2014 Revised Modern philosophy


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2014 Revised Modern philosophy

  1. 1. MODERN PHILOSOPHY REVISED: January, 2014 Jan.11, 2013 Ms. Raizza Corpuz
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES: • To enhance critical analysis of how Modern period plays a vital stance in the transition of Man • To develop one’s own understanding in the realm of the world towards achieving the end( means) of Man
  3. 3. History of Modern Western Philosophy
  4. 4. Renaissance and Humanism • Epochal turning point: HUMANISM the man realized he had a dignity, he found he had a thought and a ratiocination (methodological and logical reasoning) • 16th century: led MAN to the intellectual affirmation and emancipation(liberate) • man "born again" who appeared on the Earth, just the man of the Renaissance
  5. 5. • RENAISSANCE the man really renewed himself, he saw himself, he felt himself “reborn” in all his potentialities because the renaissance was a general historical moment, which determined a new vision of the all human life, in its cultural, religious, artistic, political aspects.
  6. 6. Scientific Revolution, Existentialist Philosophy and Enlightenment • the word "revolution" to describe an event or set of events which mark a total and durable change and a decisive break with the past. • term refers to historian events which are the cause of radical political and social changes
  7. 7. • the term "scientific revolution" a series of discoveries, but also a different attitude towards the studies and the researches. • 17th century the work of many scholars including the Italian Galileo Galilee and the English Isaac Newton.
  8. 8. • Enlightenment 1.illuminating capacity of reason 2.Intended to bring light of reason in every field of human activity 3.Less radical, balance towards empiricism and subjective idealism
  9. 9. Periods of Western Philosophy • Ancient Philosophy [Greek, Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy] • Medieval Philosophy [Patristic and Scholastic Philosophy] • Modern Philosophy • Contemporary Philosophy [20th Century – Postmodernism]
  10. 10. The Mainstreams of Modern Philosophy • Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Malebranche, Pascal) • Empiricism (Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume) • Criticism (Kant) • Idealism (Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Schopenhauer)
  11. 11. • Materialism (Feuerbach, Marx) • Positivism (Comte, Machiavelli) • Existentialism (Kierkegaard and Nietzsche)
  12. 12. The Meaning of Modernity • Moderna” means “new” and “now”. Modern is a temporal orientation to ‘here and now’ [not ‘there and past” of the medieval mentality] • The term relates to the concept of time: linear progress [contrary to cyclical concept of time] • Key concepts of the modernity: “technological progress”, “revolution”, “economic growth”
  13. 13. Modern Philosophy is a philosophy of the subject • As a whole we can view the modern western philosophy as a research program on the epistemological and metaphysical problems of consciousness.
  14. 14. • The origin of consciousness (e.g. Descartes and Locke) • The Development of consciousness (e.g. Hegel, Kierkegaard, Comte) • The Collapse of consciousness (e.g. Schopenhauer, Nietzsche)
  15. 15. The Humanists • The spirit of modern philosophy was built in the age of Renaissance. • The rebirth of the Greek and Roman civilization in Italy during 16th Century reflected in many cultural aspects such as literature, architecture, philosophy, art etc. • The humanists taught eloquence, history, poetry, moral (comparable to the sophists in ancient Greece)
  16. 16. Three Characteristics of Modern Philosophy 1.Centers on the problem of consciousness or subjectivity [contrary to theocentrism] 2. Radicalization of the epistemological concept of critique [contrary to dogmatism] 3. Teleological Concept of historical progress of mankind [contrary to status quo]
  17. 17. Man as Natural Being • Renaissance culture viewed man as natural being. • He doesn’t come from heaven, but grows from earth and is provided with natural talents and vitality. • So, the naked figures in the renaissance’s gallery glorified the natural beauty of man.
  18. 18. Man as Individual • The individual (not the collective) was a central theme of art and literature in the culture of renaissance. • In the western philosophy the paradigmshift occurred during the renaissance, i.e. from theocentrism of medieval thought to anthropocentrism of modern thought.
  21. 21. Leviathian vs. Two Treatise on Gov’t VS.
  22. 22. • • • • • • • English Philosopher Inspired by the Glorious Revolution 1690 – published Two Treatises on Government People shaped by their experiences not natural violent All people had 3 natural rights – life, liberty, & property People are born with a “tabula rasa” or clean slate. Purpose of gov’t = serve the people – people have the right to overthrow the gov’t if it is not serving its purpose • Social Contract – agreement b/w ruler & people
  23. 23. • English Philosopher • Influenced by the English Civil War & Charles I Execution • 1651 – Published Leviathan (Sea Monster) • Argued that natural law made absolute monarchy the best form of gov’t • Humans were natural selfish and violent • People couldn’t make their own decisions • If they did life would be “nasty, brutish, and short” • Only a strong ruler (Leviathan) could give people direction
  24. 24. • Inspired by the Glorious Revolution & John Locke, Greek Philosophers • French Philosopher • 1748 – published – Spirit of Laws • Separation of Power – equal divide power among the 3 Branches of gov’t • Executive (Monarch) enforce laws, Legislative (Parliament) makes laws, Judicial (Courts) interpret laws • By separating these powers, gov’t could not become too powerful – checks and balances
  25. 25. Montesquieu’s 3 branches in Action
  26. 26. • • • • French Philosopher 1762 – published Social Contract Gov’t should be based on a Social Contract Everyone must agree to be governed by the general will – whats good for the people (foundation for totalitarian gov’t) • Humans being were naturally good but corrupted by society • Importance on Education and Civic Virtue – train people how to be good citizens. • People should pay more attention to emotions & feelings instead of new ideas –seek a balance –
  27. 27. • Francois-Marie Arouet – known as Voltaire • French Philosopher • Wrote many novels, plays, letters, & essays that brought him fame • Strong dislike of Catholic Church • Blame the church for keeping knowledge from people to keep its power • Freedom of Religion • Natural Law runs the world
  28. 28. References • F. Budi Hardiman, Sejarah Filsafat Barat Modern dari Machiavelli sampai Nietzsche, Gramedia, Jakarta, 2004
  29. 29. THOUGHT TO PONDER Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all ~Aristotle ♥ THANK YOU! Have a