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By Oscar Carvajal, PhD ABDUniversity of Toronto© All rights reserved                                       HOMO DOMESTICUS...
This is a parenthesis to include a word about me as author of this thesis in order toassist in locating my ideas and bias....
relations between this thesis in Christian theological scholarship and other fields ofresearch. And it describes the metho...
different eco-systems, including the human, share in the suffering inflicted by humandomination, oppression, exploitation,...
Zohary, to plants;9 Simmons, to cattle;10 Schorger, to the turkey;11 Laufer, to the reindeer;12Roberts, to turtles;13 and ...
Some authors consider, in a traditional way of the notion, the domestication (taming)of places and the physical world: Man...
In terms of human domestication, as this next bibliographic survey indicates, varioussocial and natural science authors sp...
Helen M. Leach reconsiders human domestication in relation to biological variationresulting from sedentism.43 Keiichi Omot...
Levinas,50 experiments with structuralism, and suggests a functional Christian anthropologybased on Imago Dei.51        Ba...
Thesis statementA theological understanding and critique of social and ecological domination can beenhanced by understandi...
immediate contexts and sets of ideologies, sciences, techniques, and technologies toachieve, foster, and perpetuate relati...
domestication, it refers to processes and methods of taming humans that mainly rely onthe science of human knowledge or id...
Another way to conceptualize the condition influenced by domestication onhumans is considering four human dimensions, name...
domesticating nature. Earthly ecology evolves under the domesticating penetration andcontrol of the human built environmen...
attacks, tool and fire making, hunting, and collection among nomad societies.54Domestication functions, among other forms ...
The process of architecture, indeed of domestication, refers to a process ofecological and social domination. Humans rely ...
Dynamically changing and mutating limited and exclusive social circles ofhumans, both concentrated and dispersed throughou...
Domestication represents a pervasive underlying dynamic of domination. Evenmore, housing design and building technology te...
as explained above. Christian theology has not theorized about domestication via thebuilt environment. The notion of human...
individuals, society in general, and the ecological environment at large. Such dynamicsinclude traditional symbolism, soci...
about 4,000 years of history, while domestication to about 10,000 years of development(se Appendix 4: Beginnings of Domest...
intensification of human domestication, e.g., empire, but leave general domesticationuntouched. Nehemiah puts the biblical...
eternal debates, often resolved via ethical imposition based on the amount of accumulateddomesticated authority or suprema...
institutionally? Christian theology in particular and biblical theology in general does notseem to offer clear alternative...
To assert its Christian theological contribution, this thesis explores some Christiantheological treatments of domination....
Christian scholarship benefits from engaging in conversations with otherdisciplines. Research benefits from openness, disc...
Third, this study is both inductive and deductive. It draws insight fromconclusions submitted in different areas of the so...
Reflecting somehow our modern cynicism, my recognition of the impossibility ofundomestication presents my reading of such ...
Chapter One: The first chapter is named ―Christian Theological Critics ofDomination.‖ It sets a theological context by rev...
case of the invention of shelters or houses, marking the emergence and development of thebuilt environment, and refers to ...
PROLOGUEIn preparation for the interdisciplinary and particularly Christian theological discussion inthis work, this Prolo...
Currents in social anthropologyAnthropology refers to the study of humans. Historically, anthropologists started byexamini...
Social anthropology was inspired by the methodological ideals of fieldworkpioneered by Bronislaw Malinowski, spreading fro...
domination based on domestication (taming) but camouflaged with naturism. Darwin‘smethodology is deeply influenced by expe...
coadaptation, ―the case of the coadaptations of organic beings to each other and to theirphysical conditions of life,‖ and...
natural processes from a privileged position. John A. Livingston refers to Darwin as anartifact of the ideology of his tim...
epicenter among elites. His portrayal of natural adaptation reveals a sort of ―anthropo-elite-centric‖ selection appeal. H...
survive. But when the survivor is not the fittest, which happens often, selection does notcorrelate. Selection does not ex...
Overemphasizing selection forces Darwinian theories to become selective,oversimplifying the role of random probabilities a...
larva and mature animal)97 to offspring (descendants) via inheritance (non-mutated)98 andmethodic (domestication) or uncon...
pilgrimage on earth. But Darwin focused so acutely on non-human organisms that hefailed to identify selection against huma...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding...
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HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding of Domination

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This is the entire thesis on Homo domesticus, with special application to theology.

oscar.carvajal@utoronto.ca

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HOMO DOMESTICUS: An Analytic Study of Human Domestication and How It May Influence the Christian Theological Understanding of Domination

  1. 1. By Oscar Carvajal, PhD ABDUniversity of Toronto© All rights reserved HOMO DOMESTICUS: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF HUMAN DOMESTICATION AND HOW IT MAY INFLUENCE THE CHRISTIAN THEOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF DOMINATION INTRODUCTIONThis thesis explores how understanding human domestication may influence the Christiantheological study of domination. This inter-disciplinary study identifies the notion ofhuman domestication, as a theoretical context and a critical tool, and explores itsimplications on the Christian theological reflection on domination. It starts byidentifying key Christian theological scholarship on domination. It continues byredefining the notion or metaphor of domestication as the conditioning influence of thebuilt environment.1 It then applies that enhanced notion of domestication to understandthe human condition and refers to the notion of human domestication, introducing theterm Homo domesticus. It ends by exploring how the previous analytical study of humandomestication may enhance and advance the Christian theological understanding andcritique of domination. 1 The term ―metaphor‖ here acknowledges that reality at times seems inaccessible; hence humansuse language, e.g., words and concepts, attempting to better grasp that reality. The metaphor ofdomestication serves as a theoretical context and a tool to identify the condition that the built environmentimposes on organisms. 1
  2. 2. This is a parenthesis to include a word about me as author of this thesis in order toassist in locating my ideas and bias. Even though the focus of this present study is notautobiography, I acknowledge my human tamed and domesticated condition. I recognizethat my racial, religious, idiosyncratic, cultural, and gender condition and bias, in general,the influence of taming ideologies, particularly as engineer, musician, and a mixture ofLatin American and North American Evangelical and Mennonite theologian. Over all,the condition of the domesticating built environment shapes my perceptions and bias,ideas, assumptions, analyses, critiques, and conclusions. My vital presuppositions are:everything beyond survival is domination and anything short from eradicating the builtenvironment is domestication. I define myself as a married father of three kids and older brother of two sisters. Iwas born and I grew up in Cucuta, Colombia. Our family moved to Bogota when I wasseventeen. Spanish is my mother tongue, while I can barely communicate in English. Atthe age of twenty six, I moved to the United States, where I lived undocumented for fouryears. After spending two years in Kitchener and two winters in Winnipeg, I now live inKitchener. I have been living in Canada for the past eleven years, eight of them enrolledin the Doctor of Philosophy in Theology program in the Toronto School of Theology; thelast five, writing my dissertation. Beyond a few years in Christian ministry, I haveworked in various general labour positions. I am currently a local semi-truck driver. Myideas reflect my foreigner condition in North America, but mainly my experience as acommunity volunteer among amazing Native friends in the Amazons. This Introduction to the thesis presents its status quaestionis, setting a context tomake the thesis statement. It makes a brief reference to its contribution. It highlights the 2
  3. 3. relations between this thesis in Christian theological scholarship and other fields ofresearch. And it describes the methodology and procedure that this thesis follows. Status quaestionisThe treatment of the notion of human domestication via the influence and condition ofhousing, architecture, or the human built environment to understand social and ecologicaldomination is absent in Christian theological scholarship. In terms of domination, scholars from different disciplines in the social sciencesdebate social domination and exploitation. Also, during recent decades, Christiantheologies emerging from contexts of oppression argue for liberation from dominationand exploitation.2 Similarly, ecological scholarship examines and explicates therelatedness and inter-relationship among the different systems of planet earth.3 Christiantheological research has been increasingly incorporating this approach and documentingthe social and ecological inter-relationships among humans, animals, and plants incosmological terms and in terms of suffering.4 Most of these authors argue that the 2 Ivan Petrella, ed., Latin American Liberation Theology: The Next Generation (Maryknoll, N.Y.:Orbis Books, 2005); Marc H. Ellis, Toward a Jewish Liberation Theology: The Challenge of 21 st Century(Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2004); Marcella Althaus-Reid, From Feminist Theology to IndecentTheology: Readings on Poverty, Sexual Identity and God (London: SCM Press, 2004), and The Queer God(London; New York: Routledge, 2003); Peter C. Phan, Christianity with an Asian Face: Asian AmericanTheology in the Making (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 2003); Kathleen M. Nadeau, Liberation Theologyin the Philippines: Faith in a Revolution (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002); and Anthony B. Pinn, MoralEvil and Redemptive Suffering: A History of Theodicy in African-American Religious Thought (Gainesville,Fla.: University Press of Florida, 2002). 3 Wendell Berry, The Unsettling of America: Culture and Agriculture (New York: Sierra ClubBooks, 1978); Carolyn S. Vacca (Carolyn Summers), A Reform Against Nature: Woman Suffrage and theRethinking of American Citizenship, 1840-1920 (New York: Peter Lang, 2004); Eduardo A. Velazques,Nature, Woman, and the Art of Politics (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000); and Susan Griffin,Woman and Nature: The Roaring Inside Her (New York: Harper & Row, 1978). 4 Sharon Smith, Women and Socialism: Essays on Women‟s Liberation (Chicago, IL: HaymarketBooks, 2005); Maurice S. Lee, Slavery, Philosophy, and American Literature, 1830-1860 (Cambridge, UK;New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005); Edward A. Alpers, et al, eds., Slavery and Resistance inAfrica and Asia (London; New York: Routledge, 2005); Thomas Berry, The Dream of the Earth: Our WayInto the Future (New York: Bell Tower, 1999), and Alvaro Vargas Llosa, Liberty for Latin America: Howto Undo Five Hundred Years of State Oppression (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005); RosemaryRadford Ruether and Rita M. Gross, Religious Feminism and the Future of the Planet: A Christian- 3
  4. 4. different eco-systems, including the human, share in the suffering inflicted by humandomination, oppression, exploitation, and destruction. These scholars integrateecological studies and social analyses based on racial, economic, gender, andcosmological perspectives in order to delve into a deeper understanding of humansuffering.5 As it conducts a critical analysis of human domestication and how it mayinfluence the Christian theological treatment of domination, this thesis considersChristian theological explorations of domination which employ cosmological, ecological,sociological, and anthropological approaches and follows a similar inter-disciplinarymethod. In terms of domestication, social and natural studies traditionally employ themetaphor of domestication to understand relationships among human beings and otherorganisms, things, and ideas. Baring in mind that this thesis considers the traditionalnotion of domestication an understanding of taming, the following bibliographic surveyindicates the comprehensive way in which authors identify the implications ofdomestication (taming). Some authors apply the metaphor of domestication (taming) to animals and plants:Darwin, to animals and plants;6 Raisor and Fox, to dogs;7 Price and Grandin, to animals;8Buddhist Conversation (London: Continuum, 2001); Dieter Hessel, ed., Theology for Earth Community: AField Guide (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1996); and Dieter T. Hessel and Rosemary Radford Ruether,eds., Christianity and Ecology (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000). 5 Sallie Leonardo Boff, Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis, 1997);and Rosemary Radford Ruether, Ecofeminism: Symbolic and Social Connections of the Oppressions ofWomen and the Domination of Nature (London: Huron College, 1991). 6 Charles Darwin, The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication (London: J. Murray,1868). 7 Michelle Jeanette Raisor, Determining the Antiquity of Dog Origins: Canine Domestication as aModel for the Consilience Between Molecular Genetics and Archaeology (Oxford, England: Archaeopress,2005); Michael W. Fox, The Dog: Its Domestication & Behavior (New York: Garland STPM, 1978), and 4
  5. 5. Zohary, to plants;9 Simmons, to cattle;10 Schorger, to the turkey;11 Laufer, to the reindeer;12Roberts, to turtles;13 and Matthew, to the horse.14 Other authors apply the metaphor ofdomestication to different social aspects: Rogers, to women;15 Fadlon, to alternativemedicine;16 Gregoriou, to cosmopolitanism;17 Schneider, to [North] AmericanMethodism;18 Whitworth, to foreign corporations;19 and Berker, to media and technology.20Canine behavior; a history of domestication, behavioral development and adult behavior patterns,neurophysiology, psychobiology, training, inheritance, early experience and psycho-social relationships,experimental neuroses and spontaneous behavioral abnormalities, congenital anomalies and differentialdiagnosis of diseases (Springfield, ILL.: Thomas, 1965). 8 Edward O. Price, Animal Domestication and Behavior (Wallingford, England; New York: CABIPub., 2002); Temple Grandin, Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals (San Diego: AcademicPress, 1988); and Peter J. Ucko and G. W. Dimblebay, eds., The Domestication and Exploitation of Plantsand Animals [Research Seminar in Archaeology and Related Subjects (1968: London University)](London: Duckworth, 1969). 9 Daniel Zohary, Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The Origin and Spread of CultivatedPlants in West Asia, Europe and the Nile Valley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). 10 Frederick J. Simmons, A Ceremonial Ox of India: The Mithan in Nature, Culture, and History,with Notes on the Domestication of Common Cattle (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968); andA.E. Mourant and F.E. Zeuner, eds., Symposium on Domestication, Royal Anthropological Institute ofGreat Britain and Ireland, 1960, in Man and Cattle: Proceedings of a Symposium on Domestication at theRoyal Anthropological Institute, 24-26 May 1960 (London: Royal anthropological Institute of Great Britainand Ireland, 1963). 11 Arlie William Schorger, The Wild Turkey: Its History and Domestication [1st ed.] (Norman:University of Oklahoma Press, 1966). 12 Berthold Laufer, The Reindeer and its Domestication (New York: Kraus Reprint, 1964). 13 Mervin F. Roberts, Turtles as Pets (Neptune City, N.J.: TFH [Tropical Fish Hobbyist]Publications, 1960). 14 Matthew William Diller, Evolution of the Horse (New York: American Museum of NaturalHistory [AMNH], 1927). 15 Barbara Rogers, The Domestication of Women: Discrimination in Developing Societies(London; New York: Tavistock Publications, 1981). 16 Judith Fadlon, Negotiating the Holistic Turn: The Domestication of Alternative Medicine(Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005). 17 Zelia Gregoriou, ―Resisting the Pedagogical Domestication of Cosmopolitanism: FromNussbaum‘s Concentric Circles of Humanity to Derrida‘s Aporetic Ethics of Hospitality,‖ Philosophy ofEducation (2003): 257-66. 18 A. Gregory Schneider, The Way of the Cross Leads Home: The Domestication of AmericanMethodism (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993). 19 John Ford Whitworth, The creation of corporations for profit in Pennsylvania: under theCorporation act of April 29, 1874, and its supplements, the merger, consolidation, judicial sale andreorganization of such corporations, the domestication of foreign corporations, the practice in the office ofthe secretary of the commonwealth relating thereto and a collection of forms (Philadelphia T. & J. W.Johnson Company, 1906). 20 Thomas Berker, Domestication of Media and Technology (Maidenhead: Open University Press,2006). 5
  6. 6. Some authors consider, in a traditional way of the notion, the domestication (taming)of places and the physical world: Mannion, of carbon;21 Hann, of the Turkish state;22Hodder, of Europe;23 Yener, of metals;24 and Rogachev, of outer space.25 Other authors seedomestication in human attributes, values, and interests: Dörfer, to glory;26 Brenner, todesire;27 McCutcheon, to dissent;28 Cobb, to violence;29 Warner, to blue notes;30 Brock, tothe hero-figure;31 Godbout and Caille, to gift;32 and Regazzola, to movement.33 Finally,authors apply the metaphor of domestication to certain religious concepts: Wentz, to thedivine;34 Placher and Young, to transcendence;35 and Roberts, to anti-Semitism.36 21 Antoinette M. Mannion, Carbon and its Domestication (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer,2006). 22 C. M. Hann, Tea and the Domestication of the Turkish State (Huntingdon: Eothen Press, 1990). 23 Ian Hodder, The Domestication of Europe: Structure and Contingency in Neolithic Societies(Oxford, England; Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1990). 24 K. Aslihan Yener, The Domestication of Metals: The Rise of Complex Metal Industries inAnatolia, Culture and History of the Ancient Near East Vol. 4 (Boston: Brill, 2000); and Jak Yakar, ―TheDomestication of Metals: The Rise of Complex Metal Industries in Anatolia,‖ Bulletin of the AmericanSchools of Oriental Research 324 (November 2001): 114-17. 25 Vladimir Rogachev, ―Free Discussion Planned at Intl Space Conference,‖ [InformationTelegraph Agency of Russia] ITAR - TASS News Wire, New York, April 2001: 1. So-called ―outer space‖exploration actually undercover ―inner space‖ surveillance from outer space. 26 Ingemar Dörfer, System 37 Viggen; Arms, Technology and the Domestication of Glory (Oslo:Universitetsforlaget, 1973). 27 Suzanne April Brenner, The Domestication of Desire: Women, Wealth, and Modernity in Java(Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998); Evelyn Blackwood, ―The Domestication of Desire:Women, Wealth, and Modernity in Hava,‖ The Journal of Asian Studies (JAS) 60, no. 3 (August 2001):915-6; and Rene Devisch and Claude Brodeur, The Law of the Lifegivers: The Domestication of Desire(Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Hardwood Academics; Abingdon: Marston, 1999). 28 Russel T. McCutcheon, Religion and the Domestication of Dissent, or, How to Live in a LessThan Perfect Nation (London; Oakville, Conn.: Equinox Pub., 2005). 29 Sara Cobb, ―The Domestication of Violence in Mediation,‖ Law & Society Review (LSR) 31,no. 3 (1997): 397-440. 30 Naphtali Wagner, ―‗Domestication‘ of Blue Notes in the Beatles‘ Songs,‖ Music TheorySpectrum (Spectrum) [official journal of the Society for Music Theory (SMT)] 25, no. 2 (Fall 2003): 353-65. 31 Claire Brock, ―Rousseauvian Remains,‖ History Workshop Journal (HWJ) 55, no. 1 (Spring2003): 134-42. 32 Jacques T. Godbout and Alain Caille, ―The World of the Gift,‖ Anthropos 98, no. 1 (2003): 237-8. 33 Tomaso Regazzola, La Domestication du Mouvement: Poussées Mobilisatrices et Surrection delÉtat (Paris: Editions Anthropos, 1981). 34 Richard E. Wentz, ―The Domestication of the Divine,‖ Theology Today 57, no. 1 (April 2000):24-34. 6
  7. 7. In terms of human domestication, as this next bibliographic survey indicates, varioussocial and natural science authors speak about the domestication of humans. However, theircontributions remain scattered, referring to domestication of separate dimensions of thehuman experience, without providing an integrated theory regarding the domestication ofthe human species, per se. While none of these authors employ the term Homo domesticusexplicitly or deal with the concept in a wholistic and rigorous manner, each one of themcontributes in part to this thesis on human domestication and Homo domesticus.37 Peter J. Wilson speaks of the domestication of the human species, investigating theethnographic implications of the formation of small villages and towns, particularly in thePalaeolithic-Neolithic transition.38 Ruth Tringham refers to sedentism as the domesticationof humans.39 John A. Livingston refers to the role of ideology in the domestication ofhumans.40 Jack Goody refers to the implications of the scribal culture in the development ofhuman domestication.41 Claude Lévi-Strauss speaks of the shift from myth to philosophyand to science, and refers to human domestication from an ethno-cultural dichotomyapproach, contrasting the Neolithic humans as savage and the modern as domesticated.42 35 William Carl Placher, The Domestication of Transcendence: How Modern Thinking About GodWent Wrong (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996); and Richard A. Young, ―TheDomestication of Transcendence: How Modern Thinking About God Went Wrong,‖ Journal of theEvangelical Theological Society (JETS) 42, no. 3 (September 1999): 546-59. 36 Andrew Roberts, ―The Roots of Hitler‘s Murderous Anti-Semitism,‖ The Daily Telegraph,London UK 8 November 2003: 04. 37 One author refers to Homo domesticus in his self-published electronic book, but his treatment ofit is limited to an application from a psychological perspective while his book lacks scientific rigor. PeterHercules, Liberating the Caged Human Animal (2002 copyright), [homepage of Dr. Peter Hercules][online], available: http://www.untamedlife.com/index.php [2006, January 15]. 38 Peter J. Wilson, The Domestication of the Human Species (New Haven and London: YaleUniversity Press, 1988). 39 Ruth Tringham, Unit Title: Life in the Neolithic 1 - Living in Houses (N.A.), [online], available:http://www.mactia.berkeley.edu/aop/modules/Neo1_module_web.htm [2005, December 18]. 40 John A. Livingston, Rogue Primate: An Exploration of Human Domestication (Toronto: KeyPorter Books Limited, 1994). 41 Jack Goody, The Domestication of the Savage Mind (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1977). 42 Claude Lévi-Strauss, The Savage Mind (London: Librairie Plon, 1962). 7
  8. 8. Helen M. Leach reconsiders human domestication in relation to biological variationresulting from sedentism.43 Keiichi Omoto and Peter Sloterdijk refer to humandomestication through bio-physiological modification via genetic engineering.44 Christian theology has given no attention to the notion of human domestication. Theclosest contributions in Christian scholarship regarding domestication would include: PeterRoget’s study on animal and vegetable physiology published before Charles Darwin’sOn the Origins of the Species. Roget’s study focuses on animal and vegetablephysiology with reference to natural Christian theology.45 Robert McAlear studiesChristian animal ethics for a sociological Christian theology.46 Andrew Linzey presentsperhaps the best-known contemporary Christian theology regarding animals. Linzeyplays a leading Christian theological role within the movement of animal rights.47Stephen Webb, develops a Christian theology that advocates compassion for animals (dogs)grounded on an anti-sacrificial position which subsequently translates into a vegetarianapproach.48 F. LeRon Shults traces the categories of ―relation‖ from Aristotle49 to 43 Helen M. Leach, et al, ―Human Domestication Reconsidered.‖ Current Anthropology (CA) 44,no. 3 (June 2003): 349-68. 44 Keiichi Omoto, Jinrui no Jiko Kachikuka to Gendai (Human Self-domestication and ModernSociety) (Kyoto: Jinbun Shoin, 2002); and Peter Sloterdijk, Regeln für den Menschenpark (Regulations forthe Human Park) (Suhrkamp Verlag: Frankfurt am Main, 1999). 45 English physician and natural theologian Peter Mark Roget (1779-1869). Peter Mark Roget,Animal and Vegetable Physiology Considered with Reference to Natural Theology (London: W. Pickering,1834). 46 Robert Arthur McAlear, A Theological Encounter with Animal Ethology: A Consideration ofAnimal Behaviour in Social Theology (Master‘s thesis, University of St. Michael‘s College, 1972). 47 English Anglican priest and theologian, and vegetarian Reverend Andrew Linzey. AndrewLinzey, Animal Theology (London: SCM Press Ltd., 1994); After Noah: Animals and the Liberation ofTheology (London; Herndon, Va.: Mowbray, 1997), and Animals on the Agenda: Questions About Animalsfor Theology and Ethics (London: SCM Press Ltd., 1998). 48 Stephen H. Webb, On God and Dogs: A Christian Theology of Compassion for Animals (NewYork: Oxford University Press, 1998). 49 Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BCE). 8
  9. 9. Levinas,50 experiments with structuralism, and suggests a functional Christian anthropologybased on Imago Dei.51 Based on the above survey, since none of these works treats the notion of humandomestication per se, and the notion in itself has not been treated in Christian theology,this present study seeks to address these gaps. Arising within this situation,acknowledging that the author assumes his human domesticated condition, this thesisidentifies the notion of human domestication and explores its influence to the Christiantheological study pertaining domination pondering the following questions: When considering the means, particularly the built environment, that humans employ to penetrate their ecological environments to control and to exploit other beings, how can this assessment provide insight into the study of domestication and domination? What insight can be gained from a study of the domination and abuse of plants and animals by humans via domestication in order to study the domination and abuse of humans? How might the metaphor of domestication and the notion of Homo domesticus influence a Christian study and understanding of domination, and serve as an analytical context and critical tool for Christian research into the social and ecological dynamics of domination and exploitation? How might such a study inform the inter-disciplinary character of Christian theology as it seeks to explore intercepting views and concerns from the cosmological, ecological, social, and anthropological perspectives? 50 Lithuanian-French philosopher and Talmudic commentator Emmanuel Lévinas (1906-1995). 51 F. LeRon Shults is professor at Bethel Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota. F. LeRon Shults,Reforming Theological Anthropology: After the Philosophical Turn to Relationality (Grand Rapids, Mich.:W.B. Eerdmans, 2003). 9
  10. 10. Thesis statementA theological understanding and critique of social and ecological domination can beenhanced by understanding that the human species has been domesticated. As themetaphor of domestication enhances a theological understanding of the human conditionand agency, the notion of the domestication of humans enhances a theologicalunderstanding of domination by humans and of humans. Enhanced definition of domesticationThis thesis seeks to enhance the notion of domestication to gain an inside into the humanand human relations in order to enhance the Christian theological study of domination.The enhanced notion of domestication includes a differentiation between taming anddomestication, considering the influence exercised by the physical built environment. Domestication implies a direct influence of the built environment on organisms.Taking housing as epitome of the built environment, domestication relates to housing.Naturalist John A. Livingston contends that domestication literally means ―to bring it intoour house.‖52 Domestication refers to the conditioning influence the presence of housing,architecture, or the built environment (used here interchangeably, in the broad sense)imposes on organisms. Whether they are inside or outside the house, organisms areconditioned by the built environment through the influence of its very presence. Thearchitectural presence domesticates living organisms. Domestication and taming represent different dimensions of a similarconditioning process. Domestication refers to the conditions imposed on organisms byhousing; taming refers to conditioning techniques other than housing employed onorganisms which reflect and reinforce housing. Taming refers to the utilization of the 52 Livingston, Ibid, 15. 10
  11. 11. immediate contexts and sets of ideologies, sciences, techniques, and technologies toachieve, foster, and perpetuate relations of domination via sociological, psychological,physiological, and biological conditioning (see Appendix 1: Methods of Taming). Whilethe built environment influences culture, culture influences ideology (which influencesphysically and meta-physically, but originates meta-physically, as an idea) and viceversa. The influence of the built environment refers to the influence (physical or meta-physical) originated physically (as or in relation to a tangible thing) by the presence orexpectancy of built environments. Conditioning via methodologies (including ideology,technology, and technique) represents taming and conditioning via the built environmentrepresents domestication. Domestication refers to ontological distortion through the built environment. Thehuman built environment establishes the context for domestication. As humans build anenvironment it in return domesticates. The house or domestic realm universallymaterializes and epitomizes domestication. Domestication is the built environmentconditioning ontology. Humans have also undergone domestication for generations. Domestication and the humanThe notion of human domestication also becomes a theoretical tool to understand ancientand modern earthly life. It assists in identifying social and ecological dynamics ofdomination. Practically, every reality on earth evolves under the influence and conditionof domestication. Humans undergo the domesticating influence of the built environment. There have been specific instances throughout history when humans have tamedother humans in the sense of purposefully breeding and deliberately manipulating geneticand/or behavioural patterns, and even though authors initially refer to that dynamic as 11
  12. 12. domestication, it refers to processes and methods of taming humans that mainly rely onthe science of human knowledge or ideology.53 One way to conceptualize the condition influenced by domestication on humans isconsidering two human aspects: the ontological and the behavioural. Ontologically,domestication refers to the ways the built environment shapes the genetic make up ornature of humans. Human ontology (Greek, study of being) here, in the Platonic sense,refers to the human being as an existent entity, and in the Aristotelian sense, to thecharacterization of that human being as existent entity. That domestication influences thevery ontology of humans argues that domestication influences the very being of themodern human as an existent entity. Domestication has moved from being an externalinfluence to the human to become a characteristic of the existent entity of the human.That human domestication refers to the very ontological transformative distortion of thehuman implies that the modern human can be regarded as an existent entitycharacteristically domesticated. Humans can be considered domesticated beings. Behaviourally, domestication refers to the ways the built environment shapesstructurally and functionally the human within the larger ecological environment.Domestication influences the place of the human within the entire earthly and universalsystem, structure, or organism. Domestication further influences the way the humanrelates or functions in regards to themselves and other organisms or subsystems.Domesticated humans shape nature in a domesticated way. Humans can be considereddomesticators. 53 Plato refers to the breeding of Spartan rulers or guardians. The Republic of Plato, FrancisMcDonald Cornford, trans. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1941), 160. 12
  13. 13. Another way to conceptualize the condition influenced by domestication onhumans is considering four human dimensions, namely, anthropological, cosmological,social, and ecological. Anthropologically, that humans are domesticated refers to humansas beings that have been conditioned by the built environment, who reflect and reinforcethe characteristics of tamed organisms, and who display the capacity to tame anddomesticate other beings. Humans have become characteristically domesticated.Modern humans are born, grew up, and die conditioned by the built environment.Cosmologically, domesticated humans see the world around them with domesticatedeyes. Modern human perception refers to human domesticated perception. Modernhuman science refers to human domesticated science. Human imagination refers tohuman domesticated imagination. Human domesticated cosmology delineates framedunder the influence of the built environment. Domesticated humans display acharacteristic incapacity to appreciate their larger cosmos without a domesticatingperspective. Socially, human societies reflect and reinforce the tamed and domesticatedcharacteristic of humans. Society refers to the association of humanity whichpredominantly characterizes by its tamed and domesticated, taming and domesticatingcondition. Modern society actually emerges as a product of human domestication,fundamentally composed by domesticated humans. Human domesticated society followsthe condition of the built environment. Ecologically, domesticated humans approach andrelate to their larger natural environment from a domesticated point of view. Theecological involvement of domesticated humans remarkably distinguishes by its 13
  14. 14. domesticating nature. Earthly ecology evolves under the domesticating penetration andcontrol of the human built environment. Domestication characterizes relations of domination among humans and thehuman relation to the larger environment. For instance, palaces are architecturalconstructions that establish the existence and presence of empires, hence of emperors.Facing the presence of a palace, people can establish their social value in relation to thepalace. The palace defines who is inside and who is outside, who rules and who is ruled.And rule refers to domination; in this case, it clearly refers to human domination. Peoplewho live in palaces are evidently separated by the walls of the palace from their naturalenvironment. This separation affects human relation with the environment. Sincehumanity has evolved in the context of domestication, understanding the social andecological character of domestication enhances a Christian theological understanding ofboth humanity and domination. This thesis considers the general influence ofdomestication on humanity, but focuses on exploring how an understanding of humandomestication informs a Christian understanding and critique of domination. Human domestication and dominationDomination refers to the control against individuals, species, or environments. It hasbeen exercised by different means, one of them conditioning, which refers to an externalinfluence on organisms. One of such external influences can be regarded asdomestication. There are and have been other forms of domination besidesdomestication, especially since sociologists, anthropologists, ethnographers,palaeontologists, and archaeologists argue that methods of domination existed longbefore human-made housing was developed. They speak of band formation, sporadic 14
  15. 15. attacks, tool and fire making, hunting, and collection among nomad societies.54Domestication functions, among other forms of domination, as one way of domination. It is widely known and accepted that domestication (taming) mediates adomination of animals and plants that can be denominated ecological domination. Thehuman built environment conditions the survival of numerous species of animals andplants. And humans also undergo domestication. The built environment also conditionsthe survival of modern humans. Hence domestication refers to a dynamic of survival anddomination also at the anthropological, cosmological, sociological, and ecological levels.Thus domestication underlies ecological and social domination. Architecture generates and intensifies domestication mediating poweraccumulation and ecological and social domination. Marvin Harris has identified similarpolitical-economical systems in ancient China, India, Mesopotamia, Cuzco, and Egypt.55These systems were characterized by the presence of highly centralized bureaucraticclasses and hereditary despotic overlords. These elites claimed divine mandates andmediating powers, even divinity, using architecture.56 Palaces, temples, and tombs wereof particular importance, embodying architecturally dominating social institutions. Suchrulers organized society architecturally and maintained order using plain force to demandsubmission of underlings. Mesopotamians and Incas resettled defeated troops as peasantforce and indoctrinated enemy leaders with imperial politics and religion. Domesticationbuilds empire. Great architecture is synonym of great empire and vice versa. 54 Rosen considers that ―the presence of small arrowheads (fragments) and microlithiclunates…suggests a continued role for hunting in this early [the Camel Site, Negev Early Bronze Age]pastoral society, or perhaps low level warfare.‖ Steven A. Rosen, ―Early Multi-resource Nomadism:Excavations at the Camel Site in the Central Negev,‖ Antiquity 77, no. 298 (December 2003): 749. 55 North American anthropologist Marvin Harris (1927-2001). 56 McMillan speaks of progressive politics as the taming of power, and refers to the United States‘social structure ―by far the greatest concentration of organized power in the modern world.‖ JoyceMcMillan, ―Blair‘s High-Risk Strategy: The Taming of America,‖ The Scotsman (February 2003): 14. 15
  16. 16. The process of architecture, indeed of domestication, refers to a process ofecological and social domination. Humans rely on and favor the development ofarchitecture to maintain and advance the taming and domestication of animals and plants,indeed of other humans. Through housing, humans challenge the elements. Shelters altertime cycles (day and night), influence sources of energy (diurnal food and nocturnalsleep), and disturb life moods (awaken and asleep). By altering life cycles, energysources, and organic moods, housing alters the human condition, including its feelings,needs, etc. Furthermore, elites would strive to control the housing or architecturaldomain and its industry. Social elites would reinforce housing as a human need for socialdomination and the sake of power.57 Human domestication established through architecture has evolved to such adegree that it has been taken for granted and even desired. The Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights (UDHR) by the United Nations (UN) in 1948 claims: ―Everyone has theright to a standard of living,‖ including housing.58 It is estimated housing appeared40,000 years ago. Within the 2.5 million years of human history, housing represents arelative recent development, popularized in the last 10,000 years (see Appendix 2: AHistory of Pre-Human Life). 57 English anthropologist Ruth Tringham designed at the UC-Berkeley Archaeological ResearchFacility (ARF) a module for sixth grade students at UC-Berkeley/Roosevelt Middle School Oakland,intended to help them think ―about humans domesticating plants and animals, as well as how the humansthemselves become domesticated through learning to live with each other in confined spaces(architecture).‖ ―The Neolithic is a time when people began to settle down and construct and live indwellings, which would last not only throughout the year but also for many years, perhaps manygenerations. This change that archaeologists call ‗sedentism‘ is an important prelude to some othersignificant changes. Some of us think this is the most important change since it means the domestication ofhumans.‖ Tringham, http://www.mactia.berkeley.edu/aop/modules/Neo1_module_web.htm. 58 Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Article 25 (1), adopted and proclaimed by GeneralAssembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights [UDHR](2000-2006), United Nations [online], available: http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html [2006, March20]. 16
  17. 17. Dynamically changing and mutating limited and exclusive social circles ofhumans, both concentrated and dispersed throughout the world, here denominated elites,dominate human populations through the built environment. The United Nationsreaffirmed on June 15, 2006, its study released on March 25, 2004, by the PopulationDivision of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), which projectedthat the fifty percent of the human population would live in urban settings in 2007;59 by2030 five billion humans would live in cities, two billions of whom would live inslums.60 Shelters represent a cultural development or created need rather than a naturalneed. Elites take advantage of housing for status and control purposes. Powerfulmultinational corporations in cooperation with state governments and other political,economic, financial, industrial, and commercial groups seek to control the construction,and particularly the housing, market.61 An obvious observation from daily life, it is neither a secret nor is it a naïvecoincidence that the socio-geographic landscape of modern, as well as ancient,settlements corresponds to a planned, executed, and controlled process of architecturalimbalance of social stratification. One can tell the difference between impoverishedneighborhoods and privileged zones by noticing their architectural differences. Presenthuman life seems impossible without housing, provided and regulated by human elites. 59 [United Nations] UN Report Says World Urban Population of 3 Billion Today Expected toReach 5 Billion by 2030 (2004 copyright), United Nations Information Service (UNIS) [online], available:http://www.unis.unvienna.org/unis/pressrels/2004/pop899.html [2006, July 6]. 60 Guardian Unlimited: Urban Population to Overtake Country Dwellers for First Time (2006copyright), Guardian Newspapers Limited [online], available:http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1798774,00.html [2006, July 6]. 61 Biles studies the case of Soul City in North Carolina and reveals the intricate alliances betweenpublic and private organizations managing housing. Roger Biles, ―The Rise and Fall of Soul City:Planning, Politics, and Race in Recent America,‖ Journal Of Planning History (JPH) 4, no. 1 (February2005): 52-72. 17
  18. 18. Domestication represents a pervasive underlying dynamic of domination. Evenmore, housing design and building technology tend to self-replicate. Domestic humansunderstand and behave according to a conditioning situation represented by housing andarchitecture.62 Domesticated humans replicate social and ecological structures andsystems that have been historically developed to frame their existence. They build theirlife experience on the principles laid down for them, in many ways corresponding toarchitectural design. They replicate their condition in every aspect of their ontological,cosmological, social, and ecological experience. They carry on their life experiencewithin the constraints of specific functions designed and imposed on them. The functionality of domestic humans responds to the structural domesticatedcondition. Domesticated humans reflect a conditioned ontology, articulated in disturbedcosmology, and imbued in their own artificiality, reflected in a deformed socialarrangement and dysfunctional ecological presence. Domesticated humans search forsurvival under the shadows of their built environment, deceived by power anddomination. Christian theology and dominationThe Christian theological critique of domination has focused on ideology (see Appendix3: Ideology as a Taming Methodology). There are four main ideologies treated inChristian theology when analyzing domination, namely, racism, patriarchy, classism, andanthropocentrism. The Christian theological study of domestication follows itstraditional understanding, which leans towards defining taming rather than domestication, 62 Lawson argues that most humans live in social clusters, interpreting life styles that reflect theirhousing conditions. Julie Lawson, ―Comparing the Causal Mechanisms Underlying Housing NetworksOver Time and Space,‖ in Journal of Housing and the Built Environment (HBE) 16, no. 1 (March 2001):29-52. 18
  19. 19. as explained above. Christian theology has not theorized about domestication via thebuilt environment. The notion of human domestication is also absent in Christiantheology. When adopting the above enhanced definition of domestication and the notion ofhuman domestication, the Christian theological critique of domination enhances bydifferentiating between domination via human taming and domination via humandomestication. Through addressing ideologies of domination via taming, Christiantheology has made important contributions regarding human taming. The four ideologiesmentioned above that have been used throughout human history have exercised tamingconditionings over humans and the larger environment. These conditions reflect andreinforce the condition established by the built environment or domestication. Featurecharacteristics of human domestication are addressed when challenging ideologies ofdomination, namely, racism, patriarchy, classism, and anthropocentrism. But the verycondition of the built environment remains unchallenged. When adopting the enhanced definition of domestication and the notion of humandomestication, Christian theology realizes the domesticating influence of the builtenvironment. The Christian theological critique of domination enhances by recognizingthat modern humans are fundamentally domesticated, that human philosophy andcosmology are particularly domesticated, and that the social and ecological context iseminently domesticated. Christian theology realizes that domestication, and particularlyhuman domestication, represents an important context where earthly life develops.Christian theology also realizes that the notion of human domestication represents avaluable theoretical tool to identify dynamics of domination perpetrated against human 19
  20. 20. individuals, society in general, and the ecological environment at large. Such dynamicsinclude traditional symbolism, social stratification, confinement, the extremes of privacy,and ecological devastation, in particular, the domination of plants and animals. Theseissues will not be adequately addressed by changes in building, no matter how wellintentioned and radical they may seem. For instance, ecologically friendly buildings,unfortunately, do not carry the capacity to address the very unfriendliness of the humanbuilt environment per se. This is not to oppose such wonderful initiatives, given thesituation, but to alert to the deficiencies of such initiatives when confronted with thepervasive and devastating context of social and ecological domination shaped bydomestication. To explore the positive contributions of domestication and the built environmentmay fill up myriads of theses but goes beyond the purpose of this thesis concerned withunderstanding domination. Certainly, domesticated humans would find infinite featuresin domestication that they would understand as enriching earthly life, particularly themodern human mode of life. In fact, human domesticated science is devoted to this end.In many ways, we domesticated humans do not know and cannot appreciate other modesof life beside the domesticated one. I do not think we domesticated humans have theability, for instance, to chose a nomad life style; if needed, it would remain a choiceforced by the larger ecological environment. The notion of human domestication assists Christian theology to realize its ownemergence and development within the context of domestication. Religion at large andtheology in particular, including Christian theology, has developed in the process of thedomestication of humans. The wider Christian tradition, the biblical tradition refers to 20
  21. 21. about 4,000 years of history, while domestication to about 10,000 years of development(se Appendix 4: Beginnings of Domestication). When the biblical tradition emergedhuman domestication was well developed. The Neolithic witnessed the transition from proto-religion to religion as we knowit. From the age of shamanic mysticism in the Paleolithic develops more formallystructured and institutionalized religion. Theology emerges both under the condition ofdomestication and in response to the shortcomings of domestication. Religion referscharacteristically to a practice of domesticated humans. Hence religion can beunderstood as part of the problem as well as part of the solution regarding domination viadomestication. While Christian theology and religion in general has developed elementsto counteract deficiencies identified in the age of domestication, its theoretical elementsappear bounded by the frame of the established context of domestication. Beside appealing to general axioms that claim intermediacy, alleging access todivine revelation from beyond the mundane and finite through notions of illuminationand the like, religion and theology exhibits no elements to deal with the problem ofdomestication. Notions of heavenly afterlife are plagued with domesticated provisionslike mansions with rooms and heavenly homes. Theology takes domestication forgranted, as the way of life on earth with no intention to challenge its legitimacy. Thisindicates that theology emerges among domesticated humans interested in challengingthe shortcomings of domestication but not to eliminate domestication in itself. I was hoping to identify some elements in Christian theology to address humandomestication in itself unsuccessfully. I explored some biblical scriptures seeking somehints to challenge human domestication unsuccessfully. Most key passages challenge the 21
  22. 22. intensification of human domestication, e.g., empire, but leave general domesticationuntouched. Nehemiah puts the biblical and hence the Christian building enterprise rathersuccinctly: ―Let us start rebuilding.‖63 Or as expressed to the Israeli kingship tradition bythe prophet Nathan: ―the LORD will build a house for you.‖64 Christian theology leanstoward significant social developments that challenge key ideologies of domination henceideologies of human taming. Unfortunately, the challenge to domestication andparticularly human domestication remains unresolved, at least for me. Hopefully in thefuture somebody will be able to find some solutions. A preliminary word regarding ethics, even though my main interest with thisthesis is Christian theology in general. Peter J. Wilson provides perhaps the keyconclusion about ethics in his comparison between nomad and sedentary societies. Forhim, the change was from ethics in the Paleolithic to altruism in the Neolithic. He goesfurther to argue that Neolithic or domesticated humans talk about ethics while Paleolithichumans did ethics. The change can be perceived in the transition from relational ethics toinstitutional altruism. Among nomads, ethics seems a given, while, with thepreoccupation for domesticated relations or institutionalization under the builtenvironment, ethics becomes a topic in the age of human domestication. For instance, would domesticated humans consider leaving the sick, the lame, andthe old to die by themselves—practices not uncommon among nomads—ethically sound?Would individual ethics take precedence over the ethics of the group or vise versa? Ifyes, for instance, would the freedom of the individual override the freedom of the groupor vice versa? We domesticated humans seek to elucidate such questions but end up in 63 Nehemiah 2:18, New International Version (NIV). 64 1 Chronicles 17:10, NIV. 22
  23. 23. eternal debates, often resolved via ethical imposition based on the amount of accumulateddomesticated authority or supremacy, usually following institutional procedures that obeyparticular traditional and legal measures. Ethical advances among domesticated beings remain focused on addressing thesymptoms of conditioning dynamics, among them obvious and scandalous inadequaciesof domestication, but without challenging the very legitimacy of those dynamics,particularly of domestication. The said symptoms and inadequacies are inevitably judgedfrom a domesticated view point by domesticated humans. That situation occurs mainlybecause human life has evolved to such a degree under domestication that eliminatingdomestication would imply eliminating the human itself. Christian theology does not represent the exception to the above mentioneddomesticated phenomenon regarding ethics. Christian theological ethics, for instance,refers to notions of love, truth, mercy, justice, and peace. However, to be more accurate,these ethical notions refer to domesticated love, truth, mercy, justice, and peace. Perhapsthe most widely known Christian version of love finds itself epitomized in the figure ofthe Good Shepherd. This figure is clearly adopted from a taming and domesticatingdynamic: in the best sense, taking care of the sheep; in the worse, dominating the sheep. The dilemma becomes evident when compared to Christian claims to eternal anduniversal principles of divine love. Has this Christian notion of love the adequatepotential to address shortcomings in societies that reject to take care of the sheep asecologically profane? What does it says about Christian ethical claims? Do they obeytruly to universal and eternal decrees or they really remain private and individualexperiences and understandings that have been generalized traditionally and 23
  24. 24. institutionally? Christian theology in particular and biblical theology in general does notseem to offer clear alternatives to this inquiry. The classical Christian admonitionreferring to the eternal ubiquitous gracious God assists in addressing the shortcomings ofhuman domestication but do not assist in challenging its very existence. Modern humanlife outside the realm of domestication seems practically unviable. My purpose with this thesis is to address the influence on the Christian study ofdomination when adopting the notion of human domestication. Unfortunately, I leavethis discussion truncated at the point of explaining the Christian theological contributionin terms of addressing ideology and a limited exploration of some hints of ideas that atthe end become recurrent of previous theological works and do not suggest an effectivepotential to address the very existence and reality of human domestication. Finally, butimplicitly from the beginning, my most significant realization throughout this theoreticalenterprise remains reflexive: to acknowledge that this thesis emerges as an ideology inthe context of human domestication, elaborated by a human domesticated person. ContributionThis thesis advances the Christian theological study regarding domination. It offers anadditional approach, namely, human domestication. It advances Christian scholarship byproposing the metaphor of domestication and the term Homo domesticus in order tounderstand the human condition and agency. It integrates insights from the social andnatural sciences regarding human domestication with relevant research in Christiantheological studies. It gains insight into a Christian theological understanding of theunderlying dynamics of social and ecological domination. 24
  25. 25. To assert its Christian theological contribution, this thesis explores some Christiantheological treatments of domination. It draws upon the work of Cone, Daly, Gutiérrez,Berry, and McFague to highlight the importance of the contribution of the notion ofhuman domestication to enhance the Christian theological understanding of domination.It pays special attention to Berry‘s work and seeks to enhance its anthropological andsociological perspective. This thesis explores Cone‘s work, which seeks the liberation of black peoplesfrom the dynamics of racism;65 Daly‘s work, which opposes patriarchy and defends theemancipation of women;66 Gutiérrez‘s work, which condemns classist ideology andargues for the liberation of the poor, using a theory of dependency;67 Berry‘s work, whichcriticizes anthropocentrism and proposes a new cosmology to advance the emancipationof the earth and its bio-systems;68 and McFague‘s work, which critiques dominationintegrating a critique of racist, patriarchal, classist, and anthropocentric ideologies toargue on behalf of social and ecological emancipation.69 Similar to the above Christian theological works, this thesis critiques thedynamics of domination. It adds to the above analyses the use of the metaphor ofdomestication. While these authors examine domination based on race, class, gender,and genus, this thesis suggests that domestication, and particularly human domestication(Homo domesticus), uncovers a seemingly subtle and foundational dynamic ofdomination based on housing or architecture or the built environment. 65 James H. Cone, A Black Theology of Liberation [2nd Ed.] (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books,1986). 66 Mary Daly, Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism (Boston: Beacon Press, 1978). 67 Gustavo Gutiérrez, A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics and Salvation (Maryknoll, NewYork: 1971). 68 Thomas Berry, The Great Work: Our Way Into the Future (New York: Bell Tower, 1999). 69 Sallie McFague, The Body of God: An Ecological Theology (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993). 25
  26. 26. Christian scholarship benefits from engaging in conversations with otherdisciplines. Research benefits from openness, discussion, and collaboration rather thanparochialism, suspicion, and competition among disciplines. Ultimately, but beyond thispresent project, this thesis stimulates Christian theology to move toward an unavoidableself-assessment regarding its own position on the domesticating structures that govern itssocial and ecological functioning vis-à-vis systems of domination.70 In summary, through the notion of human domestication, and with specialattention to intersections of the cosmological, anthropological, social, and ecologicalrealms, this thesis identifies a context and a critical theoretical tool, which, when takeninto account by Christian theology, advances the Christian reflection on and response todomination. Methodology outlineThe methodology of this study has several aspects: First, this study develops a critical Christian theological analysis of the humancondition by employing the metaphor of domestication. Second, this work includes a certain degree of comparative studies, especially inrelation to recent Christian theologies that highlight awareness of both the contextualcondition of doing Christian theology, and the situation and concerns of society andecology. It pays special attention to the works of Cone, Daly, Gutiérrez, Berry, andMcFague. 70 Smith, John A., and Chris Jenks, Qualitative Complexity: Ecology, Cognitive Processes and theRe-emergence of Structures in Post-humanist Social Theory (London; New York: Routledge, 2006). 26
  27. 27. Third, this study is both inductive and deductive. It draws insight fromconclusions submitted in different areas of the social and natural sciences in order toapply the metaphor of domestication to relationships between humans. Fourth, as implied above, this thesis is inter-disciplinary, manifested in two ways:(1) the enrichment of Christian theological studies through the consideration ofecological and social studies; and (2) the enhancement of the relationship betweenChristian theology and the social and natural sciences. This thesis particularly employsthe work of Thomas Berry regarding the emergence of sedentary life as a context toexplore the implications of domestication on humans and of human domestication on theChristian theological study of domination. Fifth, perhaps needless to make explicit, this work is characterized by academicsynopsis and analytical condensation. It avoids any pretence of treating the topic and thesources exhaustively. Realizing the limitations that time, space, and resources impose onthis venture, this thesis exercises an extremely selective methodology with respect to thescholarly body it reviews, the topic it treats, the academic tools it employs, and theperspectives it adopts. Sixth, the conclusions and suggestions of this study remain at best tentative. Theydistance from any trend that claims objectivity. Any deduction or induction to issue fromthis thesis responds to a very subjective engagement with the contribution of variedauthors regarding the subject matter. This thesis interprets the work of a domesticatedhuman. This modest contribution, if any at all, is one hundred percent subjective. Seventh, my view is somewhat gloomy regarding the ecological crisis, alertingtheology to the built environment conditioning both deterministically and with hesitancy. 27
  28. 28. Reflecting somehow our modern cynicism, my recognition of the impossibility ofundomestication presents my reading of such critic reality as indictment of domination. In general, this study advances Christian scholarship by pursuing a dialogue withother academic disciplines; by integrating research from the social and natural sciences toelaborate an analytical and critical assessment regarding the domestication of humans;and by considering some of the implications of human domestication on the Christiantheological understanding of social and ecological domination. Thesis outlineAfter this Introduction and the following Prologue, this thesis continues by exploringhow some well-known Christian theological works examine and respond to the issue ofdomination in order to introduce the notion of human domestication. It proceeds byexploring the metaphor of domestication, and continues by examining how this metaphormay assist in understanding the human species. It concludes by assessing some of theimplications that an understanding of human domestication may present to Christiantheology by exploring the dynamics of domination in a social and ecological context.The outline of the thesis is: Introduction: This section presents the status quaestionis and a thesis statement.It describes the contribution of this thesis. It outlines its methodology and its content. Prologue: This section delineates the sociological scholarship that provides theacademic framework in which this thesis arises. It presents a working definition ofdomestication and argument of this thesis and a brief explanation of the relationshipbetween domestication and domination. 28
  29. 29. Chapter One: The first chapter is named ―Christian Theological Critics ofDomination.‖ It sets a theological context by reviewing the contributions of certainChristian theological positions on human domination. It considers contributions fromcontextual Christian theologies on domination and emancipation from Black, feminist,Latin American, and deep ecology Christian theological perspectives. It contains atreatment of the works of James H. Cone on racism, Mary Daly on patriarchy, GustavoGutiérrez on classism, Thomas Berry on anthropocentrism, and Sallie McFague ondomination. It suggests a preliminary discussion on the possible implications that thenotion of the domestication of humans may present to Christian scholarship ondomination. Chapter Two: The second chapter is named ―Human Domestication.‖ It revisits andredefines the metaphor of domestication. It explores the difference and similarities betweentaming and domestication. It provides an account of the historical development of tamingand domestication, the role of food supply in the emergence of taming and domestication,domestication in terms of storing information. It constructs the notion of the domesticationof human beings via the built environment or Homo domesticus. It presents an account ofthe development of human domestication, an introduction to the notion of human taming viaideology, an account of human domestication in relation to settlement and the human builtenvironment (concretely to shelters and houses), and an analytical study of the implicationsof human domestication in relation to the issue of domination. It provides a historicalcontext for understanding human domestication, denominating ideology a method of tamingthat reflects and is reflected by domestication, and discussing the notion of humandomestication in the context of sedentary vis-à-vis nomadic culture. It discuses the concrete 29
  30. 30. case of the invention of shelters or houses, marking the emergence and development of thebuilt environment, and refers to the subsequent intensification of human domestication asempire. It names human domestication Homo domesticus. Chapter Three: The third chapter is named ―Christian Theological Critique ofHuman Taming.‖ It explores the implications that the notion of human domesticationrepresent for Christian theology. It adopts the notion of human domestication and revisitsthe theological contributions by Cone on racism, Daly on patriarchy, Gutiérrez onclassism, Berry on anthropocentrism, and McFague on domination, assessing theirimportant challenges to domination as addressing human taming, which reflects and isreflected by human domestication. It discusses human domestication in the context of thecosmological, ecological, sociological, and anthropological perspectives of ThomasBerry‘s work. It finally explores the implications and some elements for a Christiantheological view of domination. Chapter Four: The fourth chapter is named ―Homo Domesticus and ChristianTheology.‖ It presents an account of human emergence in theological narrative. It reviewsreligion and Christianity in the context of human domestication. It explores the influence ofhuman domestication in biblical theology. It presents a history of Christianity in the contextof human domestication. It explores the influence of human domestication in thetheological method. It explores how theology addresses the intensification of humandomestication. It enquires on the contribution of mystic spirituality when facingdomesticating religion. And it makes a reference to Christian ethics from a humandomestication view point. Conclusions: It recapitulates the main tentative concluding remarks of the study. 30
  31. 31. PROLOGUEIn preparation for the interdisciplinary and particularly Christian theological discussion inthis work, this Prologue discusses the broader scholarly context and reviews the state ofcurrent scholarship in social and natural sciences concerning human domestication viahousing, architecture, or the built environment, in the broad sense. It addresses the use ofthe metaphor of domestication for understanding domination. It includes a workingdefinition of domestication and its argument and a statement regarding the relationshipbetween domination and domestication, particularly of humans. This thesis explores a social-anthropological question, the domestication ofhumans, within a cosmological and ecological perspective.71 For that purpose, thissection introduces the main disciplines regarding social anthropology in dialogue in thisthesis, particularly Charles Darwin‘s work.72 71 This section adapts materials from: American Sociological Association (2006, January 19),[online], available: http://www.asanet.org/index.ww [2006, January 19]; Anovasofie [Analyzing andOvercoming the Sociological Fragmentation in Europe]: European Virtual Library of Sociology (2004-2006), [online], available: http://www.anovasofie.net/ or http://www.anovasofie.net/vl/ [2006, January 19];Antrobase.com: Searchable Database of Anthropological Texts (N.A.), [online], available:http://www.anthrobase.com/ [2006, January 19]; and American Anthropological Association (AAA) (1996-2004 copyright), [online], available: http://www.aaanet.org/ [2006, January 19]. 72 Marvin Harris‘s description of competing anthropological approaches seems instructive:Sociobiology and Biological Reductionism, a research strategy that seeks to explain human social life bymeans of the theoretical principles of Darwinian and neo-Darwinian evolutionary biology; DialecticalMaterialism, often known as Marxists, focus on the importance of infrastructure with a dialectical view ofhistory developed by philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, which plays a central role in Marxisttheories; Structuralism, in spite of the proponents of structuralism declarations of the primacy of theinfrastructure, structuralism places more importance on words and ideas, and resists scientific method;Structural Marxism, combining aspects of structuralism with aspects of dialectical and historicalmaterialism, heaps scorn on cultural materialists as ―mechanical,‖ ―vulgar,‖ and ―so-called Marxists;‖Psychological and Cognitive Idealism, that the mental, emic (insider view), and personality aspects ofsocio-cultural systems determine the etic (outsider view) and behavior aspects; Eclecticism, ―By pickingand choosing epistemological and theoretical principles to suit the convenience of each puzzle, eclecticismguarantees that its solutions will remain unrelated to each other by any coherent set of principles;‖ andObscurantism, ―a research strategy whose aim is to subvert the possibility of achieving a science of human 31
  32. 32. Currents in social anthropologyAnthropology refers to the study of humans. Historically, anthropologists started byexamining traditional non-Western peoples. Analytically, anthropology may be regardedas a holistic and comparative branch of sociology. Holistically, anthropologists seek toconnect the various parts that make up a social and cultural whole, rather thanspecializing on one specific subsystem within the whole. Comparatively, anthropologydescribes the diverse cultures, subcultures, groups and institutions, building up a richdatabank of human cultural and social forms to compare, contrast, and to bring outspecificities and social idiosyncrasies. Methodologically, anthropology advocates for aqualitative approach to uncover through fieldwork what things, relationships, persons,and activities mean to people, rather than what these phenomena are in themselves. The notion of human domestication emerges in the context of socialanthropology, which developed in different ways. Social Anthropology (SA) developedas a scholarly discipline in the 1900s in Great Britain, influenced by French sociologicalethnologie theory. The movement was led by Émile Durkheim, father of modernsociology.73 He focused on forms of social integration (solidarity), collectiverepresentations, and ritual. It was also led by Marcel-Israël Mauss, father of modernFrench anthropology.74 Of particular importance is Mauss‘ Essay Sur le Don (1923-24),translated into English as The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in ArchaicSocieties (1954), a comparative essay on gift-giving and exchange in primitive societies.social life.‖ Marvin Harris (2005 copyright), The Realm of MacGoddess [homepage of Nancy G.McClernan] [online], available: http://www.voicenet.com/~nancymc/marvinharris.html [2006, January 15]. 73 French-Jewish sociologist Émile Durkheim (1858–1917). 74 French-Jewish anthropologist and sociologist Marcel-Israël Mauss (1872-1950) founded theInstitute d‟etnologie at the University of Paris. 32
  33. 33. Social anthropology was inspired by the methodological ideals of fieldworkpioneered by Bronislaw Malinowski, spreading from Britain to such countries asNorway, Sweden, and Holland.75 Social anthropology is often contrasted to the NorthAmerican cultural anthropology developed by Franz Boas.76 Cultural Anthropology(CA) is considered less sociologically inclined and more influenced by linguistics andhistory.77 Domestication and natural selectionThis thesis on domination and particularly on human domestication emerges chiefly inthe context of and as a critique to the natural selection theory (see Appendix 5: ModernSynthesis and Domestication). Since Charles Darwin‘s On The Origin of Species byMeans of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle forLife (1859) deeply informs current scientific discussions on evolutionary history (seeAppendix 6: Human Evolution), including human emergence and development, thisthesis includes an interpretation of Darwin‘s ideas.78 Darwin put forward a notion of 75 Polish-Austrian anthropologist Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski (1884-1942). 76 German-Jewish anthropologist Franz Boas (1858-1942). 77 Traditionally, while the anthropological school in the U.S. refers to cultural studies, theanthropological school in the United Kingdom (UK) refers to social studies. The UK school is now knownas socio-cultural anthropology. Social scientists frequently refer to Applied Anthropology (practicalresearch), Academic Anthropology (theoretical research), Cultural Relativism (suspended field workjudgment), Cybernetics (information flow in complex systems), Evolutionism (gradual organizationcomplexity), Neo-evolutionism (multilinear evolution), Scientific Dialectical Materialism (organic societyand power accumulation), Neo-Marxism (production beyond economy), Functionalism (integrated socialwhole), Structuralism (complexity of structural meaning), Structural Functionalism (social function andsocial system), and Postmodernism (deconstruction of knowledge); Peter Metcalf, Anthropology: TheBasics (London; New York: Routledge, 2005); Barbara D. Miller, Penny Van Esterik, and John VanEsterik, Cultural Anthropology. 3er Canadian ed. (Toronto: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2007); and LouisDumont, [Introduction à Deux Théories Danthropologie Sociale. English] An Introduction to TwoTheories of Social Anthropology: Descent Groups and Marriage Alliance, Robert Parkin, trans. and ed.(New York: Berghahn Books, 2006). 78 English naturalist Charles Robert Darwin‘s (1809-1882) On The Origin of Species by Means ofNatural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (1859) establishedevolution by common descent as the dominant scientific theory of diversification in nature. CharlesDarwin, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races inthe Struggle for Life, ed. J. W. Burrow (London: Penguin, 1985); On the Origin of Species by Means of 33
  34. 34. domination based on domestication (taming) but camouflaged with naturism. Darwin‘smethodology is deeply influenced by experimentation on taming. His method superposessociological projections onto ecology. This general introduction refers to some aspects of Darwin‘s theory on naturalselection, common descent, and some general laws, ―taken in the largest sense,‖ actingaround us.79 As Darwin summarizes, Growth with Reproduction; Inheritance which is almost implied by reproduction; Variability from the indirect and direct action of the external conditions of life, and from use and disuse; a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms… On these principles, I believe, the nature of the affinities of all organic beings may be explained.80 Searching to explain those principles of organic affinity, Darwin traveledextensively to explore nature in exotic regions, including his famous expedition to theGalapagos Islands. However, his method of experimentation was greatly influenced byhis understanding of and familiarity with taming, which Darwin denominatesdomestication, following the traditional custom to refer to taming. He observed―variation under domestication‖ and extended it to illustrate natural selection, to explainNatural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (2005, May 23),Literature.org: The Online Literature Library [online], available: http://www.literature.org/authors/darwin-charles/the-origin-of-species/preface.html [2005, December 18]; The Origin of Species (2004 copyright),The Free Library by Farlex [online], available: http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species[2005, December 18]; and Charles Darwin (1809-1882) (2004 copyright), The Free Library by Farlex[online], available: http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species/domestication [2005, December18]. 79 George John Romanes, Darwin and After Darwin: An Exposition of the Darwinian Theory anda Discussion of Post-Darwinian Questions (London: Longmans Green & Co., 1893); Thomas HenryHuxley, ―Obituary of Charles Darwin,‖ Proceedings of the Royal Society (RS) 44 (1888); Daniel C.Dennett, Darwin‟s Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meaning of Life (New York: Simon & Schuster,1995); Dennis F. Bratchell, The Impact of Darwinism: Texts and Commentary Illustrating NineteenthCentury Religious, Scientific and Literary Attitudes (London: Avebury Publishing, 1981); and A.J. Cain,―The True Meaning of Darwinian Evolution,‖ in Evolution and Its Influence, Alan Grafen, ed. (Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1989). 80 The Origin of Species: Chapter IV.-Natural Selection, http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species/4-1-2. 34
  35. 35. coadaptation, ―the case of the coadaptations of organic beings to each other and to theirphysical conditions of life,‖ and to make his fundamental critique of Christianity: that thebelief ―that each species has been independently created—is erroneous.‖81 He concludedthat the best suited or adapted—i.e., the fittest82—dominates and survives.83 We can so far take a prophetic glance into futurity as to foretell that it will be the common and widely-spread species, belonging to the larger and dominant groups, which will ultimately prevail and procreate new and dominant species.84 Some studies before Darwin‘s argued that species suit their context overgenerations.85 But Darwin saw it with particular intensity through the lenses ofdomination. His notions of strength, superiority, and fittest-ness refer to projections uponnature elaborated by human subjectivities seeking to standardize the appreciation of 81 However, he closes his introduction with both a strong claim and a humble acknowlegement. ―Iam convinced that Natural Selection has been the main but not exclusive means of modification.‖―Introduction,‖ The Origin of Species, http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species/0-1. 82 Although Darwin used it, the phrase ―survival of the fittest‖ was originally applied to economicsand coined by English philosopher and liberal political and sociological theorist Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) in his Principles of Biology of 1864. Spencer led classical Social Darwinism. However, some thinkSpencer applied more principles of ―use and disuse‖ (Lamarkism) than of ―natural selection‖ (Darwinism).Herbert Spencer, The Principles of Biology (London: Williams and Norgate, 1864-1867). 83 A similar approach has been promoted in recent decades in North America. As a critique of thattheory, Jared Diamond would argue that, for instance, the dominance of the peoples from the FertileCrescent in ancient times and from the United States in modern times do not occur due to their ―biologicalsuperiority,‖ but rather to ―an accident of biogeography.‖ Jared Diamond, ―The Erosion of Civilization;The Fertil‘s Crescent Fall Holds a Message for Today‘s Troubled Spots,‖ Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles,15 June 2003: M 1. Proquest Information and Learning Company (2006 copyright), [online], available:http://proquest.umi.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/pqdlink?index=209&did=347367111&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=2&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1111674494&clientId=12520 [2006, January 20]. 84 The Origin of Species: Chapter IV.-Natural Selection, http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species/4-1-3. 85 Darwin‘s theories follow a long standing trend of research. James Hutton (1726-1797), knownas the father of modern geology, spoke of gradual development over aeons of time (uniformitarian theory);Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844) established the principle of ―unity of composition‖ arguingthat species are various degenerations of the same type; Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), grandfather ofCharles Darwin, referred to organisms passing changes to offspring (common descent theory); Dr. W. C.Wells‘s (1813) ―An Account of a White female, part of whose skin resembled that of a Negro;‖ Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829), first to use the term biology, thought of acquiring and passing on neededtraits (Lamarckism); Robert Edmund Grant (1793-1874) developed others theories of transmutation; andthat The Rev. Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) showed that human populations increase to exceedresources (Whig Poor Law). ―Chapter XIV.-Recapitulation and Conclusion,‖ The Origin of Species,http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species/14-1-2. 35
  36. 36. natural processes from a privileged position. John A. Livingston refers to Darwin as anartifact of the ideology of his time.86 Darwin imposed his thought on his view of nature,thought that was shaped by the culture of his time, in general, and by his experimentationon taming, in particular. Nature clearly transcends the laboratory, which represents amain context for taming, which consequently refers to Darwin‘s starting point. Darwin assumed the natural context as a battlefield; ―the struggle for existence‖was a ―war.‖ ―Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exaltedobject which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals,directly follows.‖87 One difficulty with Darwin‘s notion is the blurredness between hisnotion of fittest and a notion of ―fiercest.‖ While many argue for a very pessimisticdiagnostic of war, Darwin envisioned how nature‘s war improves ecological reality.―Hence we may look with some confidence to a secure future of equally inappreciablelength. And as natural selection works solely by and for the good of each being, allcorporeal and mental endowments will tend to progress towards perfection.‖88 In his ownwords, ―This principle of preservation, I have called, for the sake of brevity, NaturalSelection.‖89 It reveals a principle based on fiery domination rather than fitness. Darwin valued adaptability, fitted-ness, and ultimately survival, all of whichrelate to reproduction. He would value a defective survivor to an ideal extinct. However,he fails to identify an implicit anthropomorphic determinism and favoritism in hisapproach. He deals poorly with the pervasive and predatory human power and its 86 Livingston, Ibid, 76. 87 ―Chapter XIV.-Recapitulation and Conclusion,‖ The Origin of Species,http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species/14-1-2. 88 Ibid, 14-1-2. 89 ―Chapter VI.-Natural Selection,‖ The Origin of Species, http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species/4-1-3. 36
  37. 37. epicenter among elites. His portrayal of natural adaptation reveals a sort of ―anthropo-elite-centric‖ selection appeal. He clearly struggled with dominant Victorian descriptionsof nature.90 Darwin challenges common Christian theories of divine design, focusing onorigin or genesis, replacing the agent (nature for the divine) and its method (selection fordesign).91 Darwin crafted the notion of ―natural selection‖ and characterized it to an extremewhere the species are disavowed of their agency. Seeking to rescue Darwin from thispitfall, Richard Richards disassociates causality and immutability: ―the causal efficacy‖Darwin attributed to natural selection does not suggest ―the immutability of species.‖92Richards aims precisely at correcting Darwin‘s strong impression in this regard. Instead,Alanna Mitchell prefers to see this agency as transformational; a ―Darwinian endeavor ofmetamorphosis.‖93 In the struggle for survival and reproduction (transcendence), species seem toadapt, vary, and survive. Seen from a non-Darwinian angle, species collectively presentlife conditions. Species incarnate the conditions of life. Species mutually condition oneanother. The dichotomy Darwin enforces between nature and life conditions seems afallacy. Darwin pictures a nature selecting the fittest species which exist and live withinlife conditions. Darwin redesigns nature. ―Selection‖ and ―the fittest‖ correlate. On thecontrary, argues this thesis, while species naturally struggle for survival, the fittest neithernecessarily nor naturally survive. Sometimes the fiercest, the luckiest, and the weakest 90 William Irvine, Apes, Angels and Victorians: The Story of Darwin, Huxley and Evolution(Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1955). 91 M. Midgley, Evolution as a Religion (London: Methuen, 1985). 92 Richard A. Richards, ―Darwin and the Inefficacy of Artificial Selection,‖ Studies in History andPhilosophy of Science (SHPS) 28, no. 1 (March 1997): 75-97. 93 Alanna Mitchell, Dancing at the Dead Sea: Tracking the World‟s Environmental Hotspots(Toronto: Key Porter Books, 2004), 18. 37
  38. 38. survive. But when the survivor is not the fittest, which happens often, selection does notcorrelate. Selection does not explain all natural survival. The fittest survivor notion seems contextual and subjective. Species representnatural agents. Rather than selection in the abstract, survival seems the species‘ concretenatural agency. As Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra, Gabriel Marais, and Brian Charlesworth insist,species adapt; they recombine in order to survive.94 Species survive. But some species,notably the human, do not simply survive; they destroy and, worse, enjoy doing it. Theyseem capable of dominating for domination‘s sake. In this context, the notion of naturalselection disguises and perpetuates domination. Darwin projected his social theories onto his observations of nature, whichnoticeably reflect his experimentation on taming. Selection, as a working metaphor,could make sense from a taming viewpoint or selection by human agency and underhuman standards. But such selection misrepresents nature and rather reflects humanartificiality. While humans may value selection (e.g., taming), survival does notnecessarily happen directly proportional to adaptability and variation. The notion ofselection emerges by human conception and imposition primarily through taming.Darwin failed to recognize that he observed nature with a domesticated anddomesticating eye. Selection not necessarily reflects nature at large but the developmentof human behaviour in particular. 94 Ross-Ibarra uses plant cytogenetical literature to explore the implications of the theories ofrecombination and preadaptation. Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra, ―The Evolution of Recombination UnderDomestication: A Test of Two Hypotheses,‖ The American Naturalist (AN) 163, no. 1 (January 2004):105-15. Marais and Charlesworth, at the Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University ofEdinburgh, research on the impact of recombination on the evolution of genome. Gabriel Marais and BrianCharlesworth, ―Genome Evolution: Recombination Speeds Up Adaptive Evolution,‖ in Current Biology(CB) 13, no. 2 (January 2003): R68-R70. 38
  39. 39. Overemphasizing selection forces Darwinian theories to become selective,oversimplifying the role of random probabilities and of context in natural processes.Darwin eventually foresaw a cease to the struggle for adaptation. That the struggle between natural selection on the one hand, and the tendency to reversion and variability on the other hand, will in the course of time cease; and that the most abnormally developed organs may be made constant, I can see no reason to doubt.95 Whether Darwin foresaw a total domination of the fittest or not, nevertheless,adaptation, variation, and survival represent perhaps Darwin‘s most influential and bestdocumented ideas of his common descent theory. They have revolutionized the sciences,as Darwin fervently prophesized. In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man [humans] and his [their] history.96 Darwin‘s influential formulation in natural and social science, particularlyregarding the origin of humans, indicates that species reproduce (simple and hybridizedor mongrelized) and reach reproductive rates that prompt life struggle (facing conditionsof their environments). Life struggle occurs under a generational cumulative dynamic(i.e., natural selection), favoring a clustered variability (i.e., character divergence),transmitting traits with growth correlation (change correspondence between embryo or 95 ―Chapter V.-Laws of Variation,‖ The Origin of Species, http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species/5-1-2. 96 One would hardly find references to women in relation to doing science, and particularlyphysics, including the summary offered by Darwin in his Preface to his On The Origins of Species,however, Margaret C. Jacob and Dorothee Sturkenboon would present another picture when they refer tothe Dutch Women‘s Society for Natural Knowledge who met from 1785 to 1887. They refer to an early―domestication‖ of science, meaning science at home, however the domestication might actually refer tothe dominance of science by men. Margaret C. Jacob and Dorothee Sturkenboon, ―A Women‘s ScientificSociety in the West: The Late Eighteenth-Century Assimilation of Science,‖ Isis 94, no. 2 (June 2003):217-52. 39
  40. 40. larva and mature animal)97 to offspring (descendants) via inheritance (non-mutated)98 andmethodic (domestication) or unconscious (use and disuse) modification (mutated).Thereby species adapt (higher state, winning novel characters), become more fit andperfect; or they regress (lesser state, losing ancestral characters), become less fit andsubsequently extinguish. The final result is thus rendered infinitely complex…99 The several subordinate groups in any class cannot be ranked in a single file, but seem rather to be clustered round points, and these round other points, and so on in almost endless cycles.100 Although Darwin recognized the complexity of survival and referred to twoselections—namely, natural and human (taming)—he shows more interest in arguing forselection as natural, neglecting to explicate their relationship. Darwin failed to identifythe primary role of the built environment in the process of domestication. Darwin did notexplain nature; at best, he addressed natural survival through explaining non-humanvariation under taming and domestication. There is no obvious reason why the principles which have acted so efficiently under domestication should not have acted under nature. In the preservation of favoured individuals and races, during the constantly-recurrent Struggle for Existence, we see the most powerful and ever-acting means of selection.101 Darwin starts with taming to explain natural selection. Nevertheless, he findsadaptation, variation, and survival among the major guidelines species follow in their 97 ―Chapter I.-Variation Under Domestication,‖ The Origins of Species,http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species/1-1-2. 98 Darwin clarifies, inheritance ―when beneficial to the individual.‖ ―Chapter V.-Laws ofVariation,‖ The Origin of Species, http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species/5-1-2. Darwinadmits that modifications may lead both to upgrade or downgrade. 99 ―Chapter I.-Variation Under Domestication,‖ The Origins of Species,http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species/1-1-2. 100 ―Chapter IV.-Natural Selection,‖ The Origins of Species, http://darwin.thefreelibrary.com/The-Origin-of-Species/4-1-3. 101 ―Chapter 14: Recapitulation and Conclusion,‖ The Origins of Species (2005, May 23),Literature.org: The Online Literature Library [online], available: http://www.literature.org/authors/darwin-charles/the-origin-of-species/chapter-14.html [2005, December 18]. 40
  41. 41. pilgrimage on earth. But Darwin focused so acutely on non-human organisms that hefailed to identify selection against humans under domestication and even taming. In anyevent, with or without selection, natural or human, domestication continues to be a majorevolutionary force, implicating the evolutionary impact of human beings via the builtenvironment. Unlike the notion of natural selection, the notion of domestication has thepotential to better explain one of the major forces that has been shaping society andecology since the emergence of ancient human civilizations. To what extenddomestication emerges in natural discontinuity, setting in motion disruptive dynamicsregarding the adaptation, variation, and survival of species, particularly as it refers to thedomination of humans by humans, greatly occupies the following chapters. 41

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