Tree domestication strategies for Allanblackia species; a potential high valued tree crop for                      AfricaD...
Uses of Allanblackia spp.Region   Community       Oil Medicine Shade TimberBA       A. KwahuBA       A. Kyenkyenhene +    ...
Production levels 120 fruits /tree 40 kg of seeds/tree 12 kg oil/tree
Oil properties High content of stearic and oleic acids Begins to melt > 35oC Requires less processing
Demand for Allanblackia oil Huge market for Allanblackia oil Received EU certification as safe in food Current demand e...
PPP - Novella partnership   SNV: Facilitation of stakeholder collaboration   UNILEVER: Funding & market development   I...
Main components of AB domestication   Sensitization and encouragement of farmers to    participate in AB domestication  ...
Sensitization of farmers                    2            13                4          5
Participatory tree domestication   Farmer participation in survey    to identify and selection of    good mother stocks ...
Reproductive biology         Female flowers                          •Real genetic differences?                          •...
Variation in fruit shape
Diversity in fruit size – 58 trees selected                                                                               ...
Oil content as index for plus tree selectionCorrelation to:Flower colour?Fruit shape?
Germination on nursery bed (24 months)
Testa removed vrs intact seeds(12 months)
Germination in polythene bags
Seed germination in polythene bags                    80                    70                    60                    50...
Environmental conditions on seed germination inTanzania (longuza. - 25-35 oC; Kwamkoro – 16-25 oC)
Germination of seed sections
Treatment                                    Rooting and Rooting      Total dead/    % germinated                         ...
Effect of growth media (18 months)25201510 5 0                                                                           1...
Propagation by cuttings               70                                                               60.4               ...
Propagation by cuttingsReject                     Accept and plant
Effect of shade on rooting
Tissue culture
Tissue culture – Effect of different mediaType of media         No. of explants   Survival rate %Anderson’s medium        ...
Decentralized distribution pathways                                   RRCResearch nursery      Field planting       Satell...
Goal is to ensure proper exchange and                        delivery of germplasm to farmers                             ...
Flowering and fruiting age of A. floribundaType        of Year     No. planted   Age (yrs)   % flowered % fruitedgermplasm...
Current status of AB flowering & fruiting, Mbalmayo, Cameroon                             Flowering male AB tree of seedli...
Mother block in Ghana
Mother block        Date        No.                                fruits perProgeny planted     planted   No. flowered No...
Genebank of A. parviflora -Ghana
Flowering and fruiting of A. parvifloraProgeny   Date planted   No. planted   No.        No. of   Sex                     ...
Genebank Of A. stuhlmanii - Tanzania
Marketing◦ Novel International formed  to develop supply chain and  coordinate market  development◦ Market assurance◦ Size...
Allanblackia oil mill - Tanzania
Further work Tissue culture Mechanical coat removal Link of morphology to oil quality and quantity Seed and seedling d...
Thank you very much for your         attention
Tree domestication strategies for Allanblackia species; a potential high valued tree crop for Africa
Tree domestication strategies for Allanblackia species; a potential high valued tree crop for Africa
Tree domestication strategies for Allanblackia species; a potential high valued tree crop for Africa
Tree domestication strategies for Allanblackia species; a potential high valued tree crop for Africa
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Tree domestication strategies for Allanblackia species; a potential high valued tree crop for Africa

  1. 1. Tree domestication strategies for Allanblackia species; a potential high valued tree crop for AfricaD. Ofori, M. Munjuga, E. Asaah, Zac. Tchoundjeu,T. Peprah, R. Jamnadass,T. Simons ICRAF Seminar – 15th January 2013
  2. 2. Uses of Allanblackia spp.Region Community Oil Medicine Shade TimberBA A. KwahuBA A. Kyenkyenhene + +BA K. Adjeikrom + +ER Kyebi Apapam +ER K. Adadientem +WR Bisaaso +WR Nkrankrom +WR Kamaso + +WR Manso Amenfi + +
  3. 3. Production levels 120 fruits /tree 40 kg of seeds/tree 12 kg oil/tree
  4. 4. Oil properties High content of stearic and oleic acids Begins to melt > 35oC Requires less processing
  5. 5. Demand for Allanblackia oil Huge market for Allanblackia oil Received EU certification as safe in food Current demand exceeds 100,000 t/year Unilever ≈ 30,000- 40,000 t/yr Current supply is only about 210t oil/yr Wild harvesting unsustainable Need for domestication
  6. 6. PPP - Novella partnership SNV: Facilitation of stakeholder collaboration UNILEVER: Funding & market development ICRAF: Domestication (selection, propagation & germplasm conservation), Novel International: Supply chain, marketing, multiplication and distribution IUCN: Best practices for biodiversity conservation Farmers: Production in smallholder agroforestry systems NARS RSSDA, FORM Ghana MSBP, MTU, SLU Nutriswish
  7. 7. Main components of AB domestication Sensitization and encouragement of farmers to participate in AB domestication Range-wide germplasm collection, development of propagation methods and gene conservation Ecology, abundance and sustainable harvesting Integration of AB in farming systems and Agroforestry development Facilitate development of marketing networks and supply chain
  8. 8. Sensitization of farmers 2 13 4 5
  9. 9. Participatory tree domestication Farmer participation in survey to identify and selection of good mother stocks Boosts up the interest of farmers to implement domestication programmes
  10. 10. Reproductive biology Female flowers •Real genetic differences? •Quality of oil? •Quantity of oil? Male flowers
  11. 11. Variation in fruit shape
  12. 12. Diversity in fruit size – 58 trees selected Axis 2 NEN 4 NEN 6 NK 2TIA 14 WA 4 MH3 WAM K 5 GB 10 TIA 7 NB 3 DB 2 NEN 16 NEN 21 TIA 3 NK 9 AK 2 TIA 17 K5 TIA 2 NK 7 TIA 6 DB 4 GB 12 LAHO 2 NEN 9 NK 6 MH1 NEN 22 WR 11 AY 1 TIA 4 MN 3 WAM K 14 B 21 WAM K 1 NZA 40 NB 1 SA 1 NZA 2 SA 48 NZA 24 DB 9 NEN 19 B 4 NZA 1 B 22 K 2 B 17 NEN 14 MH4 MA 4 DM 4 NZA 3 NEN 27 M N 1 NEN 18 2 KW WAM K 8 M H 2 M N 4 LAHO 4 ASN 11 TIA 9 WAM K 3 LAHO 3 WAM K 15 Axis 1 B1 GB 34 NZA 11 AK 1 NEN 29 OT 7 LAHO 5 NEN 20 WH 1 ASN 12 AFS 3 KW 1 DM 2 N 2 WAM K 4 NEN 30 NZA 26 GB 11 BM K 13 NEN 25 DM 1 NB 1 B 19 TIA 13 BS 1 B 13 B 10 WA 6 SA 2 NEN 28 DB 12 B 11 WAM K 7 WAM K 2 OT 3 MA 1 NEN 23 LAHO 1 B 20 WA 2 B 9 NEN 11 B 6 WAM K 6 TIA 1 AWA 2 ATB 1 OT 1 NEN 24 B 23 NZA 12 MH5 D6 NZA 31 B 24 OT 5 AFS 1 WAM K 9 NEN 26
  13. 13. Oil content as index for plus tree selectionCorrelation to:Flower colour?Fruit shape?
  14. 14. Germination on nursery bed (24 months)
  15. 15. Testa removed vrs intact seeds(12 months)
  16. 16. Germination in polythene bags
  17. 17. Seed germination in polythene bags 80 70 60 50 % germination Black 40 Plain 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time (months)
  18. 18. Environmental conditions on seed germination inTanzania (longuza. - 25-35 oC; Kwamkoro – 16-25 oC)
  19. 19. Germination of seed sections
  20. 20. Treatment Rooting and Rooting Total dead/ % germinated shooting only Not germinated(90 days results)Proximal sections ( in black polythene 89 - 111 45material)Proximal sections ( in plain polythene 131 - 69 66material)Proximal sections (in plain polythene - - - -material further placed in blackpolytheneLongitudinal sections ( in black polythene 82 51 67 41material)Longitudinal sections ( in plain polythene 95 60 73 48material)Proximal sections (sown in sand) Nil Nil 200 NilLongitudinal sections (sown in sand) Nil Nil 200 NilWhole seed in black polythene material 48 68 84 24Whole seed placed in plain polythene 51 78 71 26materialWhole seeds in plain polythene material 32 69 99 17in black
  21. 21. Effect of growth media (18 months)25201510 5 0 1 2 Top soil AB soil 1 2 Effect of source of soil on growth and development of Allanblackia seedlings; a = differences in height (cm) growth and b = differences in leaf size and colour. Trees labeled 1 were grown in soil under Allanblackia tree and be without soil from Allanblackia tree.
  22. 22. Propagation by cuttings 70 60.4 60 52 50 % Rooting 40 38 30 30 20 10 0 0 0 cm2 7.5 cm2 12.5cm2 25 cm2 50 cm2 Leaf area (cm2)
  23. 23. Propagation by cuttingsReject Accept and plant
  24. 24. Effect of shade on rooting
  25. 25. Tissue culture
  26. 26. Tissue culture – Effect of different mediaType of media No. of explants Survival rate %Anderson’s medium 18 22.22Whites medium 18 27.78Murashige and skoog 18 33.33Preece medium 18 55.56Quoirin & Lepoivre 18 61.11Gamborg 18 61.11Driver & Kiniyuki 18 66.67Lloyde & McCown 18 88.87(WPM)
  27. 27. Decentralized distribution pathways RRCResearch nursery Field planting Satellite nursery
  28. 28. Goal is to ensure proper exchange and delivery of germplasm to farmers satellite nursery satellite satellite satellite nursery nursery nursery satellite satellite nursery satellite nursery nursery satellite nursery satellite Rural nursery Resource Centre satellite Local commercial nursery nursery satellite satellitefarmer’s nursery nursery farmer’sfields fields satellite nursery
  29. 29. Flowering and fruiting age of A. floribundaType of Year No. planted Age (yrs) % flowered % fruitedgermplasm planted and date and dateSeedlings 2005 48 7 11 % 0%Cuttings 2006 48 6 0% 0%Grafts 2007 55 5 33 % 18%Marcots 2010 16 2 0% 0%
  30. 30. Current status of AB flowering & fruiting, Mbalmayo, Cameroon Flowering male AB tree of seedling origin 6 young AB fruits on graft
  31. 31. Mother block in Ghana
  32. 32. Mother block Date No. fruits perProgeny planted planted No. flowered No. fruited plantAFS1 Jun-08 12 0 0TIA3 Jun-08 12 0 0NE 19 Jun-08 12 0 0NE 6 Jun-08 12 1 1 2AFS3 Jun-08 12 3 0APS1 Jun-08 12 2 0WA4 Jun-08 12 0 0NE14 Jun-08 12 2 1 3WANK 3 Jun-08 12 2 0WA 6 Jun-08 12 3 1 2
  33. 33. Genebank of A. parviflora -Ghana
  34. 34. Flowering and fruiting of A. parvifloraProgeny Date planted No. planted No. No. of Sex flowered fruitsKA 14 2007 6 1 2 FemaleSA 34 2007 6 1 3 FemaleAKO 3 2007 6 3 MaleKAP16 2007 6 1 5 FemaleMH1 2007 6 1 1 FemaleK5 2007 6 1 1 FemaleB13 2007 6 1 22 FemaleB4 2007 6 1 18 FemaleNK2 2007 6 1 7 FemaleN2 2007 6 1 1 FemaleB16 2007 6 1 79 FemaleN2 2007 6 1 MaleAP5 2007 6 1 MaleAKO 3 2007 6 1 Male
  35. 35. Genebank Of A. stuhlmanii - Tanzania
  36. 36. Marketing◦ Novel International formed to develop supply chain and coordinate market development◦ Market assurance◦ Size of potential market Tun is ia M or occo A lge r ia Lib ya Egy pt ra ha a .S W M a ur ita nia M a li Nige r Eritre a Se ne ga l C ha d Suda n Bu rkina Fa s o D jibo uti Gu ine a Nige ria Ethiopia oon Sie r ra Le one Gh a na C en tra l A frican C a m er # ## # # Lib e ria Re pub lic # # ### # ## # ## ## # a a li # # # m C ongo Ug an da Ke n ya So Ga b on C ongo D R # # # Ta nz a nia # # # K ey # # S p e c ie s lo c a tio n p o in t C o un tr y w ith s tu d y s ite s A ngola C o un tr y b o un d a r y Za m b ia La k e s ar M oz a m b iqu e a sc Zim ba bw e d ag Na m ib ia Bots w a na Ma Sw a z ila n d South A frica
  37. 37. Allanblackia oil mill - Tanzania
  38. 38. Further work Tissue culture Mechanical coat removal Link of morphology to oil quality and quantity Seed and seedling distribution system Growth architecture of different propagule types Development of planting models Flowering and fruiting dynamics
  39. 39. Thank you very much for your attention

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