camp2.htm
MANZANAR, CALIFORNIA• Opened March 21, 1942• Closed November 21, 1945• Population: 10,046• Located in Death Valley• Japanese volunteered to help finish build the camp• Farmers tended orchards and built an irrigation system• “The doctors, nurses, and dentists imprisoned in the camps staffed small hospitals.”• Churches, post offices, fire departments, newspapers, http://www.ww2incolor.com/homefront/japanese-american- camp banks and camp stores internment-camps.jpg.html• Three men shot
POSTON, ARIZONA• Opened May 8, 1942• Closed November 28, 1945• Population: 17,814• August temperatures 130 degrees Fahrenheit,• Sand storms would last for several days• Two soldiers denied http://www.raven1.net/mcf/images/poston.jpg beating a third man caused a strike.
TULE LAKE, CALIFORNIA • Opened May 27, 1942 • Closed March 20, 1946 • Population: 18,789 • Located in Northern Californiahttp://www.momomedia.com/CLPEF/camps/tule.html • Mountains, no trees • Minus 25 degrees Fahrenheit • Violent riot- November 1942 • Resembled a prison • High barbed wire surroundingshttp://www.colostate.edu/orgs/TuleLake/fence.jpg
GEORGE TAKEI• An American actor• Best known for role in Star Trek.• Lived in Rohwer and Tule Lake• Camp life became normal• Tule Lake, in his opinion, harsher than Rohwer.
RETURNING HOME• Left the camps after WWII ended• Happy to return home• Properties destroyed• Two years later Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act of 1948• 1988- Congress passed House Resolution 442• People too old to start a new life• Emotional and psychological damage
WORKS CITEDCooper, Michael L. Fighting for Honor: Japanese Americans and World War II. New York: Clarion, 2000. Print."George Takei." Archive of American Television. 27 Oct. 2004. Web. 09 May 2012."Japanese- American Relocation." Houghton Mifflin. Web. 22 Apr. 2012."Japanese Relocation Centers." Infoplease. Web. 22 Apr. 2012"Rohwer Internment Camp." In Their Words. 2010. Web. 9 May 2012."World War Two - Japanese Internment Camps in the USA." History on the Net. Nov. 2000. Web. 22 Apr. 2012.