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Review Paper Presentation

A Study of the Prevalence and Effects of Children\'s Exposure to Violence and the Importance of Early Intervention

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Review Paper Presentation

  1. 1. A Study of the Prevalence and Effects of Children’s Exposure to Violence and the Importance of Early Intervention<br />Holly Winzenburg<br />June 22, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Children and Violence<br />Children are exposed to many types of violence<br />Exposure affects children adversely<br />Development of behavioral and conduct issues <br />Increases risk of becoming violent as adults (Gerrig, Hock, & Zimbardo, 2009)<br />Increases risk of exposing own children, perpetuating the cycle<br />Early Intervention and Prevention may break the cycle<br />
  3. 3. Children and Violence Literature Review<br />Purpose:<br />How are children affected by exposure to violence?<br />How can these effects be addressed or prevented through early identification and intervention?<br />Why the topic of Children and Violence?<br />Primary Goal:<br />Identify beneficial programs & intervention strategies<br />Guide future research<br />Increase efforts to improve programs<br />
  4. 4. Prevalence of Exposure<br />In U.S., 10+ million children witness abuse between parents (Berkowitz, 2003)<br />Two-thirds witness chronic abuse<br />One million children are victims<br />3.3 million children witness domestic violence each year (Osofsky, 2003)<br />Likely an underestimate<br />
  5. 5. Prevalence of Exposure<br />Younger children more likely to be exposed (Gewirtz & Edleson, 2007)<br />Meta-analysis findings:<br />Witness & victimization resulted in larger effect size<br />Exposure to violence has negative effect on children<br />(Wolfe, Crooks, Lee, McIntyre-Smith, & Jaffe, 2003)<br />
  6. 6. Effects of Exposure<br />Studies agree that exposure to violence results in adverse emotional, psychological, behavioral, and developmental effects, such as:<br />Depression, anxiety, and antisocial behaviors<br />Increased anger and aggression<br />Delays in developmental milestones<br />(Berkowitz, 2003)<br />(Gewirtz & Edleson, 2007) <br />(Jaffe, Wilson, & Wolfe, 1986)<br />
  7. 7. Effects of Exposure<br />Problems adjusting in light of difficult situations (Jaffe et al., 1986)<br />Other childhood or later adulthood behavioral and emotional problems (Gewirtz & Edleson, 2007)<br />Reactions to trauma impacted by a number of factors (Osofsky, 2003)<br />The more they are exposed, the more likely it is they will become violent<br />Chronic exposure supports distorted beliefs about violence in relationships<br />
  8. 8. Risk and Protective Factors<br />Risk Factors:<br />Mental health problems Substance abuse<br />Criminal behavior Divorce <br />Family dysfunction Poverty<br /> (Osofsky, 2003)<br />Domestic violence is a risk factor for child maltreatment (Chen & Scannapieco, 2006)<br />Maltreatment impacts development of emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BDs) (Conroy & Brown, 2004)<br />
  9. 9. Risk and Protective Factors<br />Protective Factors:<br />Environmental circumstances<br />Individual differences and vulnerabilities<br />(Berkowitz, 2003)<br />Protective factors promote resilience<br />Shields children from the adverse effects of exposure to violence<br />For less resilient individuals, assistance in the form of intervention programs may be needed<br />
  10. 10. Intervention Programs and Strategies<br />Intervention is most important for:<br />Preventing exposure of children to violence & its effects <br />Helping those who have been exposed<br />Most common intervention approach in mid-1980s was removal of the child<br />May unintentionally contribute to maladjustment<br />(Jaffe et al., 1986)<br />
  11. 11. Intervention Programs and Strategies<br />Intervention Program characteristics:<br />Teaches children problem-solving skills<br />Involves group intervention focused on needs of the children<br />Focuses on:<br />Child’s symptoms<br />Education and support for parents<br />Improving parent-child connection, caregiver knowledge, and caregiver skill<br />Establishing safety and offering empathic listening<br />(Jaffe et al., 1986; Graham-Berman & Hughes, 2003; Chen & Scannapieco, 2006; Ziegler & Weidner, 2006)<br />
  12. 12. Intervention Programsand Strategies<br />Programs should:<br />Promote social competence<br />Provide support through partnership between families, teachers, schools, and counselors<br />Examples of such programs:<br />Parent-focused interventions<br />Child-focused interventions<br />Classroom-focused interventions<br />Combination of these programs<br />(Webster-Stratton & Taylor, 2001)<br />
  13. 13. Intervention Programsand Strategies<br />Programs may also:<br />Provide resources to diverse populations<br />Engage and encourage the community to help<br />(Black & Trocmé, 2005)<br />Programs that currently exist work with a wide range of populations and have shown successes, but there is always room for improvement<br />
  14. 14. Summary of Literature Review<br />Prevailing Arguments:<br />Exposure of children to violence is not uncommon<br />Exposure to violence has emotional, psychological, and developmental effects<br />Risk factors serve to aggravate the adverse effects of exposure to violence<br />Younger children are more likely to be exposed to violence<br />The literature touched on important areas of focus for intervention programs while others provided specific examples of such programs<br />
  15. 15. Recommendations<br />Key questions to be asked and areas to be examined and studied through future research:<br />Effects of exposure over lifetimes and across generations<br />Which intervention programs are effective for which populations and which age groups<br />There is also need for large-scale longitudinal studies<br />Can help guide construction and development of appropriate and beneficial intervention programs<br />
  16. 16. References<br />Berkowitz, S. J. (2003). Children Exposed to Community Violence: The Rationale for Early Intervention. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6(4), 293-302. doi: 10.1023/B:CCFP.0000006295.54479.3d<br />Black, T. L. & Trocmé, N. (2005). Protecting Children from Domestic Violence: Strategies for Community Intervention. Canadian Psychology, 46(3), 170-171. Retrieved from<br />Conroy, M. A. & Brown, W. H. (2004). Early Identification, Prevention, and Early Intervention with Young Children At Risk for Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Issues, Trends, and a Call for Action. Behavioral Disorders, 29(3), 223-236. Retrieved from<br />Gerrig, R. J.; Hock, R. R.; & Zimbardo, P. G. (2009). An Overview of Psychology: Its Past & Present, Your Future. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />Gewirtz, A. H. & Edleson, J. L. (2007). Young Children's Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence: Towards a Developmental Risk and Resilience Framework for Research and Intervention. Journal of Family Violence, 22(3), 151-163. doi: 10.1007/s10896-007-9065-3 <br />Graham-Bermann, S. A. & Hughes, H. M. (2003). Intervention for Children Exposed to Interparental Violence (IPV): Assessment of Needs and Research Priorities. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6(3), 189-204. doi: 10.1023/A:1024962400234<br />Jaffe, P., Wilson, S., & Wolfe, D. A. (1986). Promoting changes in attitudes and understanding of conflict resolution among child witnesses of family violence. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 18(4), 356-366. doi: 10.1037/h0079969<br />
  17. 17. References Cont’d<br />Kitzmann, K. M., Gaylord, N. K., Holt, A. R., & Kenny, E. D. (2003). Child Witnesses to Domestic Violence: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 339-352. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.71.2.339<br />Osofsky, J. D. (2003). Prevalence of Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment: Implications for Prevention and Intervention. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6(3), 161-70. doi: 10.1023/A:1024958332093<br />Prinz, R. J. & Feerick, M. M. (2003). Next Steps in Research on Children Exposed to Domestic Violence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6(3), 215-9. doi: 10.1023/A:1024966501143<br />Szu-Yu, C. & Scannapieco, M. (2006). Early Childhood Maltreatment: Substantiation related to Family Risk and Intervention Factors. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 23(3), 343-355. doi: 10.1007/s10560-006-0054-9<br />Webster-Stratton, C. & Taylor, T. (2001). Nipping Early Risk Factors in the Bud: Preventing Substance Abuse, Delinquency, and Violence in Adolescence Through Interventions Targeted at Young Children (0-8 Years). Prevention Science, 2(3), 165-92. Retrieved from<br />Wolfe, D. A., Crooks, C. V., Lee, V., McIntyre-Smith, A., & Jaffe, P. G. (2003). The Effects of Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence: A Meta-Analysis and Critique. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6(3), 171-87. doi: 10.1023/A:1024910416164<br />Ziegler, R. G. & Weidner, D. A. (2006). Assessment and Intervention with Parents to Stabilize Children Who Have Witnessed Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 21(3), 209-219. doi: 10.1007/s10896-006-9016-4<br />