CreationIn the beginning God created the heavens andthe earth. Now the earth was formless andempty, darkness was over the surface of thedeep, and the Spirit of God was hovering overthe waters.. (Genesis 1:1)
GardenRelationship - “walkingwith God in the cool of the day”
Now the serpent was more crafty than any other wild animal that the Lord God had made. He said to the woman, ‘DidGod say, “You shall not eat from any tree in the garden”?’ 2The woman said to the serpent, ‘We may eat of the fruit ofthe trees in the garden; 3but God said, “You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the garden, norshall you touch it, or you shall die.” ’ 4But the serpent said to the woman, ‘You will not die; 5for God knows that whenyou eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God,* knowing good and evil.’ 6So when the woman saw thatthe tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make onewise, she took of its fruit and ate; and she also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate. 7Then theeyes of both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and madeloincloths for themselves.8 They heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden at the time of the evening breeze, and the man and hiswife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God among the trees of the garden. 9But the Lord God called to theman, and said to him, ‘Where are you?’ 10He said, ‘I heard the sound of you in the garden, and I was afraid, because Iwas naked; and I hid myself.’ 11He said, ‘Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which Icommanded you not to eat?’ 12The man said, ‘The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me fruit from thetree, and I ate.’ 13Then the Lord God said to the woman, ‘What is this that you have done?’ The woman said, ‘Theserpent tricked me, and I ate.’ 14The Lord God said to the serpent,‘Because you have done this, cursed are you among all animals and among all wild creatures;upon your belly you shall go, and dust you shall eat all the days of your life.15 I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers;he will strike your head, and you will strike his heel.’20 The man named his wife Eve,* because she was the mother of all who live. 21And the Lord God made garments ofskins for the man* and for his wife, and clothed them.22 Then the Lord God said, ‘See, the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil; and now, he might reachout his hand and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever’— 23therefore the Lord God sent him forthfrom the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which he was taken. 24He drove out the man; and at the east of thegarden of Eden he placed the cherubim, and a sword flaming and turning to guard the way to the tree of life.
CreationCrisis“be as gods” - judging good (us) vs. evil(them), life vs. death
Now the man knew his wife Eve, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, ‘I have produced* a man with the help of theLord.’ 2Next she bore his brother Abel. Now Abel was a keeper of sheep, and Cain a tiller of the ground. 3In the course oftime Cain brought to the Lord an offering of the fruit of the ground, 4and Abel for his part brought of the firstlings of hisflock, their fat portions. And the Lord had regard for Abel and his offering, 5but for Cain and his offering he had noregard. So Cain was very angry, and his countenance fell. 6The Lord said to Cain, ‘Why are you angry, and why has yourcountenance fallen? 7If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin is lurking at the door; itsdesire is for you, but you must master it.’8 Cain said to his brother Abel, ‘Let us go out to the field.’* And when they were in the field, Cain rose up against hisbrother Abel and killed him. 9Then the Lord said to Cain, ‘Where is your brother Abel?’ He said, ‘I do not know; am I mybrother’s keeper?’ 10And the Lord said, ‘What have you done? Listen; your brother’s blood is crying out to me from theground! 11And now you are cursed from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood fromyour hand. 12When you till the ground, it will no longer yield to you its strength; you will be a fugitive and a wanderer onthe earth.’ 13Cain said to the Lord, ‘My punishment is greater than I can bear! 14Today you have driven me away from thesoil, and I shall be hidden from your face; I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth, and anyone who meets memay kill me.’ 15Then the Lord said to him, ‘Not so!* Whoever kills Cain will suffer a sevenfold vengeance.’ And the Lord puta mark on Cain, so that no one who came upon him would kill him. 16Then Cain went away from the presence of theLord, and settled in the land of Nod,* east of Eden.17 Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bore Enoch; and he built a city, and named it Enoch after his son Enoch.18 To Enoch was born Irad; and Irad was the father of Mehujael, and Mehujael the father of Methushael, and Methushaelthe father of Lamech. 19Lamech took two wives; the name of one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. 20Adah boreJabal; he was the ancestor of those who live in tents and have livestock. 21His brother’s name was Jubal; he was theancestor of all those who play the lyre and pipe. 22Zillah bore Tubal-cain, who made all kinds of bronze and iron tools.The sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah.23 Lamech said to his wives:‘Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; you wives of Lamech, listen to what I say:I have killed a man for wounding me, a young man for striking me.24 If Cain is avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy-sevenfold.’
CreationCrisisThe LORD saw how great mans wickedness on theearth had become, and that every inclination of thethoughts of his heart was only evil all the time. TheLORD was grieved that he had made man on theearth, and his heart was filled with pain. (Genesis 6:5-6)
6When people began to multiply on the face of the ground, and daughters were born to them, 2the sons of God sawthat they were fair; and they took wives for themselves of all that they chose. 3Then the Lord said, ‘My spirit shallnot abide* in mortals for ever, for they are flesh; their days shall be one hundred and twenty years.’ 4The Nephilimwere on the earth in those days—and also afterwards—when the sons of God went in to the daughters of humans,who bore children to them. These were the heroes that were of old, warriors of renown.5 The Lord saw that the wickedness of humankind was great in the earth, and that every inclination of the thoughtsof their hearts was only evil continually. 6And the Lord was sorry that he had made humankind on the earth, and itgrieved him to his heart. 7So the Lord said, ‘I will blot out from the earth the human beings I have created—peopletogether with animals and creeping things and birds of the air, for I am sorry that I have made them.’ 8But Noahfound favour in the sight of the Lord.9 These are the descendants of Noah. Noah was a righteous man, blameless in his generation; Noah walked withGod. 10And Noah had three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.11 Now the earth was corrupt in God’s sight, and the earth was filled with violence. 12And God saw that the earth wascorrupt; for all flesh had corrupted its ways upon the earth. 13And God said to Noah, ‘I have determined to make anend of all flesh, for the earth is filled with violence because of them; now I am going to destroy them along with theearth. 14Make yourself an ark of cypress* wood; make rooms in the ark, and cover it inside and out with pitch. 15This ishow you are to make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its width fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits.16 Make a roof* for the ark, and finish it to a cubit above; and put the door of the ark in its side; make it with lower,second, and third decks. 17For my part, I am going to bring a flood of waters on the earth, to destroy from underheaven all flesh in which is the breath of life; everything that is on the earth shall die. 18But I will establish mycovenant with you; and you shall come into the ark, you, your sons, your wife, and your sons’ wives with you. 19Andof every living thing, of all flesh, you shall bring two of every kind into the ark, to keep them alive with you; theyshall be male and female. 20Of the birds according to their kinds, and of the animals according to their kinds, of everycreeping thing of the ground according to its kind, two of every kind shall come in to you, to keep them alive. 21Alsotake with you every kind of food that is eaten, and store it up; and it shall serve as food for you and for them.’ 22Noahdid this; he did all that God commanded him.
8:13 In the six hundred and first year, in the first month, on the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from theearth; and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and saw that the face of the ground was drying. 14In the secondmonth, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dry. 15Then God said to Noah, 16‘Go out of the ark, you and yourwife, and your sons and your sons’ wives with you. 17Bring out with you every living thing that is with you of all flesh—birds andanimals and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth—so that they may abound on the earth, and be fruitful and multiplyon the earth.’ 18So Noah went out with his sons and his wife and his sons’ wives. 19And every animal, every creeping thing, andevery bird, everything that moves on the earth, went out of the ark by families.20 Then Noah built an altar to the Lord, and took of every clean animal and of every clean bird, and offered burnt-offerings onthe altar. 21And when the Lord smelt the pleasing odour, the Lord said in his heart, ‘I will never again curse the ground becauseof humankind, for the inclination of the human heart is evil from youth; nor will I ever again destroy every living creature as Ihave done.22 As long as the earth endures, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat,summer and winter, day and night, shall not cease.’God blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth. 2The fear and dread of you shallrest on every animal of the earth, and on every bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on all the fish ofthe sea; into your hand they are delivered. 3Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you; and just as I gave you thegreen plants, I give you everything. 4Only, you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood. 5For your own lifeblood I willsurely require a reckoning: from every animal I will require it and from human beings, each one for the blood of another, I willrequire a reckoning for human life.6 Whoever sheds the blood of a human, by a human shall that person’s blood be shed;for in his own image God made humankind.7 And you, be fruitful and multiply, abound on the earth and multiply in it.’8 Then God said to Noah and to his sons with him, 9‘As for me, I am establishing my covenant with you and your descendantsafter you, 10and with every living creature that is with you, the birds, the domestic animals, and every animal of the earth withyou, as many as came out of the ark.* 11I establish my covenant with you, that never again shall all flesh be cut off by thewaters of a flood, and never again shall there be a flood to destroy the earth.’ 12God said, ‘This is the sign of the covenant that Imake between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all future generations: 13I have set my bow in theclouds, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. 14When I bring clouds over the earth and the bow isseen in the clouds, 15I will remember my covenant that is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and thewaters shall never again become a flood to destroy all flesh. 16When the bow is in the clouds, I will see it and remember theeverlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is on the earth.’ 17God said to Noah, ‘This is the signof the covenant that I have established between me and all flesh that is on the earth.’
CreationCrisis Garden - hunter/gatherers Field - herders & crop farmers River valley - towns & cities Tower - walled cities/ civilizations
Creation, CrisisCallingThe LORD had said to Abram, "Leave your country, yourpeople and your fathers household and go to the land I willshow you."I will make you into a great nation/ and I will bless you;I will make your name great,/ and you will be a blessing.I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you Iwill curse;and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you."So Abram left, as the LORD had told him… (Genesis 12:1-6)
CreationCrisisCalling Blessed to be a blessing Rejoining God’s story of creation, being saved from the crisis.
50:15 Realizing that their father was dead, Joseph’s brothers said, ‘What ifJoseph still bears a grudge against us and pays us back in full for all thewrong that we did to him?’ 16So they approached* Joseph, saying, ‘Yourfather gave this instruction before he died, 17“Say to Joseph: I beg you,forgive the crime of your brothers and the wrong they did in harming you.”Now therefore please forgive the crime of the servants of the God of yourfather.’ Joseph wept when they spoke to him. 18Then his brothers also wept,*fell down before him, and said, ‘We are here as your slaves.’ 19But Josephsaid to them, ‘Do not be afraid! Am I in the place of God? 20Even though youintended to do harm to me, God intended it for good, in order to preserve anumerous people, as he is doing today. 21So have no fear; I myself willprovide for you and your little ones.’ In this way he reassured them,speaking kindly to them.
Captivity Revolutionary insight: God is on the side of the slaves.
These are the names of the Captivitysons of Israel who came toEgypt with Jacob, each with hishousehold: 2Reuben, Simeon,Levi, and Judah, 3Issachar,Zebulun, and Benjamin, 4Danand Naphtali, Gad and Asher.5 The total number of peopleborn to Jacob was seventy.Joseph was already in Egypt.6 Then Joseph died, and all hisbrothers, and that wholegeneration. 7But the Israeliteswere fruitful and prolific; theymultiplied and grew exceedinglystrong, so that the land wasfilled with them. 20
8 Now a new king arose over Egypt, who did not know Joseph. 9He said to his people,‘Look, the Israelite people are more numerous and more powerful than we. 10Come,let us deal shrewdly with them, or they will increase and, in the event of war, join ourenemies and fight against us and escape from the land.’ 11Therefore they settaskmasters over them to oppress them with forced labour. They built supply cities,Pithom and Rameses, for Pharaoh. 12But the more they were oppressed, the morethey multiplied and spread, so that the Egyptians came to dread the Israelites. 13TheEgyptians became ruthless in imposing tasks on the Israelites, 14and made their livesbitter with hard service in mortar and brick and in every kind of field labour. Theywere ruthless in all the tasks that they imposed on them.15 The king of Egypt said to the Hebrew midwives, one of whom was namedShiphrah and the other Puah, 16‘When you act as midwives to the Hebrew women, andsee them on the birthstool, if it is a boy, kill him; but if it is a girl, she shall live.’ 17Butthe midwives feared God; they did not do as the king of Egypt commanded them, butthey let the boys live. 18So the king of Egypt summoned the midwives and said tothem, ‘Why have you done this, and allowed the boys to live?’ 19The midwives said toPharaoh, ‘Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women; for they arevigorous and give birth before the midwife comes to them.’ 20So God dealt well withthe midwives; and the people multiplied and became very strong. 21And because themidwives feared God, he gave them families. 22Then Pharaoh commanded all hispeople, ‘Every boy that is born to the Hebrews* you shall throw into the Nile, but youshall let every girl live.’
Moses ...Midwives/Mother/SisterArk ...DaughterDual identityComing of AgeDual RejectionExpulsionThird culture
Moses was keeping the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian;he led his flock beyond the wilderness, and came to Horeb, the mountain ofGod. 2There the angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of abush; he looked, and the bush was blazing, yet it was not consumed. 3ThenMoses said, ‘I must turn aside and look at this great sight, and see why thebush is not burned up.’ 4When the Lord saw that he had turned aside to see,God called to him out of the bush, ‘Moses, Moses!’ And he said, ‘Here I am.’5 Then he said, ‘Come no closer! Remove the sandals from your feet, for theplace on which you are standing is holy ground.’ 6He said further, ‘I am theGod of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God ofJacob.’ And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God.7 Then the Lord said, ‘I have observed the misery of my people who are inEgypt; I have heard their cry on account of their taskmasters. Indeed, I knowtheir sufferings, 8and I have come down to deliver them from the Egyptians,and to bring them up out of that land to a good and broad land, a landflowing with milk and honey, to the country of the Canaanites, the Hittites,the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites. 9The cry of theIsraelites has now come to me; I have also seen how the Egyptians oppressthem. 10So come, I will send you to Pharaoh to bring my people, the Israelites,out of Egypt.’ 11But Moses said to God, ‘Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh,and bring the Israelites out of Egypt?’ 12He said, ‘I will be with you; and thisshall be the sign for you that it is I who sent you: when you have brought thepeople out of Egypt, you shall worship God on this mountain.’
13 But Moses said to God, ‘If I come to the Israelites and say to them, “The Godof your ancestors has sent me to you”, and they ask me, “What is his name?”what shall I say to them?’ 14God said to Moses, ‘I am who I am.’* He said further,‘Thus you shall say to the Israelites, “I am has sent me to you.” ’ 15God also saidto Moses, ‘Thus you shall say to the Israelites, “The Lord, * the God of yourancestors, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sentme to you”: This is my name for ever, and this my title for all generations.16 Go and assemble the elders of Israel, and say to them, “The Lord, the God ofyour ancestors, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, has appeared tome, saying: I have given heed to you and to what has been done to you inEgypt. 17I declare that I will bring you up out of the misery of Egypt, to the landof the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and theJebusites, a land flowing with milk and honey.” 18They will listen to your voice;and you and the elders of Israel shall go to the king of Egypt and say to him,“The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us; let us now go a three days’journey into the wilderness, so that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God.” 19Iknow, however, that the king of Egypt will not let you go unless compelled by amighty hand.* 20So I will stretch out my hand and strike Egypt with all mywonders that I will perform in it; after that he will let you go. 21I will bring thispeople into such favour with the Egyptians that, when you go, you will not goempty-handed; 22each woman shall ask her neighbour and any woman living inthe neighbour’s house for jewellery of silver and of gold, and clothing, and youshall put them on your sons and on your daughters; and so you shall plunder theEgyptians.
CaptivityGetting slaves out of Egypt: 10plagues Salvation = Liberation
CaptivityGetting slaves out of Egypt: 10plagues Getting Egypt out of freed slaves: 10 commandments
Then God spoke all these words: I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land ofEgypt, out of the house of slavery; 3you shall have no other gods before* me.4 You shall not make for yourself an idol, whether in the form of anything that is in heavenabove, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. 5You shall notbow down to them or worship them; for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, punishingchildren for the iniquity of parents, to the third and the fourth generation of those who rejectme, 6but showing steadfast love to the thousandth generation * of those who love me and keepmy commandments.7 You shall not make wrongful use of the name of the Lord your God, for the Lord will notacquit anyone who misuses his name. 8 Remember the sabbath day, and keep it holy. 9For sixdays you shall labour and do all your work. 10But the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord yourGod; you shall not do any work—you, your son or your daughter, your male or female slave,your livestock, or the alien resident in your towns. 11For in six days the Lord made heaven andearth, the sea, and all that is in them, but rested the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessedthe sabbath day and consecrated it.12 Honour your father and your mother, so that your days may be long in the land that theLord your God is giving you.13 You shall not murder.*14 You shall not commit adultery.15 You shall not steal.16 You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour.17 You shall not covet your neighbour’s house; you shall not covet your neighbour’s wife, ormale or female slave, or ox, or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbour.
Deuteronomy 6Now this is the commandment—the statutes and the ordinances—that the Lord yourGod charged me to teach you to observe in the land that you are about to cross intoand occupy, 2so that you and your children and your children’s children may fear theLord your God all the days of your life, and keep all his decrees and hiscommandments that I am commanding you, so that your days may be long. 3Heartherefore, O Israel, and observe them diligently, so that it may go well with you, andso that you may multiply greatly in a land flowing with milk and honey, as the Lord,the God of your ancestors, has promised you.4 Hear, O Israel: The Lord is our God, the Lord alone.* 5You shall love the Lord yourGod with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might. 6Keep thesewords that I am commanding you today in your heart. 7Recite them to your childrenand talk about them when you are at home and when you are away, when you liedown and when you rise. 8Bind them as a sign on your hand, fix them as an emblem*on your forehead, 9and write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates.10 When the Lord your God has brought you into the land that he swore to yourancestors, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give you—a land with fine, largecities that you did not build, 11houses filled with all sorts of goods that you did not fill,hewn cisterns that you did not hew, vineyards and olive groves that you did not plant—and when you have eaten your fill, 12take care that you do not forget the Lord, whobrought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. 13The Lord your Godyou shall fear; him you shall serve, and by his name alone you shall swear.
Deuteronomy 15Every seventh year you shall grant a remission of debts. 2And this is the manner of the remission: everycreditor shall remit the claim that is held against a neighbour, not exacting it from a neighbour who is amember of the community, because the Lord’s remission has been proclaimed. 3From a foreigner you mayexact it, but you must remit your claim on whatever any member of your community owes you. 4There will,however, be no one in need among you, because the Lord is sure to bless you in the land that the Lord yourGod is giving you as a possession to occupy, 5if only you will obey the Lord your God by diligently observing thisentire commandment that I command you today. 6When the Lord your God has blessed you, as he promisedyou, you will lend to many nations, but you will not borrow; you will rule over many nations, but they will notrule over you.7 If there is among you anyone in need, a member of your community in any of your towns within the landthat the Lord your God is giving you, do not be hard-hearted or tight-fisted towards your needy neighbour. 8Youshould rather open your hand, willingly lending enough to meet the need, whatever it may be. 9Be careful thatyou do not entertain a mean thought, thinking, ‘The seventh year, the year of remission, is near’, and thereforeview your needy neighbour with hostility and give nothing; your neighbour might cry to the Lord against you,and you would incur guilt. 10Give liberally and be ungrudging when you do so, for on this account the Lord yourGod will bless you in all your work and in all that you undertake. 11Since there will never cease to be some inneed on the earth, I therefore command you, ‘Open your hand to the poor and needy neighbour in your land.’12 If a member of your community, whether a Hebrew man or a Hebrew woman, is sold * to you and works foryou for six years, in the seventh year you shall set that person free. 13And when you send a male slave* outfrom you a free person, you shall not send him out empty-handed. 14Provide liberally out of your flock, yourthreshing-floor, and your wine press, thus giving to him some of the bounty with which the Lord your God hasblessed you. 15Remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the Lord your God redeemed you; forthis reason I lay this command upon you today. 16But if he says to you, ‘I will not go out from you’, because heloves you and your household, since he is well off with you, 17then you shall take an awl and thrust it throughhis earlobe into the door, and he shall be your slave * for ever.You shall do the same with regard to your female slave. *18 Do not consider it a hardship when you send them out from you free persons, because for six years theyhave given you services worth the wages of hired labourers; and the Lord your God will bless you in all thatyou do.
Deuteronomy 20When you go out to war against your enemies, and see horses and chariots, an army larger than your own,you shall not be afraid of them; for the Lord your God is with you, who brought you up from the land of Egypt.2 Before you engage in battle, the priest shall come forward and speak to the troops, 3and shall say to them:‘Hear, O Israel! Today you are drawing near to do battle against your enemies. Do not lose heart, or be afraid,or panic, or be in dread of them; 4for it is the Lord your God who goes with you, to fight for you against yourenemies, to give you victory.’ 5Then the officials shall address the troops, saying, ‘Has anyone built a newhouse but not dedicated it? He should go back to his house, or he might die in the battle and another dedicateit. 6Has anyone planted a vineyard but not yet enjoyed its fruit? He should go back to his house, or he mightdie in the battle and another be first to enjoy its fruit. 7Has anyone become engaged to a woman but not yetmarried her? He should go back to his house, or he might die in the battle and another marry her.’ 8The officialsshall continue to address the troops, saying, ‘Is anyone afraid or disheartened? He should go back to hishouse, or he might cause the heart of his comrades to fail like his own.’ 9When the officials have finishedaddressing the troops, then the commanders shall take charge of them.10 When you draw near to a town to fight against it, offer it terms of peace. 11If it accepts your terms of peaceand surrenders to you, then all the people in it shall serve you in forced labour. 12If it does not submit to youpeacefully, but makes war against you, then you shall besiege it; 13and when the Lord your God gives it intoyour hand, you shall put all its males to the sword. 14You may, however, take as your booty the women, thechildren, livestock, and everything else in the town, all its spoil. You may enjoy the spoil of your enemies,which the Lord your God has given you. 15Thus you shall treat all the towns that are very far from you, whichare not towns of the nations here. 16But as for the towns of these peoples that the Lord your God is giving youas an inheritance, you must not let anything that breathes remain alive. 17You shall annihilate them—theHittites and the Amorites, the Canaanites and the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites—just as the Lordyour God has commanded, 18so that they may not teach you to do all the abhorrent things that they do for theirgods, and you thus sin against the Lord your God.19 If you besiege a town for a long time, making war against it in order to take it, you must not destroy itstrees by wielding an axe against them. Although you may take food from them, you must not cut them down.Are trees in the field human beings that they should come under siege from you? 20You may destroy only thetrees that you know do not produce food; you may cut them down for use in building siege-works against thetown that makes war with you, until it falls.
ConquestDeuteronomy 7: When the Lord yourGod brings you into the land that youare about to enter and occupy, and heclears away many nations before you—the Hittites, the Girgashites, theAmorites, the Canaanites, thePerizzites, the Hivites, and theJebusites, seven nations mightier andmore numerous than you— 2and whenthe Lord your God gives them over toyou and you defeat them, then youmust utterly destroy them. Make nocovenant with them and show them nomercy.
Conquest3 Do not intermarry with them, giving yourdaughters to their sons or taking theirdaughters for your sons, 4for that would turnaway your children from following me, toserve other gods. Then the anger of the Lordwould be kindled against you, and he woulddestroy you quickly. 5But this is how youmust deal with them: break down theiraltars, smash their pillars, hew down theirsacred poles,* and burn their idols with fire.6 For you are a people holy to the Lord yourGod; the Lord your God has chosen you outof all the peoples on earth to be his people,his treasured possession.
1 Samuel 15Samuel said to Saul, ‘The Lord sent me to anoint you king over hispeople Israel; now therefore listen to the words of the Lord. 2Thussays the Lord of hosts, “I will punish the Amalekites for what theydid in opposing the Israelites when they came up out of Egypt.3 Now go and attack Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have;do not spare them, but kill both man and woman, child and infant,ox and sheep, camel and donkey.” ’
1 Samuel 15Samuel said to Saul, ‘The Lord sent me to anoint you king over hispeople Israel; now therefore listen to the words of the Lord. 2Thussays the Lord of hosts, “I will punish the Amalekites for what theydid in opposing the Israelites when they came up out of Egypt.3 Now go and attack Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have;do not spare them, but kill both man and woman, child and infant,ox and sheep, camel and donkey.” ’ This text was used by Catholics in Protestant wars and Protestant in Catholic wars. It was used by the Puritans regarding Native Americans, and by the Hutus regarding the Tutsis. It is still being used today:“Journalist Jeffrey Goldberg, writing in the New York Times Op-Ed sectionSaturday, said that Netanyahu is not bluffing with regard to the possibility ofIsrael attacking Iran. "His preoccupation with the Iranian nuclear programseems sincere and deeply felt," Goldberg writes. "I recently asked one of hisadvisers to gauge for me the depth of Mr. Netanyahu’s anxiety about Iran.His answer: Think Amalek." (Arutz Sheva, 17 May 2009)
From 2nd Lesson, Child Evangelism Fellowship, Good News Club,present in 3200 US public schools in Fall 2012:"You are to go and completely destroy the Amalekites (AM-uh-leck-ites) –people, animals, every living thing. Nothing shall be left.""That was pretty clear, wasnt it?""The Amalekites had heard about Israels true and living God many yearsbefore, but they refused to believe in him. The Amalekites refused to believein God and God had promised punishment.""If you are asked to do something, how much of it do you need to do beforeyou can say, I did it!?""If only Saul had been willing to seek God for strength to obey!""How did King Saul only partly obey God when he attacked the Amalekites?(He did not completely destroy as God had commanded, he kept the kingand some of the animals alive.)"(from The Guardian, 30 May 2012)
Psalm 1371 By the rivers of Babylon— there we sat down and there we wept when we remembered Zion.2 On the willows* there we hung up our harps.3 For there our captors asked us for songs,and our tormentors asked for mirth, saying, ‘Sing us one of the songs of Zion!’4 How could we sing the Lord’s song in a foreign land?5 If I forget you, O Jerusalem, let my right hand wither!6 Let my tongue cling to the roof of my mouth, if I do not remember you,if I do not set Jerusalem above my highest joy.7 Remember, O Lord, against the Edomites the day of Jerusalem’s fall,how they said, ‘Tear it down! Tear it down! Down to its foundations!’8 O daughter Babylon, you devastator!* Happy shall they be who pay you back what you have done to us!9 Happy shall they be who take your little ones and dash them against the rock!
Joshua 7But the Israelites broke faith in regard to the devoted things: Achan son of Carmi son of Zabdi son ofZerah, of the tribe of Judah, took some of the devoted things; and the anger of the Lord burned againstthe Israelites.2 Joshua sent men from Jericho to Ai, which is near Beth-aven, east of Bethel, and said to them, ‘Go upand spy out the land.’ And the men went up and spied out Ai. 3Then they returned to Joshua and said tohim, ‘Not all the people need go up; about two or three thousand men should go up and attack Ai.Since they are so few, do not make the whole people toil up there.’ 4So about three thousand of thepeople went up there; and they fled before the men of Ai. 5The men of Ai killed about thirty-six of them,chasing them from outside the gate as far as Shebarim and killing them on the slope. The hearts of thepeople failed and turned to water.6 Then Joshua tore his clothes, and fell to the ground on his face before the ark of the Lord until theevening, he and the elders of Israel; and they put dust on their heads. 7Joshua said, ‘Ah, Lord God! Whyhave you brought this people across the Jordan at all, to hand us over to the Amorites so as to destroyus? Would that we had been content to settle beyond the Jordan! 8O Lord, what can I say, now thatIsrael has turned their backs to their enemies! 9The Canaanites and all the inhabitants of the land willhear of it, and surround us, and cut off our name from the earth. Then what will you do for your greatname?’10 The Lord said to Joshua, ‘Stand up! Why have you fallen upon your face? 11Israel has sinned; theyhave transgressed my covenant that I imposed on them. They have taken some of the devoted things;they have stolen, they have acted deceitfully, and they have put them among their own belongings.12 Therefore the Israelites are unable to stand before their enemies; they turn their backs to theirenemies, because they have become a thing devoted for destruction themselves. I will be with you nomore, unless you destroy the devoted things from among you. 13Proceed to sanctify the people, and say,“Sanctify yourselves for tomorrow; for thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, ‘There are devoted thingsamong you, O Israel; you will be unable to stand before your enemies until you take away the devotedthings from among you.’ 14In the morning therefore you shall come forward tribe by tribe. The tribe thatthe Lord takes shall come near by clans, the clan that the Lord takes shall come near by households,and the household that the Lord takes shall come near one by one. 15And the one who is taken as havingthe devoted things shall be burned with fire, together with all that he has, for having transgressed thecovenant of the Lord, and for having done an outrageous thing in Israel.” ’
16 So Joshua rose early in the morning, and brought Israel near tribe by tribe, and the tribe of Judahwas taken. 17He brought near the clans of Judah, and the clan of the Zerahites was taken; and hebrought near the clan of the Zerahites, family by family, * and Zabdi was taken. 18And he brought near hishousehold one by one, and Achan son of Carmi son of Zabdi son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, wastaken. 19Then Joshua said to Achan, ‘My son, give glory to the Lord God of Israel and make confession tohim. Tell me now what you have done; do not hide it from me.’ 20And Achan answered Joshua, ‘It is true;I am the one who sinned against the Lord God of Israel. This is what I did: 21when I saw among the spoila beautiful mantle from Shinar, and two hundred shekels of silver, and a bar of gold weighing fiftyshekels, then I coveted them and took them. They now lie hidden in the ground inside my tent, with thesilver underneath.’22 So Joshua sent messengers, and they ran to the tent; and there it was, hidden in his tent with thesilver underneath. 23They took them out of the tent and brought them to Joshua and all the Israelites;and they spread them out before the Lord. 24Then Joshua and all Israel with him took Achan son ofZerah, with the silver, the mantle, and the bar of gold, with his sons and daughters, with his oxen,donkeys, and sheep, and his tent and all that he had; and they brought them up to the Valley of Achor.25 Joshua said, ‘Why did you bring trouble on us? The Lord is bringing trouble on you today.’ And all Israelstoned him to death; they burned them with fire, cast stones on them, 26and raised over him a greatheap of stones that remains to this day. Then the Lord turned from his burning anger. Therefore thatplace to this day is called the Valley of Achor.*
Judges 21:15The people had compassion on Benjamin because the Lord had made a breachin the tribes of Israel. 16So the elders of the congregation said, ‘What shall we dofor wives for those who are left, since there are no women left in Benjamin?’17 And they said, ‘There must be heirs for the survivors of Benjamin, in order thata tribe may not be blotted out from Israel. 18Yet we cannot give any of ourdaughters to them as wives.’ For the Israelites had sworn, ‘Cursed be anyonewho gives a wife to Benjamin.’ 19So they said, ‘Look, the yearly festival of theLord is taking place at Shiloh, which is north of Bethel, on the east of thehighway that goes up from Bethel to Shechem, and south of Lebonah.’ 20Andthey instructed the Benjaminites, saying, ‘Go and lie in wait in the vineyards,21 and watch; when the young women of Shiloh come out to dance in the dances,then come out of the vineyards and each of you carry off a wife for himself fromthe young women of Shiloh, and go to the land of Benjamin. 22Then if theirfathers or their brothers come to complain to us, we will say to them, “Begenerous and allow us to have them; because we did not capture in battle awife for each man. But neither did you incur guilt by giving your daughters tothem.” ’ 23The Benjaminites did so; they took wives for each of them from thedancers whom they abducted. Then they went and returned to their territory,and rebuilt the towns, and lived in them. 24So the Israelites departed from thereat that time by tribes and families, and they went out from there to their ownterritories.25 In those days there was no king in Israel; all the people did what was right intheir own eyes.
Ruth 1In the days when the judges ruled, there was a famine in the land, and a certain man ofBethlehem in Judah went to live in the country of Moab, he and his wife and two sons.2 The name of the man was Elimelech and the name of his wife Naomi, and the names ofhis two sons were Mahlon and Chilion; they were Ephrathites from Bethlehem in Judah.They went into the country of Moab and remained there. 3But Elimelech, the husband ofNaomi, died, and she was left with her two sons. 4These took Moabite wives; the name ofone was Orpah and the name of the other Ruth. When they had lived there for about tenyears, 5both Mahlon and Chilion also died, so that the woman was left without her twosons or her husband.6 Then she started to return with her daughters-in-law from the country of Moab, for shehad heard in the country of Moab that the Lord had had consideration for his people andgiven them food. 7So she set out from the place where she had been living, she and hertwo daughters-in-law, and they went on their way to go back to the land of Judah. 8ButNaomi said to her two daughters-in-law, ‘Go back each of you to your mother’s house.May the Lord deal kindly with you, as you have dealt with the dead and with me. 9TheLord grant that you may find security, each of you in the house of your husband.’ Thenshe kissed them, and they wept aloud. 10They said to her, ‘No, we will return with you toyour people.’ 11But Naomi said, ‘Turn back, my daughters, why will you go with me? Do Istill have sons in my womb that they may become your husbands? 12Turn back, mydaughters, go your way, for I am too old to have a husband. Even if I thought there washope for me, even if I should have a husband tonight and bear sons, 13would you thenwait until they were grown? Would you then refrain from marrying? No, my daughters, ithas been far more bitter for me than for you, because the hand of the Lord has turnedagainst me.’ 14Then they wept aloud again. Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, but Ruthclung to her.
15 So she said, ‘See, your sister-in-law has gone back to her people and to her gods; return after your sister-in-law.’ 16But Ruth said,‘Do not press me to leave you or to turn back from following you!Where you go, I will go; where you lodge, I will lodge;your people shall be my people, and your God my God. 17 Where you die, I will die— there will I be buried.May the Lord do thus and so to me, and more as well,if even death parts me from you!’ 18 When Naomi saw that she was determined to go with her, she said no more to her.
8 Then Boaz said to Ruth, ‘Now listen, my daughter, do not go to glean in another field or leave this one, but keep close to my young women. 9Keep your eyes on the field that is being reaped, and follow behind them. I have ordered the young men not to bother you. If you get thirsty, go to the vessels and drink from what the young men have drawn.’ 10 Then she fell prostrate, with her face to the ground, and said to him, ‘Why have I found favour in your sight, that you should take notice of me, when I am a foreigner?’ 11But Boaz answered her, ‘All that you have done for your mother-in-law since the death of your husband has been fully told me, and how you left your father and mother and your native land and came to a people that you did not know before. 12May the Lord reward you for your deeds, and may you have a full reward from the Lord, the God of Israel, under whose wings you have come for refuge!’ 13Then she said, ‘May I continue to find favour in your sight, my lord, for you have comforted me and spoken kindly to your servant, even though I am not one of your servants.’... Naomi her mother-in-law said to her, ‘My daughter, I need to seek some security for you, so that it may be well with you. 2Now here is our kinsman Boaz, with whose young women you have been working. See, he is winnowing barley tonight at the threshing-floor. 3Now wash and anoint yourself, and put on your best clothes and go down to the threshing-floor; but do not make yourself known to the man until he has finished eating and drinking. 4When he lies down, observe the place where he lies; then, go and uncover his feet and lie down; and he will tell you what to do.’ 5She said to her, ‘All that you tell me I will do.’
13 So Boaz took Ruth and she became his wife. When they came together, the Lord made her conceive, and she bore a son. 14Then the women said to Naomi, ‘Blessed be the Lord, who has not left you this day without next-of-kin;* and may his name be renowned in Israel! 15He shall be to you a restorer of life and a nourisher of your old age; for your daughter-in-law who loves you, who is more to you than seven sons, has borne him.’ 16Then Naomi took the child and laid him in her bosom, and became his nurse. 17The women of the neighbourhood gave him a name, saying, ‘A son has been born to Naomi.’ They named him Obed; he became the father of Jesse, the father of David.18 Now these are the descendants of Perez: Perez became the father of Hezron, 19Hezron of Ram, Ram of Amminadab, 20 Amminadab of Nahshon, Nahshon of Salmon, 21Salmon of Boaz, Boaz of Obed, 22Obed of Jesse, and Jesse of David.
Creation, Crisis, Calling, Captivity, ConquestConversationAll Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking,correcting and training in righteousness, so that the man of Godmay be thoroughly equipped for every good work. (2 Timothy 3:16)For everything that was written in the past was written to teach us,so that through endurance and the encouragement of the Scriptureswe might have hope. (Romans 15:4-5)
A theory of sacrifice1. Mimetic (imitative) desire Desire for fruit To be as gods Judging good (us) and evil (them) Judging who lives and who dies
1. Mimetic (imitative) desire2. Rivalry Adam vs. Eve Cain vs. Abel Sarah vs. Hagar Jacob vs. Esau Joseph vs. brothers
1. Mimetic (imitative) desire2. Rivalry3. Expulsion or Murder Eve blamed, serpent blamed Couple expelled Abel murdered Hagar expelled Jacob escapes Joseph expelled
The scapegoat - Focuses anxiety outward - Allows imitation (bullying) - Re-establishes unity - Violent purgation - Mutual Reassurance - Unity/Euphoria - Sacrifice becomes “sacred” - Sacred Violence repeated - Made routine, ritualized - Augmented by prohibitions & other rituals - Supervised by priestly class
1. Mimetic (imitative) desire2. Rivalry3. Expulsion or Murder4. Ritualized human sacrifice Abraham and Isaac
1. Mimetic (imitative) desire2. Rivalry3. Expulsion or Murder4. Ritualized human sacrifice5. Sacrifice shifts to animals Isaac and Ram
1. Mimetic (imitative) desire2. Rivalry3. Expulsion or Murder4. Ritualized human sacrifice5. Sacrifice shifts to animals6. Sacrifice transcended byreconciliation, mercy, compassion Jacob & Esau
1. Mimetic (imitative) desire2. Rivalry3. Expulsion or Murder4. Ritualized human sacrifice5. Sacrifice shifts to animals6. Sacrifice transcended byreconciliation, mercy, compassion7. Mimetic reconciliation Joseph imitates God
Hear the word of the Lord,Isaiah 1:10 you rulers of Sodom!Listen to the teaching of our God, you people of Gomorrah! 11 What to me is the multitude of your sacrifices? they have become a burden to me, says the Lord; I am weary of bearing them. I have had enough of burnt-offerings of 15 When you stretch out your hands,rams I will hide my eyes from you; and the fat of fed beasts; even though you make many prayers,I do not delight in the blood of bulls, I will not listen; or of lambs, or of goats. your hands are full of blood. 16 Wash yourselves; make yourselves clean;12 When you come to appear before me,* remove the evil of your doings who asked this from your hand? from before my eyes; Trample my courts no more; cease to do evil, 13 bringing offerings is futile; 17 learn to do good; incense is an abomination to me. seek justice,New moon and sabbath and calling of rescue the oppressed,convocation— defend the orphan, I cannot endure solemn assemblies with plead for the widow. iniquity. 14 Your new moons and your appointed festivals my soul hates;
Jer. 7:21-24 21 Thus says the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel: Add your burnt-offerings to your sacrifices, and eat the flesh. 22 For on the day that I brought your ancestors out of the land of Egypt, I did not speak to them or command them concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices. 23But this command I gave them, ‘Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and you shall be my people; and walk only in the way that I command you, so that it may be well with you.’ 24Yet they did not obey or incline their ear, but, in the stubbornness of their evil will, they walked in their own counsels, and looked backwards rather than forwards. 25 From the day that your ancestors came out of the land of Egypt until this day, I have persistently sent all my servants the prophets to them, day after day; 26yet they did not listen to me, or pay attention, but they stiffened their necks. They did worse than their ancestors did.
Hosea 6‘Come, let us return to the Lord; for it is he who has torn, and he will heal us; he has struck down, and he will bind us up. 2 After two days he will revive us; on the third day he will raise us up, that we may live before him. 3 Let us know, let us press on to know the Lord; his appearing is as sure as the dawn;he will come to us like the showers, like the spring rains that water the earth.’4 What shall I do with you, O Ephraim? What shall I do with you, O Judah?Your love is like a morning cloud, like the dew that goes away early. 5 Therefore I have hewn them by the prophets, I have killed them by the words of my mouth, and my* judgement goes forth as the light. 6 For I desire steadfast love and not sacrifice, the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings.
Micah 6:6-86 ‘With what shall I come before the Lord, and bow myself before God on high?Shall I come before him with burnt-offerings, with calves a year old? 7 Will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, with tens of thousands of rivers of oil?Shall I give my firstborn for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?’ 8 He has told you, O mortal, what is good; and what does the Lord require of youbut to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God?
Psalm 50:12-13 7 ‘Hear, O my people, and I will speak, O Israel, I will testify against you. I am God, your God. 8 Not for your sacrifices do I rebuke you; your burnt-offerings are continually before me. 9 I will not accept a bull from your house, or goats from your folds. 10 For every wild animal of the forest is mine, the cattle on a thousand hills. 11 I know all the birds of the air,* and all that moves in the field is mine. 12 ‘If I were hungry, I would not tell you, for the world and all that is in it is mine. 13 Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats? 14 Offer to God a sacrifice of thanksgiving,* and pay your vows to the Most High. 15 Call on me in the day of trouble; I will deliver you, and you shall glorify me.’ Psalm 40:6-86 Sacrifice and offering you do not desire, but you have given me an open ear.*Burnt-offering and sin-offering you have not required. 7 Then I said, ‘Here I am; in the scroll of the book it is written of me.* 8 I delight to do your will, O my God; your law is within my heart.’ Proverbs 21:3 To do righteousness and justice is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice. .
Creation, Crisis, Calling, Captivity, ConquestConversation Priests, kings, prophets ...Poets - the felt experience of the peopleOrientation (simplicity) - Ps 1Disorientation (complexity, perplexity) - Ps 88,LamentationReorientation (harmony) - Ps 42, 23, 98, Song ofSongs
Psalm 11 Happy are those who do not follow the advice of the wicked,or take the path that sinners tread, or sit in the seat of scoffers; 2 but their delight is in the law of the Lord, and on his law they meditate day and night. 3 They are like trees planted by streams of water,which yield their fruit in its season, and their leaves do not wither.In all that they do, they prosper. 4 The wicked are not so, but are like chaff that the wind drives away. 5 Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgement, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous; 6 for the Lord watches over the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked will perish.
Psalm 88 You have caused my companions to shun me; 8A Song. A Psalm of the Korahites. To the leader: you have made me a thing of horror to them.according to Mahalath Leannoth. A Maskil of I am shut in so that I cannot escape; Heman the Ezrahite. 9 my eye grows dim through sorrow. Every day I call on you, O Lord; I spread out my hands to you. 1 O Lord, God of my salvation, 10 Do you work wonders for the dead? when, at night, I cry out in your presence, Do the shades rise up to praise you?2 let my prayer come before you; Selah incline your ear to my cry. 11 Is your steadfast love declared in the grave, or your faithfulness in Abaddon? 12 Are your wonders known in the darkness,3 For my soul is full of troubles, or your saving help in the land of forgetfulness? and my life draws near to Sheol. 4 I am counted among those who go down to the 13 But I, O Lord, cry out to you;Pit; in the morning my prayer comes before you. I am like those who have no help, 14 O Lord, why do you cast me off?5 like those forsaken among the dead, Why do you hide your face from me? like the slain that lie in the grave, 15 Wretched and close to death from my youth up,like those whom you remember no more, I suffer your terrors; I am desperate.* for they are cut off from your hand. 16 Your wrath has swept over me;6 You have put me in the depths of the Pit, your dread assaults destroy me. 17 They surround me like a flood all day long; in the regions dark and deep. from all sides they close in on me. 7 Your wrath lies heavy upon me, 18 You have caused friend and neighbour to shun me; and you overwhelm me with all your waves. my companions are in darkness. Selah
Psalm 981 O sing to the Lord a new song, for he has done marvellous things.His right hand and his holy arm have gained him victory. 2 The Lord has made known his victory; he has revealed his vindication in the sight of the nations. 3 He has remembered his steadfast love and faithfulness to the house of Israel.All the ends of the earth have seen the victory of our God. 4 Make a joyful noise to the Lord, all the earth; break forth into joyous song and sing praises. 5 Sing praises to the Lord with the lyre, with the lyre and the sound of melody. 6 With trumpets and the sound of the horn make a joyful noise before the King, the Lord. 7 Let the sea roar, and all that fills it; the world and those who live in it. 8 Let the floods clap their hands; let the hills sing together for joy 9 at the presence of the Lord, for he is coming to judge the earth.He will judge the world with righteousness, and the peoples with equity.
Creation, Crisis, Calling, Captivity, ConquestConversation Priests, kings, prophets ...Poets - the felt experience of the peopleSages - the intellectual life of the peopleOrientation - ProverbsDisorientation - EcclesiastesReorientation - Job