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GENETIC MANIPULATION OF CAROTENOID BIOSYNTHESIS  by:abbas Morovvati  4/28/2012                                  2
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What is genetic engineering?• Genetic engineering,  technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM)  and gene splicing ...
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Genetic manipulation     – Altering the characteristics of existing known       species to produce new and desirable      ...
Genetic manipulation      – Site-directed mutagenesis is the insertion of short         segments of DNA (using recombinant...
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Different between Genetic Engineering and traditional• , where the organisms genes are manipulated indirectly;  genetic en...
pigments protect photosynthetic plant structures by  dissipating excess light energy and binding singlet oxygen to inhibit...
Definition4/28/2012    11
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Copyright restrictions may apply.
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What do carotenoids do?•   In human beings, carotenoids can serve several important functions. The most widely studied and...
Where are Carotenoid Pigments?•    Carotenoid pigments These pigments are also found in plastids.    The carotenoids occur...
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References•   Bendich, A. (1989). Carotenoids and the immune response. J. Nutr., 119:112-115.•   Britton, G. (1995). Struc...
References•   Mangels, A.R., J.M. Holden, G.R. Beecher, M.R. Forman, and E. Lanza.    (1993). Carotenoid content of fruits...
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Abbas Morovvati
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Abbas Morovvati

  1. 1. 4/28/2012 1
  2. 2. GENETIC MANIPULATION OF CAROTENOID BIOSYNTHESIS by:abbas Morovvati 4/28/2012 2
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  4. 4. What is genetic engineering?• Genetic engineering, technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct manipulation of an s4/28/2012 4
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  6. 6. Genetic manipulation – Altering the characteristics of existing known species to produce new and desirable characteristics – Mutations can be induced with mutagenic agents or UV irradiation • Example: Development of high-yield cultures of Penicillium for penicillin production – Protoplast fusion can be used to fuse cells of eukaryotic microbes and microbes that are not phylogenetically related; used especially for genetic manipulation in yeasts & molds4/28/2012 6
  7. 7. Genetic manipulation – Site-directed mutagenesis is the insertion of short segments of DNA (using recombinant DNA technology) into a gene to lead to desired changes in its protein product – Recombinant DNA can be transferred between different organisms, creating combinations of genes with exhibit desired characteristics • Shuttle vectors: Vectors (such as bacterial plasmids) that can replicate in more than one species • Expression vectors: Vectors that have transcriptional promoters capable of mediating4/28/2012 gene expression in the target species. 7
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  9. 9. Different between Genetic Engineering and traditional• , where the organisms genes are manipulated indirectly; genetic engineering uses the techniques of and to alter the structure and characteristics of genes directly. Genetic engineering techniques have found some successes in numerous applications. Some examples are in improving crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human through the use of modified , the manufacture of in hamster cells, and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the (cancer mouse) for research.4/28/2012 9
  10. 10. pigments protect photosynthetic plant structures by dissipating excess light energy and binding singlet oxygen to inhibit oxidative damage . Examples of include lutein and - carotene.• Dietary intake of lutein, -carotene, and other has been associated with reduced risk of lung cancer and chronic eye diseases, including cataract and age-related macular degeneration4/28/2012 10
  11. 11. Definition4/28/2012 11
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  13. 13. Copyright restrictions may apply.
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  18. 18. What do carotenoids do?• In human beings, carotenoids can serve several important functions. The most widely studied and well-understood nutritional role for carotenoids is their provitamin A activity. Deficiency of vitamin A is a major cause of premature death in developing nations, particularly among children. Vitamin A, which has many vital systemic functions in humans, can be produced within the body from certain carotenoids, notably beta-carotene (Britton et al. 1995). Dietary beta-carotene is obtained from a number of fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, peaches, apricots, and sweet potatoes (Mangels et al. 1993). Other provitamin A carotenoids include alpha-carotene (found in carrots, pumpkin, and red and yellow peppers) and cryptoxanthin (from oranges, tangerines, peaches, nectarines, and papayas).• Carotenoids also play an important potential role in human health by acting as biological antioxidants, protecting cells and tissues from the damaging effects of free radicals and singlet oxygen. Lycopene, the hydrocarbon carotenoid that gives tomatoes their red color, is particularly effective at quenching the destructive potential of singlet oxygen (Di Mascio et al. 1989). Lutein and zeaxanthin, xanthophylls found in corn and in leafy greens such as kale and spinach, are believed to function as protective antioxidants in the macular region of the human retina (Snodderly 1995). Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll found in salmon, shrimp, and other seafoods, is another naturally occurring xanthophyll with potent antioxidant properties (Di Mascio et al. 1991). Other health benefits of carotenoids that may be related to their antioxidative potential include enhancement of immune system function (Bendich 1989), protection from sunburn (Matthews- Roth, 1990), and inhibition of the development of certain types of cancers (Nishino 1998)4/28/2012 18
  19. 19. Where are Carotenoid Pigments?• Carotenoid pigments These pigments are also found in plastids. The carotenoids occur, along with the chlorophyll pigments, in tiny structures - called plastids - within the cells of leaves. Sometimes they are in such abundance in the leaf that they give a plant a yellow-green color, even during the summer. But usually we become aware of their presence for the first time in autumn, when the leaves begin to lose their chlorophyll. Carotenoid yellow and orange color is in many living things, giving characteristic color to carrots, corn, canaries, and daffodils, as well as egg yolks, rutabagas, buttercups, and bananas. Their brilliant yellows and oranges tint the leaves of such hardwood species as hickories, ash, maple, yellow-poplar, aspen, birch, black cherry, sycamore, cottonwood, sassafras, and alder.4/28/2012 19
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  21. 21. References• Bendich, A. (1989). Carotenoids and the immune response. J. Nutr., 119:112-115.• Britton, G. (1995). Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function. FASEB J., 9:1551-1558.• Britton, G., S. Liaaen-Jensen, and H. Pfander. (1995). Carotenoids today and challenges for the future. In: Britton, G., S. Liaaen-Jensen, and H. Pfander [eds], Carotenoids vol. 1A: Isolation and Analysis. Basel: Birkh user.• Di Mascio, P., Kaiser, S., and Sies, H. (1989) Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 274:532- 538.• Di Mascio, P., M. E. Murphy, and H. Sies. (1991) Antioxidant defense systems: the role of carotenoids, tocopherols, and thiols. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 53:194S-200S.• ^ Armstrong GA, Hearst JE (1996). "Carotenoids 2: Genetics and molecular biology of carotenoid pigment biosynthesis". FASEB J. 10 (2): 228–37. PMID 8641556.• ^ Bjelakovic G, et al (2007). "Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis". JAMA 297 (8): 842–57. doi:10.1001/jama.297.8.842. PMID 17327526.4/28/2012 21
  22. 22. References• Mangels, A.R., J.M. Holden, G.R. Beecher, M.R. Forman, and E. Lanza. (1993). Carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables: an evaluation of analytic data. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 93:284-296.• Mathews-Roth, MM. (1990) Plasma concentration of carotenoids after large doses of beta-carotene. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., Sep 52:3, 500-1• Mercadante, A. (1999) New carotenoids: recent progress. Invited Lecture 2. Abstracts of the 12th International Carotenoid Symposium, Cairns, Australia, July 1999.• Nishino, H. (1998) Cancer prevention by carotenoids. Mutat. Res., 402:159- 163.• Ong, A.S.H., and E.S. Tee. (1992) Natural sources of carotenoids from plants and oils. Meth. Enzymol., 213: 142-167.• Pfander, H. (1992) Carotenoids: an overview. Meth. Enzymol., 213: 3-13.• Snodderly, D.M. (1995) Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 62(suppl):1448S-1461S.4/28/2012 22
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