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National libraries and identity in 
      the Semantic Web
            Gordon Dunsire
       BNE, Madrid, 14 Dec 2011
Overview
 Rapid evolution of digital environment
 Linked data and the Semantic Web
 Identifiers
 Role of national libraries and bibliographic 
 agencies
A Uniform Resource Name (URN) is a standard, 
persistent and unique identifier for digital
resources on the Internet. URNs and URLs are forms of 
Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) … To link to the 
resource from the URN, a resolver service is required.
‐ Guidelines for National Bibliographies in the Electronic Age (IFLA, 2009)



                URI
                                            Semantic Web

                   linked data

               RDF (resource description framework)
RDF graphs and linked data
                 Name
                           “Name2”
       Person2
                           “Title1”
       Author      Title                      Place3
                                    Subject
       Resource1
                           Publication

Resource1 has author Person2 
                                Person2 has name “Name2”
Resource1 has title ”Title1”
                             Person2 is author of Resource1 
RDF graphs and identifiers
                  “Name2”
   Person2
                   “Title1”
                                  Place3
   Resource1


                    URIs matched by computer
URI1 URI2 URI3
                      to create linked chains
                 Unsafe to match strings by computer
   “Literal”
                  (ambiguity of language) = no chain
Things to identify with URIs
 Cultural objects
   Including books, images, sound recordings, etc.
 Things associated with cultural objects
   People, organizations, families
   Places, times, events
   Subject topics
   Other cultural objects!
Conversely, in a graph‐based ecosystem an organization 
can supply individual statements about a resource, and 
all statements provided about a particular uniquely 
identified resource can be aggregated into a global 
graph. For example, one library could contribute their 
country's national bibliography number for a resource, 
while another might supply a translated title.
‐ W3C Library Linked Data Incubator Group Final Report  (2011)


Agencies responsible for the creation of catalog records 
and other metadata, such as national bibliographies, are 
the logical organizations to take a leading role in creating 
URIs for their described resources.
‐ W3C Library Linked Data Incubator Group Final Report (2011)
Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch.
                         http://lod‐cloud.net/

                                 National bibliographies/catalogues
                                                                      UK
                                                                  France
                                                                Hungary
                                                              … Germany
                                                                       …
National resource identity
 National bibliographies and catalogues try to 
 cover all significant cultural resources of a nation
 Multiple copies of catalogue records exist
   Within a country and elsewhere
 Each copy can be used to create linked data
   Thus creating a different URI for each copy
 Multiple URIs for the same thing
   = identity crisis!
   Costly to create/maintain/resolve
 Single, national URIs for global collaborative use
Many Linked Data vocabularies are essentially cultural 
reference works, giving authoritative information about 
people, places, events, and concepts within regional, 
national, or international contexts. As such, 
preservation of Linked Data vocabularies is a natural, 
and essential, extension of the activity of memory 
institutions.
‐ W3C Library Linked Data Incubator Group Final Report (2011)
Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch.
                         http://lod‐cloud.net/

                                                National authority files
                                                                 Japan
                                                                France
                                                              Norway
                                                             Germany
                                                                      …
National authority identity
 National authority files try to cover all 
 significant persons, places, topics, etc. 
 associated with cultural resources of a nation
   Persons, places, some topics, etc. tend also to be 
   associated with the nation
 Different national rules result in different 
 names, labels, headings, etc.
   But URIs can be the same
   Or identified as referring to the same entity
Virtual International Authority File
VIAF                http://viaf.org/

Identifying Cervantes: Spain (or Canada, Germany, etc.?)
Role of national agencies (1)
 Create, publish, maintain, preserve identifiers 
 (URIs) for national cultural resources, to:
   Avoid duplication
   Encourage collaborative description
      By professionals, the crowd, machines
   Continue existing roles in a global context
      Promotion and preservation of national heritage
Role of national agencies (2)
 Create, publish, maintain, preserve identifiers 
 and labels for people, places, events, etc. 
 associated with the nation, to:
   Provide national and cultural authority and 
   visibility
   Encourage linked data across domains and 
   communities
      Also interested in people, places, events, etc.
   Continue existing roles in a global context
Thank you
 gordon@gordondunsire.com
 W3C Library Linked Data Incubator Group 
 final report
   http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/XGR‐lld‐
   20111025/

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