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Implications of Child Abuse Brittany Spahalski
Abstract <ul><li>Child abuse is a traumatic experience that causes victims suffering and pain throughout their lifetime. T...
Study 1 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional abuse in children significantly impacts adults suffering from PTS...
Study 2 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants who were physically abused demonstrated higher levels of exter...
Study 3 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Children who were victims of abuse and exposed to violence showed internal beha...
Study 4 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children without parental attachments that were abused had a higher risk fo...
Study 5 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative symptoms suggest that child abuse victims tend to feel unprotec...
Study 6 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women suffering from symptoms of PTSD in adulthood as a result of childhood...
Study 7 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>396 women with documented cases of child abuse consume a higher quantity of...
Study 8 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologically abused children or victims with family dysfunction consiste...
Study 9 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social maladjustment of child abuse victims and the results suggest lower p...
Study 10 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BMI and obesity were measured and the results concluded that physical chil...
Conclusion <ul><li>Dramatically affects the individual’s development from childhood through adulthood with the effect last...
References <ul><li>Bentley, T., & Widom, C. S. (2009). A 30-year Follow-up of the Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect on Ob...
References Cont. <ul><li>Moylan, C. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E. A., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. J. (20...
References Cont. <ul><li>Sousa, C., Herrenkohl, T. I., Moylan, C. A., Tajima, E. A., Klika, J., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo...
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Spahalski B M7 A2 Powerpoint

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Spahalski B M7 A2 Powerpoint

  1. 1. Implications of Child Abuse Brittany Spahalski
  2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>Child abuse is a traumatic experience that causes victims suffering and pain throughout their lifetime. The consequence can have debilitating outward effects that cause a variation of issues ranging from low self-esteem to depression and PTSD. The prevalence of child abuse effects are astoundingly high and are considered a worldwide epidemic not specifically isolated to the United States. The struggles children face as they get older is immense and causes a strong emotional trigger in most. The cycle of abuse progressively worsens as each year passes with more children becoming victims. The research objective is to understand how the unresolved conflicts of abuse affect adults. The effects are important to understand so treatment options and prevention methods can cohesively exist. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Study 1 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional abuse in children significantly impacts adults suffering from PTSD and SPD (Powers, et. al., 2009). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms the victims illustrated include extreme levels of social anxiety, bizarre behaviors or appearance, differential perceptions and a lack of a close support system including close friends (Powers, et. al., 2009). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigorous guidelines were employed which removes the potential bias with a smaller number of subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results explore a relation of emotional child abuse to SPD and PTSD the findings do not suggest an exact reasoning for the link. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Study 2 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants who were physically abused demonstrated higher levels of externalizing and internalizing problems compared to the other participants (Ford, et. al., 2011). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety and depression are among the internal behaviors & aggression, substance abuse, impulsiveness & hyperactive behaviors are considered external (Ford, et. al., 2011). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results were examined on different levels and with different variations and factors to rule out any possible discrepancies in the results. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Study was conducted with extensive information from the charts and data and interviews were not implemented. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Study 3 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Children who were victims of abuse and exposed to violence showed internal behaviors like anxiety, depression and being withdrawn and external behaviors like aggression and delinquency were prevalent (Moylan, et. al., 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><li>A strong background of data which was collected during various ages of the abused children from when they were under 6 in 1976 through 1991 during three time increments to explore the long term effects of these behavioral issues (Moylan, et. al., 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>There were 457 participants with an almost even number of male and female participants (Moylan, et. al., 2010). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Study 4 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children without parental attachments that were abused had a higher risk for antisocial behaviors than children who were not abused & had normal attachment (Sousa, et. al., 2011). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis was done twice, using a non-exposed group of participants and a dually-exposed group to examine the variations and differences among participants that were abused versus non-abused (Sousa, et. al., 2011). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The offenses were self-reported which could indicate that some offenses may have gone unreported or were not entirely truthful. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Study 5 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative symptoms suggest that child abuse victims tend to feel unprotected and unable to defend themselves because they did not have a protective caregiver when they were children (Thomas, 2003). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lack of interpersonal defense that the victim feels often leads to disassociation and revictimization (Thomas, 2003). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research is from actual clients in psychotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential bias if the researcher is also the counselor </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Study 6 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women suffering from symptoms of PTSD in adulthood as a result of childhood abuse are at a higher risk to abuse substances (White and Widom, 2008). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research suggests that intervention is necessary to treat PTSD symptoms and teach coping mechanisms to prevent substance abuse and illicit drug use from female child abuse victims (White and Widom, 2008). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study was conducted on 582 women during two time periods which illustrates strength by removing circumstances of casual factors and inferences (White and Widom, 2008). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only women are researched in the study which presents an issue on whether or not these same factors effect men. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Study 7 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>396 women with documented cases of child abuse consume a higher quantity of alcohol in a year than non-abused women, consumed more drinks monthly and had more than eight drinks daily (Widom, et. al., 2007). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A high number of subjects were interviewed during two time periods to gain accurate analysis on long term effects. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The information was obtained through self-reporting interviews and the information from the participants may be inaccurate. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Study 8 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologically abused children or victims with family dysfunction consistently illustrate long term effects (Elam and Kleist, 1999). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues include unstable relationships, lack of boundaries, depression, low self esteem, low trust levels and feeling powerless (Elam and Kleist, 1999). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative results from multiple studies which allow information from various resources. All of the studies explain the procedures, measurement, participants and specifics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The information could be biased if the researchers only pulled studies and research particular to their hypothesis or belief. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Study 9 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social maladjustment of child abuse victims and the results suggest lower peer status, more aggression, disturbed behaviors and negative social networking (Salzinger, et. al., 1993). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing child abuse victims with non-victims helps set forth any variations between social statuses among their peers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study was conducted on 87 urban victims aged 8-12 which doesn’t allow for variation among race, culture, age and familial backgrounds. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Study 10 <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BMI and obesity were measured and the results concluded that physical childhood abuse has a significant correlation to obesity in adulthood (Bentley and Widom, 2009). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The research was done over a length of time and included specific factors that were controlled including cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (Bentley and Widom, 2009). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research was conducted on a large number of victims and non-victims with comparative backgrounds to obtain accurate results. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Conclusion <ul><li>Dramatically affects the individual’s development from childhood through adulthood with the effect lasting their entire life. </li></ul><ul><li>The victim feels emotionally scarred and significant damage tp their mental state and well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical ramifications of child abuse research conclude that obesity and BMI are negatively affected in adulthood by victims of child abuse (Bentley and Widom, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Women who were abused as children are more likely to drink daily & consume a large number of drinks in a single day (Widom, et. al., 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Other studies show a correlation of child abuse and the abused victim suffering from PTSD symptoms, depression and psychological disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Research illustrates the psychological and emotional impact of child abuse victims including PTSD, internalizing and externalizing behavioral issues, antisocial behaviors, social maladjustment, disassociation, feeling defenseless and revictimization. </li></ul>
  14. 14. References <ul><li>Bentley, T., & Widom, C. S. (2009). A 30-year Follow-up of the Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect on Obesity in Adulthood. Obesity (19307381) , 17 (10), 1900-1905. </li></ul><ul><li>Elam, G., & Kleist, D. (1999). Research on the long-term effects of child abuse. Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 7 (2), 154-160. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/62413600?accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Ford, J. D., Gagnon, K., Connor, D. F., & Pearson, G. (2011). History of interpersonal violence, abuse, and non-victimization trauma and severity of psychiatric symptoms among children in outpatient psychiatric treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26 (16), 3316. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/899210614?accountid=34899 </li></ul>
  15. 15. References Cont. <ul><li>Moylan, C. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E. A., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. J. (2010). The effects of child abuse and exposure to domestic violence on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Family Violence, 25 (1), 53-53-63. doi:10.1007/s10896-009-9269-9 </li></ul><ul><li>Powers, D. A., Thomas, K. M., Ressler, J. K., Bradley, B. (2011). The differential effects of child abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder on schizotypal personality disorder , Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52 (4), 438-445. </li></ul><ul><li>Salzinger, S. S. (1993). The effects of physical abuse on children’s social relationships. Child Development , 64 (1), 169-187 </li></ul>
  16. 16. References Cont. <ul><li>Sousa, C., Herrenkohl, T. I., Moylan, C. A., Tajima, E. A., Klika, J., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. (2011). Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence , 26(1), 111-136. doi:10.1177/0886260510362883 </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, P. M. (2003). Protection, dissociation, and internal roles: Modeling and treating the effects of child abuse. Review of General Psychology, 7 (4), 364-364-380. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.7.4.364 </li></ul><ul><li>White, H., & Widom, C. (2008). Three potential mediators of the effects of child abuse and neglect on adulthood substance use among women. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69 (3), 337-347. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/886569615?accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Widom, C., White, H., Czaja, S., & Marmorstein, N. (2007). Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on alcohol use and </li></ul><ul><li>excessive drinking in middle adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68 (3), 317-326. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>http://search.proquest.com/docview/289251346?accountid=34899 </li></ul>

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