English teacher english learner forever


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English teacher english learner forever

  1. 1. English teacher: English learner forever A case for teachers' language development Higor Cavalcante
  2. 2. “…People who are going to work with the language at an advanced level as teachers or researchers need the deeper understanding provided by the study of grammatical theory and related areas of linguistics.” – Peter Roach “Teachers need to know a lot about the subject they are teaching (the English language). (…) Language teachers need to know how the language works. (…) a knowledge of the grammar system and understanding of the lexical system. (…) They need to be aware of pronunciation features such as sounds, stress and intonation." – Jeremy Harmer
  3. 3. “Among the consequences of (…) a limited knowledge of language are: a failure on the part of the teacher to anticipate learners’ learning problems and a consequent inability to plan lessons that are pitched at the right level; (…) an inability to deal satisfactorily with errors, or to field learners’ queries; and a general failure to earn the confidence of the learners due to a lack of basic terminology and ability to present new language clearly and efficiently." – Scott Thornbury
  4. 4. “…the feeling is, perhaps, that non-native speaker teachers should need no special treatment, and to offer it might be seen as insulting." – a famous ELT writer, in an email to me (April 30, 2013). "I think the sad reality is though that for a very large number of the world's teachers their English is barely above A2! B1 to be generous." – a famous course book writer, via Facebook (April 30, 2013). The ‘unproblematized’ area of language learning for teachers
  5. 5. "I know a few teachers who did the CAE test at the beginning of their careers and now, 5 or 10 years later, don’t have that level anymore and would possibly not pass the CAE today. Some schools offer free courses for teachers taught by more experienced, more proficient teachers, but many don’t take those courses and keep on teaching lower levels. (…) I don’t know any SIGs or magazines that deal with that." – school coordinator in Northeastern Brazil The ‘unproblematized’ area of language learning for teachers
  6. 6. - Nope. (…) Not a single book (in the area of language development for teachers). They (schools) tend to lump teachers and advanced students under the same generic umbrella. But if an advanced student says “slangs” it’s not the end of the world. If a teacher does, it’s another story I think. – Brazilian ELT blogger The ‘unproblematized’ area of language learning for teachers
  7. 7. • Special attention? • No. • Should there be? • Yes. • Why isn’t there? • Are teachers interested? Is there money in it? • Who needs to take charge? • We do. The ‘unproblematized’ area of language learning for teachers
  8. 8. 1. Open your books on page 20. 2. OK! Time’s over! 3. Do you want me to explain you the rule again? 4. Pay attention in the example. 5. Ask question four to Raul, please. 6. Today we’re going to discuss about politics. 7. I gave you a homework last class, didn’t I? 8. Are you with your students’ book? 9. Does anyone have any doubts? 10. pronunciation/basic/pronoun/possessive/another Teachers make mistakes
  9. 9. • Grammar (how to use, describe and name it) • Vocabulary (use, register, pronunciation, frequency) • Phonology (individual sounds – phonemes –, intonation, stress in words and sentences, connected speech) • Discourse (how language is used, appropriacy) • Cultural aspects of the language • ‘Methodology(ies) and techniques What teachers must know
  10. 10. • Grammar is partly the study of what forms (or structures) are possible in a language; the study of the syntax –the system of rules that cover the order of words in a sentence– and morphology –the system of rules that cover the formation of words. – Scott Thornbury Grammar
  11. 11. Grammar • Is it possible to use will in the if-clause of a conditional sentence? E.g. If you will…, I will…. • Is using could or be able to for ability in the past interchangeable? • What’s the difference between who and whom? • Do we always put the verb one stage back when using reported speech? • I recommend she be promoted. Is this correct? • What’s inversion? Non-finite clauses? When can you omit the relative pronoun in a relative clause? etc.
  12. 12. Grammar • We use some in affirmative sentences and any in negative and interrogative sentences. • We use will for predictions which are not based on evidence; we use going to when the prediction is based on evidence. • The modal verb could is the past of can. • You double the final consonant (past, -ing etc.) when the word ends in ‘CVC’.
  13. 13. Phonology “Pronunciation can be an overlooked area of language teaching, partly because teachers themselves may feel more uncertain about it than about grammar or lexis, worried that they don’t have enough technical knowledge to help students appropriately. However, when teachers take the risk, they are often surprised to find that it makes for very enjoyable and useful classroom work.” – Jim Scrivener
  14. 14. Phonology • What are the sounds /θ/ and /ð/. How are they different? • How do you pronounce the regular verbs in the past? • How do you pronounce the ‘s’ in plural words, third person singular and genitive case? • How do you count syllables in English? • Are there rules for word stress? • What’s sentence stress? What’s unstress? • How does intonation work in English?
  15. 15. Vocabulary • What’s collocation? Idiom? Phrasal verb? • I’ll give you a broad/wide summary of this talk now. • If you have any questions, please rise/raise your hand. • She was caught red/yellow-handed stealing the test key. • If she carries on/up like this, she’ll end/wind up in prison. • Your proposal is bad. • (appalling, dismal, ludicrous, absurd, pathetic)
  16. 16. Discourse • Spoken: • You saw the movie? I loved it! • I think, éééééééé, that this movie is better than the previous one. • Written: • Are phrasal verbs and idioms good for formal writing?
  17. 17. Studying language • On your own: • Curiosity and interest • Vast and varied reading • Exposure to native(-like)/proficient English • Organization and focus • Research • Vast and varied reading
  18. 18. Studying language • On your own: • Have a vocabulary notebook • Read books, articles, news, blogs, recipes, graffiti… • Watch series, movies, TV programs… Get hooked on www.ted.com • Set a time to study every day/few days/week. Decide what you want to study every time (grammar, vocabulary, phonology etc.) • Google • Read varied genres; read a little EVERY day. Always.
  19. 19. Studying language • Courses: • Advanced English courses (for teachers) • Exams preparation at C1/C2 level: CAE & CPE • Phonology courses (NOT "accent reduction!") • TKT preparation (especially ‘KAL’) • ‘Letras’ course? • Post-graduation in English?
  20. 20. Suggested Bibliography • Grammar: • Advanced Language Practice, Michael Vince • Grammar for English Language Teachers, Martin Parrott • Practical English Usage, Michael Swan • Cambridge Grammar of English, Ronald Carter • Advanced Grammar in Use, Martin Hewings
  21. 21. Suggested Bibliography • Vocabulary: • Advanced Vocabulary in Use, Martin Hewings • English Vocabulary in Use, F. O’Dell, M. McCarthy • English Idioms in Use, F. O’Dell, M. McCarthy • English Phrasal Verbs in Use, F. O’Dell, M. McCarthy
  22. 22. Suggested Bibliography • Phonology: • How to Teach Pronunciation, Gerald Kelly • Sound Foundations, Adrian Underhill • English Phonetics and Phonology, Peter Roach • English Pronunciation for Brazilians, S. Baccardo, M. Marcellino and C. Gontow
  23. 23. Suggested Bibliography • Blogs: • www.luizotaviobarros.com • www.inglesnapontadalingua.com.br • www.higorcavalcante.com • www.languagedevelopmentforteachers.com
  24. 24. Bibliography • About Language, Scott Thornbury (CUP) • How to Teach English, Jeremy Harmer (Pearson) • English Phonetics and Phonology, Peter Roach (CUP) • Discourse, Guy Cook (Oxford) • A-Z of ELT, Scott Thornbury (Macmillan) • English Vocabulary in Use, F. O’Dell and M. McCarthy (CUP)
  25. 25. Thank you! • higor@higorcavalcante.com • Twitter/Skype: teacherhigor • Caltabiano Idiomas: (11) 3436-6004 • www.caltabianoidiomas.com.br