Commas

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Commas

  1. 1. RULES OF THUMB FOR COMMA USAGE from Real Good Grammar, Too Created by April Turner NOTE: Comp I students are responsible for only the rules covered on the first two slides.
  2. 2. USE A COMMA: <ul><li>with a coordinating conjunction to connect two independent clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Betty is the homecoming queen, and Bill is the king. </li></ul><ul><li>to separate introductory phrases, words, or clauses from the main part of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Vietnam War ended, a number of veterans were hospitalized. </li></ul>
  3. 3. USE A COMMA: <ul><li>to separate nonrestrictive clauses, phrases, and appositives from the rest of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>The scout leader, overweight and out of shape, trudged up the hill. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT set off restrictive information with commas . </li></ul><ul><li>Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn is on the censored list. </li></ul>
  4. 4. USE A COMMA: <ul><li>to separate direct quotations from the phrase identifying the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>John said, &quot;The fishing is great in Bear Lake.“ </li></ul><ul><li>to separate the names of smaller geographic units from the names of larger units. </li></ul><ul><li>Denver, Colorado, is called the Mile High City. </li></ul>
  5. 5. USE A COMMA: <ul><li>to separate items in a date. Omit the comma when just the month and year or month and day are given. </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy was assassinated November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>to separate names of titles or degrees that follow the name. </li></ul><ul><li>Harold Johnson, Ph.D., will speak in the Commons on Tuesday. </li></ul>
  6. 6. USE A COMMA: <ul><li>to separate short, tightly, interrelated clauses in a series. </li></ul><ul><li>John phoned, Mary stopped by, and Phil left a message. </li></ul><ul><li>to mark allowable omissions of repeated words, especially verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Your analysis is superb; your execution, appalling. </li></ul>
  7. 7. USE A COMMA: <ul><li>to provide clarity and prevent misreading, even if none of the other rules apply. </li></ul><ul><li>We left him, assured that he would fail. </li></ul><ul><li>(We were sure that he would fail.) </li></ul><ul><li>We left him assured that he would fail. </li></ul><ul><li>(He was sure that he would fail.) </li></ul><ul><li>to separate three or more items or phrases in a series. </li></ul><ul><li>Golfing, swimming, and bowling are my favorite activities. </li></ul>
  8. 8. USE A COMMA: <ul><li>to separate a series of two or more adjectives not connected by a conjunction if the order of the adjectives can be reversed and still retain the same meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Your friend is a clever, sensitive person. </li></ul><ul><li>to separate interrupters or parenthetical and transitional words from the rest of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them, however, do try to act friendly and courteous. </li></ul>
  9. 9. USE A COMMA: <ul><li>to separate contradictory phrases from the rest of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>It was Betty, not Joan, who was elected queen of the prom. </li></ul><ul><li>to separate names used in direct address or other isolates such as yes , no , and thank you from the rest of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me, John, did you vote for Joan? </li></ul><ul><li>No, I am not voting for myself. </li></ul>
  10. 10. USE A COMMA: <ul><li>to separate tag questions from the rest of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>You did that on purpose, didn't you? </li></ul><ul><li>to separate words and abbreviations that introduce an example or an illustration, including namely , that is , to wit , i.e. , e.g. , for example , and for instance . </li></ul><ul><li>Many of my friends, for example, Fred, Dean, and Pete, like to golf. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Questions and Answers <ul><li>Does anyone have a question about the rules of comma usage? </li></ul><ul><li>PLEASE ASK!!! </li></ul>
  12. 12. LET’S PRACTICE!!! <ul><li>I have told one million lies in my life and that is the Gospel truth. </li></ul><ul><li>… life , and that… </li></ul><ul><li>As a child I was the kind of kid my mother told me not to play with. </li></ul><ul><li>As a child , I was… </li></ul><ul><li>Denver which is the capital of Colorado has an altitude of one mile. </li></ul><ul><li>Denver , which is the capital of Colorado , has… </li></ul><ul><li>The city which is the capital of Colorado has an altitude of one mile. </li></ul><ul><li>No commas (restrictive) </li></ul>
  13. 13. LET’S PRACTICE A LITTLE MORE!!! <ul><li>Linda asked “Do you think she’ll ever speak to him again?” </li></ul><ul><li>Linda asked , “Do you… </li></ul><ul><li>Paxton Florida is the home of the mighty Bobcats. </li></ul><ul><li>Paxton , Florida , is the… </li></ul><ul><li>The No Child Left Behind Act was signed in on January 2 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>… January 2, 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>July 1990 is the date for the Progress “90” celebration. </li></ul><ul><li>No comma (2 items in the date) </li></ul>
  14. 14. LET’S KEEP GOING!!! <ul><li>The commencement speaker was Juliet Brown Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>… Juliet Brown , Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>He shot pool he drank Anchor Steam beer and he rarely went home. </li></ul><ul><li>He shot pool , he drank Anchor Steam beer , and he rarely went home. </li></ul><ul><li>To the winners we give prizes; to the losers consolation; and to the spectators a good show. </li></ul><ul><li>… to the loser , consolation; and to the spectators , a good show. </li></ul>
  15. 15. ALMOST THERE!!! <ul><li>The morning after a policeman came to the door. </li></ul><ul><li>The morning after , a policeman… </li></ul><ul><li>Jeff collected a change of clothing shoes and golf gear before he set off for the day. </li></ul><ul><li>… a change of clothing , shoes , and golf gear… </li></ul><ul><li>A large green bug settled on the torn autumn leaf. </li></ul><ul><li>A large , green bug… </li></ul>
  16. 16. WE’RE IN THE HOME STRETCH!!! <ul><li>The order however was not filled that day. </li></ul><ul><li>The order , however , was not… </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia begins with a p not an n . </li></ul><ul><li>… with a p , not an n . </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you Susan. </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you , Susan. </li></ul>
  17. 17. LAST ONES!!! <ul><li>You’re going aren’t you? </li></ul><ul><li>You’re going , aren’t you? </li></ul><ul><li>Many of my friends for example Rachel, Jennifer, and Allen, enjoy going to the movies. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of my friends , for example , Rachel ,… </li></ul>

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