Group work, under properconditions, encourages peer learningand peer support and many studiesvalidate the efficacy of peer learning.Under less than ideal conditions, groupwork can become the vehicle foracrimony, conflict and freeloading.James, R., McInnis, C., & Devlin, M. (2002, September).Assessing Group Work. Retrieved October 28, 2012, fromAssessing Learning in Australian universities:http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/assessinglearning/docs/Group.pdf
Context 1. Australian Curriculum (ACARA 2012) strongly promotes goals relating to online and groupcollaboration throughout its General Capabilities.http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Overview/General-capabilities-in-the-Australian-CurriculumFor example:Literacy Capability"working harmoniously with others; being open to ideas…returning to tasks to improve and enhance theirwork."Communicating with ICT"participating in group and class discussions using a range of oral interaction skills to share ideas, exploretopics and express opinions." Students should use ICT to: "share, exchange and collaborate to enhancelearning by sharing information in digital forms, exchanging information through digitalcommunication, and collaborating and collectively contributing to a digital product."Critical and creative thinking"By sharing thinking, visualisation and innovation, and by giving and receiving effective feedback, studentslearn to value the diversity of learning and communication styles."Personal and Social capabilities"On a social level, it helps students to ‗form and maintain healthy relationships‘ and prepares them ‗for theirpotential life roles as family, community and workforce embers.‘ Social awareness is seen as "identifying thestrengths of team members and defining and accepting individual and group roles andresponsibilities."Social management is where students are: "managing and positively influencing the emotions andmoods of others. It includes learning how to cooperate, negotiate and communicate effectively withothers, work in teams, make decisions, resolve conflict and resist inappropriate social pressure...
INQUIRY shared wiki students from 4 schools working in groups of one student from each school collaborate on shared scenario, to writing 4 individual stories from their character‘s perspective Parents invited to an initial dinner and a final awards evening Inquiry used feedback, observation and student writing to assess outcomes
INQUIRY QUESTIONSThis investigation explores whether peer collaboration can improve student creative writing, the pedagogical implications and the value of using online collaborative tools such as a wiki. How can collaborative writing be implemented with students to improve creative writing? Should collaborative writing be implemented with students to improve creative writing? How can online tools be used to improve creative writing? How can group work/collaboration be used effectively in classrooms to improve student creative writing?
Context 2. 50 Shades of Grey by E.L. JamesThe trilogy was based on Twilight and publishedepisodically on fan-fiction websites. It originallyfeatured characters named after StephenieMeyers characters in Twilight, EdwardCullen and Bella SwanFifty Shades of Grey has sold over 40 million copiesJames published the book with The Writer‘s Coffee Shop in Australia, a―book-loving community‖ that is a social sharing site as well as adistributor; ...she morphed her version of Bella and Edward for printpublicationStephenie Meyer is unlikely to sue: "I havent read it. I mean, thats reallynot my genre, not my thing," she said with a laugh. "Ive heard about it; Ihavent really gotten into it that much. Good on her — shes doing well.Thats great!―http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1685954/fifty-shades-of-grey-stephenie-meyer.jhtmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fifty_Shades_of_Greyhttp://blogs.indiewire.com/womenandhollywood/guest-post-a-feminist-defense-of-50-shades-of-grey
Teen Writer Lands Six-figure Deal for Vampire Storyby Linda MorrisIn Sep 19, 2012 Abigail Gibbs, 18, signed asix-figure publishing deal with HarperCollinsfor The Dark Heroine: Dinner With aVampire, which, like Fifty Shades of Grey, wasfirst published as a riff on Stephenie MeyersTwilight seriesThe first 20 chapters of Dinner with a Vampire:Did I Mention I was a Vegetarian? attracted 17million reads before Gibbs was discovered bya literary agent who advised her to hold offpublishing the storys ending onlineWith an existing fan base waiting to see whathappens next and the potential for word-of-mouth social media recommendations, HarperCollins expects the vampire thriller to find animmediate audiencehttp://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/books/teen-writer-lands-sixfigure-deal-for--vampire-story-20120919-265qc.html#ixzz285tgOM5I
Cellphone NovelsAt the end of 2010, one of the 2 best sellers in Japan was an 142-pagehardback book about a high-school romance that was originally typed on amobile phone. It began as a series of installments uploaded to an internet siteand sent as texts to the phones of thousands of subscribersIt sold more than 420,000 copies in the first 2 months that it was converted Anne Weaver, All Hallows Schoolinto a hardcopy bookFive of the ten best selling novels in Japan in 2007 were keitai shousetsu orcellphone novelsPopular in Japan, South Korea, China and South AfricaMayumi Sato turned Rin‘s episodic melodrama into a bestselling book:―It might seem strange that young readers are going out and buying the bookafter they‘ve already read the story on their mobile. Often it‘s because theyemail suggestions and criticisms to the author on the novel website as thestory is unfolding, so they feel like they‘ve contributed to the final product, andthey want a hardcopy keepsake of it‖Source: http://www.smh.com.au/news/mobiles–handhelds/in-japan-cellular-storytelling-is-all-the- rage/2007/12/03/1196530522543.html Retrieved 27 March 2012
Collectively, TheMortal Instruments Mortal Instruments series of books have spent 28 weeks on the New York Times Best Sellers List http://screenrant.c om/mortal- instruments- movie-next- twilight-robf- 32936/http://screenrant.com/mortal-instruments-movie-next-twilight-robf-32936/
NEW WAYS OF ATTRACTING AUDIENCES FOR WRITING.She took the novels she had writtenover the previous nine years, all ofwhich had been rejected by umpteenbook agents and publishing Anne Weaver, All Hallows Schoolhouses, and self - published onAmazon and other digital ebook sites.She sold the ebooks for 99 cents each.‖Over 2011, she sold an average of9,000 books a day Source http://articles.businessinsider.com/2011-02-Unlike traditional book deals, Hocking 28/tech/29960359_1_kindle-store-book-sales-publishing Retrieved 27 Mar 2012keeps 70 percent of revenue earnedfrom her books (Amazon keeps the Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/19/magazine/amanda-other 30 percent) hocking-storyseller.html?pagewanted=all http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/jan/12/amanda- hocking-self-publishing Retrieved 27 March 2012She has since signed a book deal witha traditional print publisher
“YOU AND I GREW UP WITH THE NOTION OF THE LITTLE GIRL [BOY] CURLED UP IN HER CHAIRREADING, OR THE WRITER IN HER GARRET, RIGHT?”… “BUT WHAT WE’VE DISCOVERED ISTHAT WHEN YOU MOVE THE FUNCTION OF READING AND WRITING ONLINE, THE SOCIAL ASPECTCOMES FORWARD.”HTTP://SPOTLIGHT.MACFOUND.ORG/FEATURED-STORIES/ENTRY/THE-FUTURE-OF-READING-AND-WRITING-IS-COLLABORATIVE/?UTM_SOURCE=FEEDBURNER&UTM_MEDIUM=FEED&UTM_CAMPAIGN=FEED:%20MACFOUND/IQAL%20SPOTLIGHT%20ON%20DIGITAL%20MEDIA%20AND%20LEARNING Anne Weaver, All Hallows School
RESEARCH "[T]he data I amassed mirrored what my students had been telling me for years: . . . their work in groups, their collaboration, was the most important and helpful part of their school experience. Briefly, the data I found all support the following claims: Collaboration aids in problem finding as well as problem solving, learning abstractions, in transfer and assimilation; it fosters interdisciplinary thinking, leads not only to sharper, more critical thinking (students must explain, defend, adapt), but to a deeper understanding of others. Collaboration leads to higher achievement, in general. . . promotes excellence. Hannah Arendt states: For excellence, the presence of others is always required. Collaboration engages the whole student and encourages active learning; it combines reading, talking, writing, thinking; it provides practice in both synthetic and analytic skills." (Nordquist, R. n.d.). Peer editingIt ‗s complex...
HOW?Spring Hill Young Writers 2012 http://animoto.com/play/UZpPHJnW1aCqD0Q bGotHCA?utm_source=pbworks.com&utm_me dium=player&utm_campaign=player 3 mins.40s
THE PROGRAM Welcome function – Wednesday evening Writing day #1 – Thursday Writing day #2 – Friday [end Term 1] School Holidays – time to write, collaborate and edit Presentation evening – Thursday around week 2 of Term 2
WHAT WORKS WELL Individual final story product, though based on group collaboration. Use of wiki, especially with spellcheck and comment function. Compulsory shared scenario. Author and story writing skills
Challenges Group work Collaboration WritingThe difficult parts were the best learning.The secret is instructionaldesign based on more thanobservation and pastexperience: Feedback Resources e.g. scaffolds Repeating and improving learning experiences Research
Q2 - WHAT DID YOU GAIN FROM THE OPPORTUNITY TOWORK WITH OTHER PEOPLE YOUR AGE WHO ARE ALSOINTERESTED IN WRITING CREATIVELY?
2011 Q3 - WHAT WAS THE MOST DIFFICULT OFCHALLENGING ASPECT OF THE WORKSHOP?
2011 Q5 - HOW HAS YOUR WRITING CHANGED SINCEATTENDING THE WORKSHOP?
FURTHER RESEARCH AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE Moderation - time Contract/ webquest style, but that allows for geographical dispersion – step by step expectations Problem of common dates for 4 schools More support for cooperative learning – i.e. more structure, scaffold and roles, may produce higher results.. Dotson, J. M. (2001). e.g. Number and type of comments- allocate pairs for revision, negotiation skills. More school based activities to support workshop before and after eg. Book for each school may work more easily, group skills, editing
Nature of the story is important – give students more opportunity to connect to their own interests. Review plot cards. E.g. Parrot story. Create more similarity in plot options e.g. Same event, such as plane crash, theft, quest, discovery of artefact, or abduction, but different settings or time period. Alternatively, give students more input as a prequel to the task in suggesting storylines. Rish, R. (2011) Smithson, M. (2008)Use tool like moodle or surveymonkey that has statistical analysis tool andprepare more questionnaires to assist reflection of different stages.Needs to be less teacher time required for editing and book preparation.Groupwork skills must be taught e.g. listening exercises, conflict resolution.Panitz, T. (n.d.). Teaching Good Communication Skills In The Classroom (n.d.) Robinson, D.(2003) Communication and Relationships(n.d) Creating Successful Teams (2003) CTE LESSON PLANS (2011) Scott, E. (2012)
Improve student editing skills e.g. peer roles for revision. Also, accept what is produced, rather than a perfect final product – but maybe online publication only then. More teacher modelling of non-story components e.g. checklists and of editing using student work. Dotson, J. M. (2001). Clarify individual and group expectations, e.g. originality issue. More activities to encourage student self – reflection, including on their writing and collaboration. Nordquist, R. (n.d.). Graham, G. (2012, April 11).
INQUIRY QUESTIONS How can collaborative writing be implemented with students to improve creative writing? Task needs to require collaboration, Shared scenario, but individual story Should collaborative writing be implemented with students to improve creative writing? Engaging, critical thinking evident, group skills How can online tools be used to improve creative writing? Wiki How can group work/collaboration be used effectively in classrooms to improve student creative writing? Learning Design
ReferencesACARA (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority). (2012, January). General Capabilites in the AustralianCurriculum. Retrieved October 28, 2012, from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Overview/General-capabilities-in-the-Australian-CurriculumChin, B. (2000) The Role Of Grammar In Improving Students. Retrieved September 26, 2012 fromhttp://www.uwplatt.edu/~ciesield/graminwriting.htmCTE LESSON PLANS (2011) Assertion and Conflict Resolution. Retrieved September 26, 2012 fromhttp://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi?LPid=28910 Quiz and other resources to improve student communication and groupskills, and identify communication style.Davies, W. (2009, March 20). Groupwork as a form of assessment: common problemsand recommended solutions. RetrievedOctober 28, 2012, fromhttp://www.academia.edu/448870/Groupwork_as_a_Form_of_Assessment_Common_Problems_and_Recommended_SolutionsDennen, V. (n.d) Designing Peer Feedback Opportunities into Online Learning Experiences by Vanessa Paz, RetrievedSeptember 26, 2012 from http://www.uwex.edu/disted/conference/Resource_library/proceedings/03_02.pdfDotson, J. M. (2001). Cooperative Learning Structures Can Increase Student Achievement. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from KaganOnline Magazine, Winter: http://www.kaganonline.com/free_articles/research_and_rationale/increase_achievement.phpDudley-Marling, C. & Paugh, P. C. (2009). A Classroom Teacher‘s Guide to StrugglingWriters. Portsmouth, NJ: Heinemann.Ewing, T(2010) Discussion Boards and Boys‘ Writing. Retrieved September 26, 2012 fromhttp://www.theibsc.org/uploaded/IBSC/Action_Reseach/IBSC_Boys&Writing_V1.pdfFletcher, R. (2006). Boy Writers: Reclaiming their voices. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.Gedera, D. S. P. (2011). Integration of weblogs in developing language skills of ESL learners. International Journal of Technologyin Teaching and Learning, 7 (2), 124-135. Retrieved September 26, 2012 from,http://waikato.academia.edu/DilaniPahalaGedera/Papers/1491023/Integration_of_Weblogs_in_Developing_Language_Skills_of_ESL_LearnersGraham, G. (2012, April 11). Why I No Longer Use Groups in the Classroom: Retrieved April 16, 2012, fromhttp://www.edweek.org/tm/articles/2012/04/11/fp_graham.html?tkn=WLPFdTuga2reCM2G5KEtyYE80mq6o8PCPcxo&cmp=ENL-TU-NEWS1Edwards-Groves, C. ( 2012 ). Interactive Creative Technologies: Changing learning practices and pedagogies in the writingclassroom. Journal of Language, Vol 35 Issue 1 , 99-113. NEWS1 Retrieved September 26, 2012 fromhttp://www.alea.edu.au/documents/item/348.Frey, N., & Fisher, D. (2010, September). Making Group Work Productive. Retrieved October 28, 2012, from Giving StudentsMeaningful Work: http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept10/vol68/num01/Making-Group-Work-Productive.aspxHume, A. (2009). Promoting higher levels of reflective writing in student journals. Higher Education Research& Development, 28(3), 247–260.
References continuedJames, A. (2007). Teaching the Male Brain: How boys think, feel and learn in school. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.James, R., McInnis, C., & Devlin, M. (2002, September). Assessing Group Work. Retrieved October 28, 2012, from AssessingLearning in Australian universities: http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/assessinglearning/docs/Group.pdfKessler, G. (2009) Student Initiated Attention to Form in Wiki Based Collaborative Writing. Retrieved September 26, 2012 fromhttp://llt.msu.edu/vol13num1/kessler.pdfLaird, T. & Kuh, G.. (2005). Student experiences with information technology and their relationship to other aspectsof student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 46(2), 211-233. doi: 10.1007/s 11162-004–1600-yLi, Xuanxi; Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Ki, Wing Wah; Woo, Matsuko: Using a Wiki-Based Collaborative Process Writing Pedagogy toFacilitate Collaborative Writing among Chinese Primary School Students : Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, v28 n1p159-181 2012 Retrieved September 26, 2012 from http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet28/li.pdfPanitz, T. (nd). Collaborative Versus Cooperative Learning – A Comparison. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from TEDsArticles:http://home.capecod.net/~tpanitz/tedsarticles/coopdefinition.htmPrince Georges County Schools (n.d.) A Guide to Cooperative Learning Retrieved September 26, 2012 fromhttp://www.pgcps.pg.k12.md.us/~elc/learning1.html Contains role examples and other cooperative learning strategies.Rish, R. (2011) Engaging Adolescents‘ Interests, Literacy Practices, and Identities: Digital Collaborative Writing of Fantasy Fictionin a High School English Elective Class. Retrieved September 26, 2012 fromhttp://kennesaw.academia.edu/RyanRish/Books/975932/Engaging_adolescents_interests_literacy_practices_and_identities_Digital_collaborative_writing_of_fantasy_fiction_in_a_high_school_English_elective_classSabornie, E.J. & deBettencourt, L.U. (2004). Teaching Students with Mild and High-Incidence Disabilities at theSecondary Level, Second Edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.Smithson, M. (2008) Academic Effects of Writing Workshop Retrieved September 26, 2012 fromhttp://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/doctoral/110/ Teaching Good Communication Skills In The Classroom (n.d.) RetrievedSeptember 26, 2012 from http://www.essortment.com/teaching-good-communication-skills-classroom-36140.html Site hasactivities for improving communication skills.Snelling, C., & Karanicolas, S. (2008). Why Wikis Work: assessing group work in an online environment. Retrieved October 28,2012, from http://www.ojs.unisa.edu.au/index.php/atna/article/view/298/276Woo, M., Chu, S., Ho, A., and Li, X., (2011) Using a Wiki to Scaffold Primary-School Students‘ Collaborative Writing. RetrievedSeptember 26, 2012 from http://www.ifets.info/journals/14_1/5.pdfWriting Process: Go Google Visible thinking techniques Retrieved September 26, 2012 fromhttps://docs.google.com/document/d/1N4VVCDo23PrlHHVRrB3j_GtpgkcpdV89H2kK_YiS55g/edit andhttp://geekcamp.c2e.org/camp-sessions/writing-process-and-reflection-go-google
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