Effective presentation


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Effective presentation

  1. 1. Effective Presentations W Instructor’s Edition IE EVPR Australia • Canada • Mexico • Singapore Spain • United Kingdom • United StatesNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  2. 2. Effective Presentations VP and GM of Courseware: Michael Springer W Series Product Managers: Caryl Bahner-Guhin, Charles G. Blum, and Adam A. Wilcox Developmental Editor: Jim OShea Project Editor: Nancy Lamm Series Designer: Adam A. Wilcox Cover Designer: Steve Deschene COPYRIGHT © 2002 Course Technology, a division of Thomson Learning. Thomson Learning is a trademark used IE herein under license. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work may be reproduced, transcribed, or used in any form or by any meansgraphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, or information storage and retrieval systemswithout the prior written permission of the publisher. For more information contact: Course Technology 25 Thomson Place Boston, MA 02210 Or find us on the Web at: www.course.com For permission to use material from this text or product, contact us by EV • Web: www.thomsonrights.com • Phone: 1-800-730-2214 • Fax: 1-800-730-2215 Trademarks Course ILT is a trademark of Course Technology. Some of the product names and company names used in this book have been used for identification purposes only and may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers and sellers. Disclaimer Course Technology reserves the right to revise this publication and make changes from time to time in its content without notice. ISBN 0-619-07545-7 Printed in the United States of AmericaPR 1 2 3 4 5 PM 05 04 03 02NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  3. 3. Contents W Introduction iii Topic A: About the manual............................................................................... iv Topic B: Setting student expectations ............................................................. viii Topic C: Classroom setup..................................................................................x Topic D: Support............................................................................................... xi Fundamentals of presentation 1-1 Topic A: Effective presentations...................................................................... 1-2 Topic B: Planning a presentation..................................................................... 1-7 Unit summary: Fundamentals of presentation................................................. 1-11 IE Audience analysis and supporting material 2-1 Topic A: Audience analysis ............................................................................. 2-2 Topic B: Supporting materials......................................................................... 2-4 Unit summary: Audience analysis and supporting material............................ 2-11 Building presentations 3-1 Topic A: Build presentations ........................................................................... 3-2 Topic B: Develop an introduction ................................................................... 3-4 Topic C: Organize the body of the presentation .............................................. 3-8 EV Topic D: Effective conclusion ........................................................................ 3-12 Unit summary: Building presentations............................................................ 3-16 Presentation mechanics 4-1 Topic A: Visual aids ........................................................................................ 4-2 Topic B: Understand visual aids...................................................................... 4-9 Unit summary: Presentation mechanics .......................................................... 4-14 Presentation process 5-1 Topic A: Extemporaneous speaking ................................................................ 5-2 Topic B: Preparation for speaking ................................................................... 5-5 Topic C: Deliver a presentation ...................................................................... 5-13 Topic D: Nonverbal communication............................................................... 5-17 Unit summary: Presentation process ............................................................... 5-23PR Question-and-answer session 6-1 Topic A: Handle questions effectively............................................................. 6-2 Topic B: Handle challenging questions ........................................................... 6-5 Unit summary: Question-and-answer session .................................................. 6-9 Fundamentals of persuasion 7-1 Topic A: Understand persuasion...................................................................... 7-2 Topic B: Organize a persuasive presentation.................................................. 7-11 Topic C: Methods of persuasion..................................................................... 7-17 Unit summary: Fundamentals of persuasion ................................................... 7-24 Course summary S-1 Topic A: Course summary ............................................................................... S-2NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  4. 4. ii Effective Presentations Topic B: Continued learning after class .......................................................... S-4 Glossary G-5 Index I-1 W IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  5. 5. iii Effective Presentations W Introduction IE After reading this introduction, you will know how to: A Use Course Technology ILT manuals in general. B Use prerequisites, a target student description, course objectives, and a skills inventory to set students’ expectations properly for the course. EV C Get support for setting up and teaching this course.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  6. 6. iv Effective PresentationsTopic A: About the manual Course Technology ILT philosophy W Our goal at Course Technology is to make you, the instructor, as successful as possible. To that end, our manuals facilitate students’ learning by providing structured interaction with the subject itself. While we provide text to help you explain difficult concepts, the hands-on activities are the focus of our courses. Leading the students through these activities will teach the concepts effectively. We believe strongly in the instructor-led classroom. For many students, having a thinking, feeling instructor in front of them will always be the most comfortable way to learn. Because the students’ focus should be on you, our manuals are designed and written to facilitate your interaction with the students, and not to call attention to IE manuals themselves. We believe in the basic approach of setting expectations, then teaching, and providing summary and review afterwards. For this reason, lessons begin with objectives and end with summaries. We also provide overall course objectives and a course summary to provide both an introduction to and closure on the entire course. Our goal is your success. We encourage your feedback in helping us continually to improve our manuals to meet your needs. Manual components EV The manuals contain these major components: • Table of contents • Introduction • Units • Course summary • Reference • Index Each element is described below. Table of contents The table of contents acts as a learning roadmap for you and the students.PR Introduction The introduction contains information about our training philosophy and our manual components, features, and conventions. It contains descriptions of the target student, objectives, and setup for the course. The introduction also contains support information.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  7. 7. Introduction v Units Units are the largest structural component of the actual course content. A unit begins with a title page that lists objectives for each major subdivision, or topic, within the unit. Within each topic, conceptual and explanatory information alternates with hands-on activities. Units conclude with a summary comprising one paragraph for each topic, and an independent practice activity that gives students an opportunity to practice the skills W they’ve learned. The conceptual information takes the form of text paragraphs, exhibits, lists, and tables. The activities are structured in two columns, one telling students what to do, the other providing explanations, descriptions, and graphics. Throughout a unit, instructor notes are found in the left margin. Course summary This section provides a text summary of the entire course. It is useful for providing IE closure at the end of the course. The course summary also indicates the next course in this series, if there is one, and lists additional resources students might find useful as they continue to learn about the subject. Reference The reference is an at-a-glance job aid summarizing some of the main ideas of the subject. Index EV The index enables you and the students to find information quickly about a particular topic or concept in the course.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  8. 8. vi Effective Presentations Manual conventions We’ve tried to keep the number of elements and the types of formatting to a minimum in the manuals. We think this aids in clarity and makes the manuals more classically elegant looking. But there are some conventions and icons you should know about. W Convention/Icon / Description Italic text In conceptual text, indicates a new term or feature. Bold text In unit summaries, indicates a key term or concept. In an independent practice activity, indicates an explicit item that is selected, chosen, or typed by students.Instructor notes. In the left margin, provide tips, hints, and warnings for the instructor. IE Next to an instructor note, indicates a warning for the Warnings prepareinstructors for potential instructor.classroom managementproblems. Next to an instructor note, indicates a tip the instructor can Tips give extra share with students.information the instructorcan share with students. Next to an instructor note, indicates a setup the instructor Setup instructor EV can use before delivering a step or activity.notes give a context forinstructors to share withstudents.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  9. 9. Introduction vii Hands-on activities The hands-on activities are the most important parts of our manuals. They usually are divided into two columns, with a questions or concepts on the left and answers and explanations on the right. To the far left, instructor notes provide tips, warnings, setups, and other information for the instructor only. Here’s a sample: W Do it! A-1: Steps for brainstorming Exercises 1 Sequence the steps for brainstorming. Begin generating ideas. Select the purpose. Select the purpose. Organize for the session. IE Organize for the session. Review the rules. Ask questions and clarify ideas. Begin generating ideas. Ask questions and clarify ideas. Review the rules. PowerPoint presentations EV To assist in your presentation and provide students with a visual focus, there is a PowerPoint presentation file to accompany each unit. Each presentation begins with a list of unit objectives and finishes with a unit summary slide. Display the slide show from the instructors station as you present the course materials. A copy of PowerPoint Viewer is included so you do not need to have PowerPoint software installed.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  10. 10. viii Effective PresentationsTopic B: Setting student expectations Properly setting students’ expectations is essential to your success. This topic will help you do that by providing: • A description of the target student at whom the course is aimed W • A list of the objectives for the course • A skills assessment for the course Target student The typical students of this course will be managers, supervisors, or team leaders who need to learn how to create and deliver effective presentations. IE Course objectives You should share these overall course objectives with your students at the beginning of the day. This will give the students an idea about what to expect, and will also help you identify students who might be misplaced. Students are considered misplaced when they lack the prerequisite knowledge or when they already know most of the subject matter to be covered. After completing this course, students will know how to: • Identify and use effective presentations, use different types of presentations, plan a presentation, and determine primary and secondary objectives. EV • Analyze the audience, determine the supporting material, and learn about different types of supporting material. • Build a presentation, develop an introduction, capture the audience attention, organize the body of the presentation, use transitions, and conclude the presentation. • Incorporate visual aids, understand the types of visual aids, display, and create visual aids. • Use a presentation process, prepare before speaking in a presentation, deliver a presentation, and use nonverbal communication aids. • Handle the questions effectively, approach the question-and-answer session, responsibilities during a session, and handle challenging questions. • Persuade a presentation, understand the goals of persuasion, organize aPR persuasive presentation, and use the methods of persuasion.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  11. 11. Introduction ix Skills inventory Use the following form to gauge students’ skill level entering the class (students have copies in the introductions of their student manuals). For each skill listed, have students rate their familiarity from 1 to 5, with five being the most familiar. Emphasize that this is not a test. Rather, it is intended to provide students with an idea of where they’re W starting from at the beginning of class. If a student is wholly unfamiliar with all the skills, he or she might not be ready for the class. A student who seems to understand all of the skills, on the other hand, might need to move on to the next course in the series. Skill 1 2 3 4 5 Fundamentals of effective presentation Different types of presentations IE Determine primary and secondary objectives Audience analysis and supporting material Building presentations Develop an introduction Organize the body of the presentation EV Use transitions Incorporate visual aids Types of visual aids Display and create visual aids Use presentation process Prepare before speaking Deliver a presentationPR Use nonverbal communication aids Question-and-answer session Handle challenging questions Persuade a presentation Methods of persuasionNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  12. 12. x Effective PresentationsTopic C: Classroom setup In addition to a manual, each student should be provided with a pad and pens or pencils for jotting down notes questions. Students should have a comfortable place to sit and ample table space to spread out their materials. W Student computer requirements If you wish to use the PowerPoint presentation, you’ll need the following: • A Pentium-class or better computer • A keyboard and a mouse • Windows 98, NT, 2000, or XP • A minimum of 32MB of memory or more, depending on your operating system IE • CD-ROM drive • A Super-VGA monitor • An overhead monitor projector • PowerPoint 2000 or later, or PowerPoint Viewer Classroom requirements • Transparencies (Around 30.) • Marker EV • Printouts of Feedback form.doc depending on the number of students. • Three slips of paper having “Hostile,” “Rambling individuals,” and “Individuals with personal agendas” written on them. Note: Provide students with transparencies and markers whenever students create or deliver a presentation.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  13. 13. Introduction xi Topic D: Support Your success is our primary concern. If you need help setting up this class or teaching a particular unit, topic, or activity, please don’t hesitate to get in touch with us. Please have the name of the course available when you call, and be as specific as possible W about the kind of help you need. Phone support You can call for support 24 hours a day at (888) 672-7500. If you do not connect to a live operator, you can leave a message, and we pledge to return your call within 24 hours (except on Saturday and Sunday). Web-based support IE The Course ILT Web site provides several instructor’s tools for each course, including course outlines and answers to frequently asked questions. To download these files, go to www.courseilt.com/instructor_tools.html. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  14. 14. xii Effective Presentations W IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  15. 15. 1–1 Unit 1 Fundamentals of presentation W Unit time: 40 minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to: A Identify and use effective presentations. IE B Plan a presentation and determine primary and secondary objectives. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  16. 16. 1–2 Effective PresentationsTopic A: Effective presentationsExplanation Effective presentations provide the opportunity to communicate important, specific information in a succinct manner that is beneficial to the audience members. To create this benefit, the information or processes described in the presentation must be W presented in a manner that allows the audience to understand and use them. Effective presentations, as shown in Exhibit 1-1, are comprised of several elements, including support materials, presentation skills, and relevant content. It is important that all irrelevant content is eliminated from the presentation so the listener is not overloaded with data. IE EV Exhibit 1-1: Effective presentation Reasons for making presentations There are a number of reasons why people might make presentations. The presentation is required or expected in their position, it is the best method of conveying the information they need to share, they have a passion for the topic, or they want to use a presentation to emphasize their own knowledge and abilities.PR Advantages of effective presentations Effective presentations are valuable because they allow a presenter the opportunity to communicate a great deal of information in a small amount of time. They are also important because the quality of the presentation given will affect the presenters credibility, as well as his or her ability to influence other people.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  17. 17. Fundamentals of presentation 1 –3 Do it! A-1: Understanding effective presentations Exercises 1 Which of the following is the reason why presentations are valuable? A Presentations allow the presenter the opportunity to communicate a great deal W of information in a small amount of time B Presentations allow the speaker to emphasize his or her own knowledge and abilities C Presentations are the best way to convey information D Presentations provide the opportunity to demonstrate rhetoric skills Show the presentation 2 From the two presentations shown by the instructor, identify which one is the named “First” followed by most effective and give reasons why. IE the “Second” presentation. Ask students which presentation effectively The first presentation is an effective presentation. presents the information. This is because it communicates important, specific information in a succinct manner that is useful to the audience. Different types of presentations Explanation There are six types of presentations that are given regularly. EV • Informative: Informative presentations are given to convey information to the audience. Informative presentations might provide details about an object or event of some type or explain concepts or processes. For example, this type of presentation might be used to explain the idea for a new advertising campaign or provide details about a new customer. Informative presentations can also be used to share information with another department, acquaint employees, or orient new employees. • Instructional: Instructional presentations teach or demonstrate how to use new equipment or processes. Because audience members probably will need to be able to use the equipment and processes on their own, these presentations require a high level of detail and audience participation. Instructional presentations might be used to train employees or teach customers how to use some type of equipment.PR • Problem-solving: A problem-solving presentation, as shown in Exhibit 1-2, is used to identify possible solutions to eliminate a problem. For example, a presentation might be given to help a company determine how to solve a communication breakdown among departments. For a problem solving presentation, the presenter would provide the audience with all the essential information about the problem, determine its causes, and suggest the solution that would be best for the company.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  18. 18. 1–4 Effective Presentations W Exhibit 1-2: Problem-solving presentation IE • Decision-making: A presentation used to obtain a decision will require describing all of the possible alternatives. For this style of presentation, the presenter might compile a list of the pros and cons of each alternative to help facilitate the process. It is beneficial in these presentations for the presenter to make a list of the companys needs and then show the audience how or whether the alternatives meet these needs. For example, a decision-making presentation could be used to help human resources executives make a decision about the type of medical plan the company should provide for its employees. • Persuasive: Although all presentations are persuasive to some extent, a true EV persuasive presentation requires the presenter to change the minds of the audience members. The presenter should influence the audience to agree with him or her and, in some cases, influence the audience to act on this belief. Persuasive presentations might be used to sell a new product to a new or existing customer or to persuade management to increase the budget for a project. • Reporting: Reporting presentations usually are used to update people, frequently the management group, about something. They often are used to report on the progress of a project with which the audience is familiar. For example, a reporting presentation might brief management on the implementation progress of a new distribution system.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  19. 19. Fundamentals of presentation 1 –5 Do it! A-2: Understanding different types of presentations Exercises 1 Identify which of the following are types of presentations. A Instructional presentations W B Effective presentations C Background presentations D Decision-making presentations 2 When should you use an When you need to convey information to your informative presentation? audience. 3 When should you use an When you want to teach or demonstrate any idea IE instructional presentation? or concept. 4 Which of the following is required of a decision-making presentation? A Asking for any and all suggestions B Describing all of the possible alternatives C Deciding who will make the final decision D Brainstorming EV 5 Identify the type of presentation. Sharing the business progress of Reporting the last quarter with the senior management Sharing your company’s mission Informative with the new recruits Providing product training to new Instructional recruits in your company Launching a new product Persuasive Sharing the available methods of Problem-solvingPR fixing a defect in a new product Sharing alternate strategies of Decision-making marketing a new car with the senior managementNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  20. 20. 1–6 Effective PresentationsAfter students have 6 Acme Electronics is a successful TV manufacturing company that producesidentified their answer, attractive TV models at competitive prices. However, management has discoveredfacilitate a discussion thatfocuses on what type of that the sale of Model 528C is declining. Upon investigation, they find that a highpresentation the students number of these sets have needed repairs within the warranty period. A correctivethink is best suited for the action team (CAT) is assembled to determine and eliminate the causes of thedefined situation and ask W problem, to reduce the warranty cost, and to increase the reliability of Modelthem the reasons for it. 528C. You have to share the findings of the CAT team by giving a presentation to the senior management. Which type of presentation would you use and why? A Informative B Instructional C Problem-solving D Decision-making IE E Persuasive F Reporting A problem-solving presentation is used to identify possible solutions to eliminate a problem. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  21. 21. Fundamentals of presentation 1 –7 Topic B: Planning a presentation Explanation There are three aspects for planning a presentation: 1 Gathering information: The presenter can use this to learn about the audience and decide the specific information he or she wants to include in the W presentation. By doing so, a specific focus for the presentation will be created, making it more effective. 2 Building the presentation: This concentrates on organizing the information in a manner that will facilitate the audiences understanding and retention of the presentation. 3 Coordinating presentation mechanics: This involves understanding how the environment in which the presentation will be delivered affects the presentations success. In addition, coordinating presentation mechanics includes deciding how IE to prepare effective visual aids and use them appropriately. Presentation objectives It is important to establish presentation objectives because they’ll provide focus and will be used to make the message of your presentation clear. In addition, concentrating on accomplishing specific objectives can reduce the amount of time you need to prepare your presentation. By knowing exactly what you want to accomplish, you can search for and select specific information that will support your presentation, thereby eliminating the reading of extra information that you’ll not use in the presentation. EV Although it is not necessary to share your objectives with the audience, by establishing them your audience will learn more from your presentation. By providing the information needed to accomplish your goals, you’ll make the presentation material more focused and easier for the audience to understand. Establishing objectives can also help determine whether your presentation has been successful. Do it! B-1: Establishing objectives Exercises 1 Select the advantages of establishing presentation objectives. A To provide focus and to make the message of your presentation clearPR B To share objectives with the audience C To reduce the time you need to prepare for a presentation 2 Select the three aspects of planning a presentation. A Follow your outline, explain objectives, and answer questions B Evaluate your audience, plan the presentation, and rehearse the presentation C Gather information, build the presentation, and coordinate presentation mechanics D Choose presentation type, research, and writeNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  22. 22. 1–8 Effective PresentationsHave students discuss 3 You have to give a presentation on the change in sales data since the last year.their answers. What are the benefits of the three key aspects in planning the presentation? Gather information Learn about the audience and anticipate audience expectations W Build the presentation Organize the text and structure for the presentation Coordinate presentation Arrange the overhead projectors and the mechanics supporting materials that are required Determining objectives IEExplanation There are three items that you should examine to determine your presentation objectives: • Reason: You need to determine your primary reason for giving the presentation. Knowing whether you are instructing, informing, persuading, solving a problem, making a decision, or reporting to your audience will dictate the type and amount of information you’ll need to incorporate in your presentation. • Results: You should decide what specific results you want to accomplish with the presentation. Most likely, you’ll have both short-term and long-term goals for the presentation. The long-term goal is your overall goal of which the presentation will only be a part. The short-term goal is the result you can EV accomplish through this presentation alone. Completing the statement I want to (short-term goal) so that (long-term goal) happens will help you determine both objectives. • Audience response: You also need to establish objectives about the way you want the audience to respond to your presentation. Specifically, determine whether you want them to think or feel differently about the topic, or if you want them to take a particular action.Do it! B-2: Determining objectives ExerciseAsk several students to 1 From your own experiences, identify a situation that would require you to create ashare their examples. presentation. Now using that example, determine the presentation objectives andPR write the reason, result, and response that you would like to elicit from the audience. Write your answers below.Share this example or one Example: You want employees to be aware ofof your own if time their work in the organization.permits. • Reason: All employees to be equally trained • Result: Customer satisfaction • Response elicited: Employees gaining confidenceNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  23. 23. Fundamentals of presentation 1 –9 Realistic objectives Explanation In order for your presentation to be successful, it is important to make your objectives realistic. Constraints W To be sure your objectives are realistic, make them appropriate in respect to these constraints: 1 What you are able to accomplish, as shown in Exhibit 1-3. IE EV Exhibit 1-3: What do you accomplish 2 What your audience is able to accomplish. You need to make your objectives appropriate for the amount of time you are given to prepare the presentation, as well as the amount of time you’ll have to present. Keep in mind that it is better to cover only part of the information and cover it well than to present too much information inadequately. Poorly presenting too much information will confuse your audience. You’ll also need to consider the resources that will be available to you while preparing the presentation, such as available funds and personnel, especially if either resource will be needed to conduct research or to prepare your visual aids. To make your objectives realistic, you should consider the knowledge and authority level of your audience. Without the necessary levels of knowledge and authority, yourPR audience might not be able to accomplish the desired results. Your audience might not have the required knowledge for you to cover the topic at an advanced level, or they might not have the authority needed to implement a change you want to adopt. If either of these situations is true for your audience, you might want to give the presentation simply to familiarize your audience with the topic. In this case, the primary reason you are giving the presentation might change. If so, you’ll need to prepare the presentation accordingly.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  24. 24. 1–10 Effective Presentations Secondary objectives You can establish secondary objectives if you find it helpful. These objectives might be goals that accompany the primary objective; they often are used to help you accomplish the primary objective. For example, while trying to persuade your audience to purchase a new piece of equipment, you might want to start by educating them about the new W equipment.Do it! B-3: Making realistic objectives Exercises 1 What are the various constraints that should be considered while preparing a presentation?Discuss with students the Time to present IEimportance of consideringthese constraints. Resources available for the presentation Knowledge and authority level of the audience 2 Do you need secondary Yes. You need secondary objectives to help you objectives? Why? accomplish the primary objective.Divide the class into two 3 MCorp is planning to release a new cosmetic product in the open market. Beforegroups to complete this the release, the senior manager wants to present the business plan to thetask. After they finish, aska student from each group employees. What primary objectives should this presentation have? EVto share. What is the target segment for the product?These are questions youcan ask students to help Who are the key competitors?identify the primaryobjectives. What is our unique selling proposition? Based on the primary objects, list some possible secondary objectives.These questions will help What is the average age of the customer?identify the secondaryobjectives. What is the average income of the customer? What is the marital status of the customer?PR Do customers want a guarantee with the product? What is the competitor market share? What attracts customers to the competitors?NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  25. 25. Fundamentals of presentation 1–11 Unit summary: Fundamentals of presentation Topic A In this unit, you learned how to identify and use effective presentations as a communication tool. You also learned about the six different types of presentations that commonly are used. W Topic B Then, you learned the three aspects necessary for planning a presentation. You also learned how to establish and determine objectives for the presentation. Then, you learned how to make realistic objectives. Finally, you learned how to introduce secondary objectives. Independent practice activity 1 What makes a presentation effective? IE A presentation is effective when you communicate information in a clear and succinct manner. Effective presentations contain several elements, including support materials, presentation skills, and relevant content. You need to eliminate all irrelevant content from the presentation, so that the listener is not overloaded with data. 2 Why do people give presentations? People give presentations for several reasons. It is the best method to convey the information they need to share, or they might have a passion for a topic, or they might simply want to emphasize their knowledge and abilities. 3 What is a problem-solving presentation? EV A problem-solving presentation identifies possible solutions to eliminate a problem. If you make a problem solving presentation, you need to provide the audience with essential information about the problem, determine its causes, and suggest an appropriate solution. 4 When can you use a reporting presentation? You can use a reporting presentation when you have to give someone an update on a situation. Reporting presentations often are used to report the progress of a project the audience is familiar with. 5 What is the main goal when you give a persuasive presentation? The goal of a persuasive presentation is to change the minds of audience members. Depending on the situation, you might influence the audience to agree with your point of view or you might attempt convincing the audience to adopt some action plan.PR 6 Gathering information is used by the presenter to learn about the audience, and a specific focus for the presentation will be created. True or false? TrueNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  26. 26. 1–12 Effective Presentations W IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  27. 27. 2–1 Unit 2 Audience analysis and supporting material W Unit time: 50 minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to: A Analyze the audience and identify the benefits of audience analysis. IE B Determine the supporting material and the types of supporting material. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  28. 28. 2–2 Effective PresentationsTopic A: Audience analysisExplanation Audience analysis is the process of determining the audience’s needs, so you can give a beneficial presentation. You should determine the reason people will attend your presentation; it might be a requirement, or they might be interested in the topic. It is also W helpful to determine your audiences attitudes, interests, and level of knowledge. The level of knowledge your audience has about the topic will determine the manner in which you present your information. You should avoid boring your audience with information they already know or confusing them with complex information. You should also know if you need to define any terminology for them. In addition, it is important to know your audiences expectations of your presentation, such as what they are hoping to learn. In addition, you might want to find out their age, gender, political membership, religious affiliation, or any other demographic IE information so you can cater your presentation to them. Benefits of audience analysis Besides accommodating the audience, audience analysis will help you determine what types of information you’ll need to incorporate into your presentation to make it successful. Knowing who your audience is will help you select information that will effectively influence them. In addition, you’ll be able to address appropriately any serious concerns your audience might have. For example, if you know that the audience already possesses a negative EV attitude toward your topic, you would present it in a different manner than if you did not know about their attitude. In this situation, you might want to open the presentation with some reasons why the audience should listen to what you have to say. Ways to analyze the audience When possible, you should always try to complete your audience analysis before preparing your presentation. Of course, there might be times when you cannot obtain the information you need ahead of time. There are methods of audience analysis to accommodate both of these situations: • Talk to the audience during preparation • Collect information about the audience Talk to the audience during preparationPR It is always a good idea to talk to the target audience while preparing the presentation, that way you can ask about their expectations regarding the information you will be sharing. However, if you cannot speak with audience members prior to the presentation, you can talk with them at the outset of it. Before opening your presentation, take time to ask some questions to get to know your audience. A good way to do so is to ask some questions and have your audience respond by raising their hands. Audiences are usually more comfortable raising their hands than shouting out in a presentation environment.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  29. 29. Audience analysis and supporting material 2 –3 Collect information about the audience If you cannot talk to individuals who will be in the audience, you can still learn about them. Talking to other people who have presented for the same audience can give you insight into the audiences attitudes, level of knowledge, and interests. Other ways of gaining information about your audience include looking at examples of their work or W talking to their colleagues. Obviously, you cannot make major adjustments to your presentation at this point, but you can make small ones. For example, if you are using a story in your presentation, you could prepare two stories. After talking with your audience, select the one you feel will be most effective. Do it! A-1: Analyzing the audience Exercises IE Play the movie on the 1 Watch the movie clip and then answer the following slide by clicking on it. What does Marcus want to know Marcus wants to know about the audience. by asking about Dana’s expectations of the presentation? List ways you can use to analyze By talking to them during the preparation or by the audience. collecting information about the audience beforehand. EV Tell students that there 2 State some of the best practices • Ask the audience about their expectations. are numerous ways of used to talk to the audience during talking to the audience • Ask some questions to get to know them. during a presentation. a presentation. Don’t restrict them to those mentioned here. 3 Build a presentation based on the details the instructor provides. Divide the class into two You are a salesperson from a sunglasses groups. Brief each group Exercise for Group A separately about the company. You need to make a presentation to sell exercise. Ask them to these sunglasses. create a presentation during the next 10 Exercise for Group B You are a salesperson from a sunglasses minutes. Then, have one company. You need to make a presentation to sell member from each team these sunglasses. Snow mountaineers comprise present it. the audience.PR Ensure that both Discuss how knowing the groups do not discuss audience will help bring focus to each other’s exercises. the presentation. Ask other students in the audience to identify the differences between the two presentations.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  30. 30. 2–4 Effective PresentationsTopic B: Supporting materialsExplanation Supporting materials are the specific pieces of information that develop the topic of your presentation and support your ideas or claims. Supporting materials function to make presentations effective in four ways: W • Facilitate understanding: Supporting materials clarify ideas by providing specific information. • Maintain attention: Supporting materials, especially stories, are interesting for audience members. • Improve retention: Supporting materials, such as repetition and stories, promote memorization. • Prove claims: Supporting materials provide proof that your claims are true. IE Determining the supporting material Before selecting supporting materials to include in your presentation, you should review your objectives. Then, select materials that’ll accomplish these objectives. Think about what information you need to include, so your audience will accept the presentation’s message. EV Exhibit 2-1: Determining supporting material You should consider how the types of supporting materials you select would affect your audience. Then, determine which supporting materials would convey information that is best suited for your audience and for your presentation topic. For example, it might bePR more effective for your particular audience to see statistics represented in a visual display than to hear a story about an individual who represents the statistics. After you have chosen all supporting materials, you should re-examine each item to justify including it in the presentation and make sure it is relevant to your objectives. Each supporting material should be specific and easy to understand, because information that is not clear will confuse and frustrate your audience. The number of supporting materials you include depends on how much time is available for you to prepare and to deliver the presentation. You should refer to your objectives and determine how much information you must cover to accomplish them. In presentations, it is better to leave your audience wanting to hear more than overwhelming them with so much information that they lose interest.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  31. 31. Audience analysis and supporting material 2 –5 Try to incorporate a variety of supporting materials to maximize audience interest. In addition, to increase the credibility of your supporting materials, you should cite the source of the information. This is especially important when using statistics and factual data. Do it! B-1: Selecting supporting materials W Question Answer 1 What is the importance of • Facilitate understanding supporting materials? • Maintain attention • Improve retention • Prove claims IE 2 How do you determine which You should review your objectives and supporting materials to include? accordingly select the supporting materials that will accomplish the objectives. 3 How do you determine how many The number of supporting materials you include supporting materials to include? in your presentation depends on how much time is available for you to prepare and deliver the presentation. Types of supporting material EV Explanation There are six categories of supporting materials you can use to develop your presentation: • Examples • Testimony • Statistics • Analogies • Retention aids • Visual aids Examples Examples are a highly effective supporting material that can be short illustrations of aPR point you are making or longer, more descriptive narrations. Examples can also be stories about real or hypothetical situations. Examples are effective supporting materials for several reasons. Examples are easy to listen to, and they maintain audience interest. They also help the audience remember your presentation because stories are naturally easy to remember. In addition, examples make a strong connection with audiences. Audiences find examples interesting because they often can relate to them and are curious to know what a storys outcome will be.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  32. 32. 2–6 Effective Presentations Testimony Testimony uses knowledge from other people to make your presentation stronger. There are two types of testimony that can be used in a presentation: • Expert testimony is taken from individuals that are recognized as authorities on the topic and is best suited to provide credibility to your claims. W • Lay testimony is taken from individuals who are not recognized authorities, but have some valuable experience with the topic. Lay testimony provides first-hand insight and can be emotionally influential. When using testimony, you might quote individuals or paraphrase what they said. In general, you should use a quotation when the sources exact words are important, because they are more powerful than a paraphrased version. Quotations are usually concise and compelling. If you only want to express the overall idea provided by a source, you should paraphrase the persons words. Paraphrasing is especially effective when a quote is lengthy. IE You should apply the following guidelines when using testimony: • Retain integrity: Be sure you do not change the meaning of what was said. • Use unbiased sources: Only use sources that are impartial. • Use qualified sources: Determine whether the source is in a position to know about the topic. • Use representative testimony: Be sure testimony is not misleading. • Identify the source: Tell your audience the sources name and qualifications. EVDo it! B-2: Understanding the types of supporting material Exercises 1 What are the types of supporting • Examples material? • Testimony • Statistics • Analogies • Retention aids • Visual aids 2 Which of the following is a type of testimony?PR A Client testimony B Authority testimony C Amateur testimony D Lay testimonyNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  33. 33. Audience analysis and supporting material 2 –7 3 You have to make an effective presentation on “Smoking is injurious to health” using two types of supporting materials, an example and a testimony. Explain how youll use them in your presentation and the benefit of using them. Share these examples Examples You can show a visual aid of a comparison with students and between a smoker and a nonsmoker climbing a W encourage them to come mountain. up with their own. Testimony You can give a recorded statement of a chain smoker thatll discourage people from smoking. Statistics Explanation Statistics provide strong evidence for the claims you make in your presentation. IE However, you must be careful when using statistics. Statistics can be misinterpreted easily, so you should carefully evaluate any statistics you plan to use. Examine whether they really measure what they claim to measure and be sure that the source is unbiased. EV Exhibit 2-2: Statistics In addition, you should take care in the way you present statistics; the numbers do not always make an impact. Help your audience understand the statistics by interpreting them. One way to interpret statistics is to explain them through an analogy. For example, you could describe a large amount of money in terms of paper bills stacked to a height measured in building stories or by describing the purchasing power of that amount of money.PR Another effective way to interpret statistics is to display them through visual aids. You could use a pie chart or graph so the audience can see the statistics visually.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  34. 34. 2–8 Effective Presentations AnalogiesExplanation Analogies are beneficial supporting materials because they provide familiarity for the audience. When new ideas and concepts are explained in a familiar context, audience members are more likely to understand and accept them. There are two types of analogies that can be used in presentations: W • Figurative analogies draw comparisons between items that are fundamentally different. These analogies usually are used to improve understanding by comparing an unfamiliar concept to a familiar one. For example, a companys organizational structure might be compared to the parts of a tree to help employees understand the responsibilities of each department and their relationships with other departments. • Literal analogies make comparisons between items that are essentially the same. This type of analogy can be used to increase understanding, but it also might be used to provide proof. For example, comparisons between two copiers could be IE made to determine which one is better. Retention aids There are four elements that will improve the audiences retention of information: • Repetition is important, because audiences probably will not remember information after hearing it just once. In fact, it might take hearing a piece of information ten times before people learn it. Reiteration can be done with the same or different wording. • Humor enhances memory by relaxing your audience, making them more open EV to the information you are presenting. Any humor you decide to incorporate in your presentation should be relevant to the topic. • Participation helps in attaining a fuller understanding of the topic. Other methods of improving retention include asking the audience questions, letting them share their ideas, or having them complete a worksheet. • Association used in acronyms or mnemonic devices also aids in retention. For example, the acronym SMART can help you remember the characteristics of effective goals: specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-based. Visual aids Visual aids are effective supporting materials, because they communicate some forms of information faster and more effectively than words could. Furthermore, visual aids canPR improve your credibility. Carefully planned, well-made visual aids will show that you thoroughly have prepared for the presentation and that you care about your topic. In addition, visual aids add interest for the audience. They can improve audience members understanding and retention of the information presented. Visual aids can also help your audience follow the flow of your presentation. For example, a graph that illustrates the number of sales for a product line over the past five years clearly would show the audience how sales have risen or plummeted.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  35. 35. Audience analysis and supporting material 2 –9 Do it! B-3: Exploring retention and visual aids Exercises Ask students to close their 1 You have to solve the following puzzle: Imagine if you were driving a bus that books and take a pen and had 30 people and then the bus stopped at the bus stop and 8 people got off and 12 a paper. Read aloud the W puzzle only once. After got on, at the next stop 17 got off and 11 got on, at the next stop 2 got off and 6 you finish reading the got on. Who is driving the bus? puzzle, ask one or two students to give the Why do you think repetition is Because the audience is not likely to remember answer. Your main focus the information after hearing it only once. important? should be on how well the students understood the puzzle. 2 Read the following scene. Nathan (Account Executive) is sitting at his desk. He looks up as Nicholas (District Manager) enters. Nicholas is carrying some papers Discuss that if the puzzle with the following information: 30 percent of people go to school, 50 percent of had been repeated it people learn from home, 20 percent of people don’t bother taking classes. IE would have been easy to give the answer. Nathan. (Shows the papers to Nicholas asking him) Well, I think that covers all The answer for the puzzle that I have to present. Don’t you? is "You are driving the bus." Nicholas: (standing to leave) Yes, I feel much better about this report now. Ask a few students to (observing the graph) Hey, what’s your graph for? share their thoughts. EV Ask students to identify reasons why the graph Take a few minutes to think why Nathan was using graphs and what are the would be included in the benefits of using graphs. presentation and what information is needed to The graph here helps the audience understand interpret it. the statistics by interpreting them through visual aid.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  36. 36. 2–10 Effective PresentationsAsk students to list the 3 Create a presentation on “How to brush your teeth?”key supporting materialstheyll include in their What type of supporting material Visual aids are used in this presentation.presentation. Ask two orthree students to give the is used in this presentation?presentation. WClick the embedded objectto show students thepresentation “Brush yourteeth”.Discuss the use of thesupporting materials. IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  37. 37. Audience analysis and supporting material 2–11 Unit summary: Audience analysis and supporting material Topic A In this unit, you learned how to analyze the audience before giving a presentation. W Next, you learned about the benefits of audience analysis. Topic B Then, you learned how to determine and select supporting material. Finally, you learned about the different types of supporting material. Independent practice activity You meet Phyllis Bannon, Icon International’s East Coast Vice President of Marketing, and Bruce Madison, Icon’s Director of Information Services, to gather information for the presentation about Icon’s Worldwide Network Solution (IWNS). As a member of IE the marketing team, you need to decide what types of information to include in the presentation for the industry journalists. 1 Who is the audience for this presentation? This presentation is for industry journalists. Journalists write about telecommunication products every day and are quite knowledgeable. You need to keep the technology aspects of the presentation basic because you are using new technology for the marketplace. 2 What is the main goal of audience analysis? The main goal of audience analysis is to present the IWNS information to the journalists in a EV positive light so that they’ll write a favorable article about it in their trade publications. 3 What are the supporting materials that’ll help to convey your message? Charts and graphs will communicate your message because they’ll be helpful to present the statistical data. 4 Phyllis says, “If the Duckland Corporation had been using the IWNS system, then their plans would have been stolen. This story was in the newspaper several times last week.” Bruce comments on this, “That was a big story. If I remember correctly, they had the plans for their new product line stolen from what they thought was a secure Internet site. It sure cost them millions in future revenue.” Is this example beneficial, why? Yes, we can use the Duckland story as a good example. To make connection with the audience we can say this problem would not have occurred if they had been using the IWNS system.PR 5 Will handouts given to journalists during a tour be helpful? Yes. They can help the journalist to read about the relevant information.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  38. 38. 2–12 Effective Presentations W IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  39. 39. 3–1 Unit 3 Building presentations W Unit time: 70 minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to: A Build a presentation. IE B Develop an introduction and capture the attention of the audience. C Organize the body of the presentation and use transitions. D Conclude the presentation. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  40. 40. 3–2 Effective PresentationsTopic A: Build presentationsExplanation Organization is extremely important in a presentation because the audience cannot follow your work if they become confused. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the presenter to help the audience understand the presentation from beginning to end. W Importance of organizing the presentation The way in which you organize your presentation directly influences your audiences ability to understand the message you are trying to communicate. In order for an audience to understand your presentation, they must be able to follow the chain of reasoning that leads to your final conclusion. If the audience cannot understand your presentation, they’ll probably doubt your credibility. Without credibility, you’ll be unable to make a strong impact on the audience, and you might not achieve your IE objectives. In addition, knowing that your presentation is organized clearly will help you feel more confident when presenting so you can deliver your presentation more fluently. Response from a presentation There are two points in a presentation that generate high levels of attention and retention in the audience: the beginning and ending. When you begin a presentation, the audience will have some natural curiosity about you and your topic. If your opening is strong your audience will become interested in your topic, but if the opening is weak, they might decide not to listen. EV After you begin your presentation, the audiences level of interest will drop naturally. The size of this decline depends greatly on your presentations organization. If the presentation makes sense, and you use stimulating supporting materials, you can increase the audiences levels of attention and retention. The end of your presentation usually will increase audience interest, but this part of the presentation also depends on organization. If your audience is confused and does not realize you are reaching the conclusion, the levels of attention and retention will not increase. However, if the audience has followed your presentation and you emphasize the conclusion, their level of interest will increase. Organize a presentation A presentation should consist of three major parts:PR • The introduction is the first impression you’ll give the audience, so you’ll want to be prepared for it. The introduction provides you an opportunity to introduce your topic and show the audience why they should listen to your presentation. • The body of the presentation will absorb most of the time you have for presenting, because it includes most of your supporting materials, as well as all your main points. The main points will be the important ideas you want to express to your audience. Each one should be a single idea that is different from, but related to, the other main points. • The conclusion is your last chance to make your message clear. It is an opportunity to summarize what you have covered in the presentation and make a lasting impression.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  41. 41. Building presentations 3 –3 Do it! A-1: Building the presentation Exercises Show students the 1 View the slide shown by the instructor. Pick any one of the topics displayed and “Building” slide and ask write a brief article. Share your thoughts on how you collected and organized your them to write an article on W any one topic. thoughts to build the article. Give three to four minutes to complete and then ask a few students to share their thoughts. Your main focus should be on how they organized the article. IE EV The main idea behind this discussion is to show how you connected your thoughts and built an article. You can also build a presentation by joining its different parts. Ask two students to share 2 Discuss the three most important parts of writing a letter. their viewpoints. Now show them the slide Stress that the structure that applies to an article “Organizing” to explain the also applies to the creation of a presentation.PR major parts of organizing a letter.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  42. 42. 3–4 Effective PresentationsTopic B: Develop an introductionExplanation To develop an introduction there are three essential functions: • Capture attention W • Establish credibility • Preview topic and main points Capture attention Many of the audience members might be preoccupied with distractions outside the room, in the room, or they might be thinking about other things. Therefore, your introduction will need to break this preoccupation. After you have their full attention, you’ll need to focus on maintaining it. To keep the IE audience interested in the rest of your presentation, you should provide them with sufficient reason to listen. You can do so by telling them why the topic is important, relating the topic to them, and telling them what they’ll learn from the presentation. Establish credibility It is important to establish your credibility in the introduction of your presentation because the audience will be more likely to listen to your message if they feel you are qualified to speak on the topic. Therefore, you need to share with the audience the knowledge, personal experience, or professional experience you have that is relevant to the topic. EV To share your qualifications, you should list them and relate them to your topic. You’ll want to appear confident, but not arrogant. It is possible that you might not have first- hand experience with the topic. If your knowledge comes from research you have done or from interviews you have conducted, you should share these sources with your audience. Preview topic and main points The last function your introduction should serve is to give the audience a preview of the topic and main points. As you introduce your topic, you can provide any background information the audience will need to understand the presentation, such as definitions. Previewing the main points gives the audience a sense of the presentations organization. If they know what to listen for and what to expect, they’ll be able to follow along better.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
  43. 43. Building presentations 3 –5 Do it! B-1: Developing the introduction Exercises Ask some students to 1 You have seen your instructor teaching this class by giving a presentation. List share their viewpoints. five methods that were used to capture your attention. Write their thoughts on a W transparency and then connect them to the next 2 Why is organizing a presentation Because it affects the level of credibility and topic. important? confidence of the presenter. Audience attention Explanation There are several methods you can use to gain the audience’s attention during the introduction. You should use the method that works best for you, your topic, and your IE audience. Use one or any combination of these common methods: • Question • Story • Quotation • Startling statement • Audience reference Question Asking questions that relate to the topic and the audience members is an effective way EV to arouse interest in your presentation. You can ask one question or a set of questions that pull the audience deeper into the topic. After asking a question, it is helpful to pause for a moment, so the audience has time to think about their own answers to the question. You should then answer each question fully, so the audience is not left wondering what the answers are and will be able to focus on what you are saying. Story Telling a story in your introduction adds a human element to your topic. Sharing your experiences or the experiences of others helps the audience relate to your topic. People naturally are interested in stories, and occasionally, the audience members might have had similar experiences themselves.PR Quotation Quotations provide an interesting way to open a presentation. You can select a quotation from a famous author, politician, philosopher, or an expert in the field of your topic. Quotations can also come from people who are not experts, as long as they have first- hand experience with the topic and something important to say that will be meaningful for the audience. If you choose to use a quotation in your introduction, be sure to select one that is short, is easily understood, relates to the topic, and will be interesting for the audience. A quotation that is lengthy, complicated, or not easily connected to the topic quickly will lose the audiences attention.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE