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Creativity teChniques
in game design                                       AnnAkAisA kultimA




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Finland, tampere
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                                          GDC Mobile 08: Febru...
Join the dots with only four
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                                                 ...
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 thoughts of edward debono
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 thoughts of edward debono
 - Mind is efficient in creating patterns
 - Extremely difficult ...
Join the dots with only four
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                                                 ...
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what we learned fro...
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                                             GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2...
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What We Learned Fro...
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                                            GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone C...
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GDCMobile08: Creativity Techniques is Game Design

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This is my slideshow for GDC 2008 Mobile track.

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GDCMobile08: Creativity Techniques is Game Design

  1. 1. Creativity teChniques in game design AnnAkAisA kultimA GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  2. 2. Finland, tampere research, university of tampere Laboratory of hypermedia, game research Lab gamespace project study of design and evaluation methods for casual multiplayer mobile games Frans mäyrä, Janne Paavilainen, annakaisa Kultima, Johannes niemelä, Jussi Kuittinen hannamari saarenpää GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  3. 3. Finnish innovation and technology Funding agency industry partners: nokia veikkaus (Finnish national Lottery) teliasonera sumea/digital Chocolate sulake GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  4. 4. W e a L L K n o W W h at beyond your reguLar C r e at i v i t y i s ? b r a i n s to r m i n g What We Learned From WorKshoPs? g n e r at i o ni dtea ge am e s u d y
  5. 5. W e a L L K n o W W h at C r e at i v i t y i s ? GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  6. 6. C r Can e a t it Ju not b e ei v i t xPLa in y st ed haP Pen s GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 6/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  7. 7. C r e at i v i t y Cannot be exPLained it P P e n s ha Just Creativity is a complex phenomenon involving the operation of multiple influences as we move from initial generation of an idea to delivery of an innovative product. (Mumford and Gustafson 1988) Idea generation is not a random process, but a relatively structured process that can be explained (Perttula 2006) GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  8. 8. r e i t h e v t e i t o i s a n e n e o r C o r GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  9. 9. o n e i s e i t h e r C r e a t i v e or not Creativity is born from insight and lateral thinking skills, lateral thinking is a process that can be learned (deBono 1970) In the past, creativity tended to be viewed as a fixed inborn trait. Currently, experts generally conceptualize creativity as a multifaceted construct that is affected by both nature and nurturing processes. (Clapham 2003) GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  10. 10. s i r e h o dy t h e m e tt i v i t n or C r ea Fo GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 0/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  11. 11. t h e r e i s no method F o r C r e at i v i t y Creativity training had the greatest impact on originality (Rose Lin 1984, Kabanoff Bottger 1991) There is strong relationship between the number of idea generation techniques and the number of successful products (Sowrey 1989, Parnes 1961) Procedures and methods for idea generation are often based on intuitive belief systems rather than empirically validated theory (Perttula 2006) GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  12. 12. W e to aL r ea o id dy m ha an ea ve y s GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  13. 13. We aLready have too many ideas Quantity of ideas will ultimately yield to quality (Osborn 1957) Idea generation as a critical means for achieving competitive advantage (Gordan et al. 1997, Clapham 2003) GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  14. 14. h o W d o e s the mind WorK? GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 4/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  15. 15. Join the dots with only four straight lines without lifting the pen. GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  16. 16. hoW does the mind WorK? thoughts of edward debono - Mind is efficient in creating patterns - Extremely difficult to restructure - Lateral thinking vs. vertical thinking GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 6/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  17. 17. LateraL vs. vertiCaL thinKing vertical thinking Lateral thinking selective generative rightness matters richness matters seeks pathway, seeks to open up other pathways excluding other pathways best way alternate ways stops when finds promising one goes on even after promising one moving usefully playing around experiment to show some effect experiment in order to provide an opportunity to change ones ideas GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  18. 18. hoW does the mind WorK? thoughts of edward debono - Mind is efficient in creating patterns - Extremely difficult to restructure - Lateral thinking vs. vertical thinking - Vertical thinking develops the ideas generated by lateral thinking. Idea generation should be regarded as a separate activity from idea evaluation (Osborn 1963) GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  19. 19. Join the dots with only four straight lines without lifting the pen. GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  20. 20. Join the dots with only four straight lines without lifting the pen. A simple puzzle that we usually make more difficult than necessary by assuming the lines cannot go outside the “box”. GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 0/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  21. 21. t h at is Why We CaLL it “thinKing outside the box” GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  22. 22. W E a l l k n o W W h at beyond your reguLar C R E at I V I t Y I s ? b r a i n s to r m i n g what we learned from workshops? g n e r at i o ni dtea ge am e s u d y
  23. 23. beyond your reguLar b r a i n s to r m i n g GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  24. 24. tiL ize t o u vit y? h oW r ea ti C GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 4/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  25. 25. e n h a n C i n g Creative WorK atmosphere, environment - Creativity is supported and welcomed - environment with diverse and inspiring stimuli diverse personnel - Collision of different opinions and experiences Creativity training and creativity workshops - Learning lateral thinking skills - motivation, inspiration and atmosphere Creativity techniques - Creativity on demand - helping people to break patterns GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  26. 26. the Fa m o u s brain storming has become a general term for any kind of group idea generation Popularized by an advertising executive alex F. osborn (late 1930s) basic assumptions: 1. Criticism is ruled out (separation of idea generation and evaluation) 2. Free-wheeling is welcomed (easier to tame down than think-up) 3. quantity is wanted 4. reacting to ideas of others (combining, adding) GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 6/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  27. 27. r e s e a r C h e d brain storming Brainstorming don’t necessary produce novel and innovative solutions (McFadzean 2000) instructions are critical - Go for quantity, not quality (Rossiter Lilien 1994) acknowledged problems of brainstorming - Social loafing - Production blocking - Fear of evaluation GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  28. 28. min g is to r br ains L on e! no ta GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  29. 29. brainstorming alternative scenarios, brainsketching, is not brainstorming, brainwriting, bunches of bananas, Causal mapping, a L o n e Collective notebook, do different techniques for different purposes it,exaggeration,nothing, delphi, do Keeping - Problem Definition, Idea generation, a dream diary, mind idea selection, idea implementing, mapping, heuristics, holistic techniques morphological analysis, random varying level of complexity stimuli, relaxation, - bunches of bananas vs. triz six thinking hats, triz, think tank, Strong relationship between the number Why Why Why... of idea generation techniques and the number of successful products (Sowrey 1989, Parnes 1961) GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  30. 30. at ion ag i o n en er ide s t he e s s GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 0/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  31. 31. the idea generation s e s s i o n specifciexpe i ri en ce s) s a r( e exper the us kn t user brings ow le d ge the insight pla yf ul se t t in gb ue s sion he t echniq x the se t technique suggest to think laterally GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  32. 32. user doesn’t know what to do the idea generation s e s s i o n spwcifciexp i er i en ce s) s a r( e exper the us W e ne user has ed .. . certain kn t ow le d ge needs Be c ra zy ! b ue s sion he t echniq x the se t utility of the technique is difficult to understand GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  33. 33. the idea generation s e s s i o n specifciexpe i ri en ce s) s a r( e the us exper technique provides something to start with kn stim t ow le d ge uli user follows the technique pla yf ul se t t in gb ue s sion he t echniq the se t struc x uret technique systematically forces to think differently GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  34. 34. C r e at i v i t y i s domain sPeCiFiC Creativity is domain specific. (Clapham 2003, baer 1994, harkins macrosson 1990) Creativity performance in any domain requires domain-relevant skills creativity-relevant skills and task motivation. (amabile 1990) Domain specific techniques? GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 4/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  35. 35. the idea generation teChnique going d o m a i n sPeCiFiC specifciexpe i ri en ce s) s a r( e the us technique quides e x pe pla yfu lm towards specific user can concentrate kn spe rt ow in d le areas on being playful cial stimuli dge b ue s sion he t echniq the se t speci x al uc str tur e technique systematically forces to think certain things differently GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  36. 36. onLy a bout it is not ses sion the GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 6/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  37. 37. it is not onLy about the session 3 g learnin tion inspira 2 1 on th e sessi GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  38. 38. it is not onLy about the session ideas 3 g learnin tion inspira 2 1 on th e sessi GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  39. 39. W E a l l k n o W W h at beyond your regular C R E at I V I t Y I s ? b r a i n s to r m i n g What We Learned From WorKshoPs? g n e r at i o ni dtea ge am e s u d y
  40. 40. What We Learned From WorKshoPs? GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 40/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  41. 41. g a m e s P a C e WorK s h o P s discussion on casual, multiplayer mobile games methods for early phase of game production three 1-2 day workshops in 2006-2007 30 participants from 5 different companies 15+ experimental techniques, tools and methods 200+ new game ideas GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 4/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  42. 42. F i r s t WorK s h o P theme: casual concepts techniques: vna, emo, morF, PlayFirst! need for idea generation techniques? - new approaches found useful and welcomed thematic or mechanic –approaches? - no difference in the level of completeness. thoughts about the techniques - PlayFirst! endorsed clone-like ideas - amount of ideas differed techniques were different in many ways - Difficult to compare GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 4/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  43. 43. s e C o n d WorK s h o P theme: multiplayer concepts techniques: brainstorming, gamebrain, gameseekers it’s a game! - similar procedure, different stimuli same amount of ideas stimuli matters: - Coffee-mug effect - Complete games are too strong random words, pictures and sentences - endorses stories random abstracted game structures - empty and mechanical additions GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 4/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  44. 44. t h i r d WorK s h o P theme: (casual, multiplayer) mobile concepts techniques: - more appraoches: - mybook, swopbook, gameboard solo, GameBoard co-op, Mecano, Out-of-the-Office, Call your mama!, - Old approaches refined: - Piecebox, it’s a gameseeker!, morF 2.0 Choosing promising ones for further development - gameboard, mecano, Piecebox, it’s a gameseeker! morF 2.0 GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 44/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  45. 45. s o W h at d i d W e Learn? stimuli directs ideation Game specific techniques seem to work differences between techniques, ideas and groups were difficult to make - more data needed how about the real needs and contexts? - outside workshop situations GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 4/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  46. 46. W E a l l k n o W W h at beyond your regular C R E at I V I t Y I s ? b r a i n s to r m i n g what we learned from workshops? g n e r at i o ni dtea ge am e s u d y
  47. 47. g n e m ei o ni dteda ge a r at s u y GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 4/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  48. 48. r e a L n e e d s reaL Contexts What happens in authentic settings? - independent use - daily practices execution - Product-like package - 3 months use period - our industry partners contributing to pilot study data collection - Pre-interviews, feedback cards, online survey, interviews after the use period GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 4/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  49. 49. g a m e s P a C e ideating methods research prototype Polished, product-like Game-specific (casual, mobile, multiplayer) Physical objects, pictoral instructions modular, combinable GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 4/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  50. 50. g a m e s Pa C e m e t h o d s verbs, nouns adJeCtives (vna) simple, easy to use Collaborative, shared idea Casual game word-set GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 0/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  51. 51. gamesPaCe methods gameseeKers Collaborative game Forcing combinations Pictures for associations social aspects of games Casual games genres GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  52. 52. gamesPaCe methods gameboard Competetive (not on ideas) shared idea / parallel ideas structure for the game idea game components mobile games features random words GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  53. 53. gamesPaCe methods P i e C e b o x game and play pieces drawing inspiration from the pieces Communicating through pieces experimenting with ideas GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  54. 54. gamesPaCe methods m e C a n o everyday objects analysing, putting to other uses mechanical aspect for game ideas GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 4/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  55. 55. gamesPaCe methods m o r F Computer aided usb-key, database analysing existing game Coming up with variations Forced combinations GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  56. 56. some tentative resuLts oF the study GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco 6/60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  57. 57. n idea is ind oF a W h at K ga me i dea? GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  58. 58. o u y W i t h d o W u P h o C o m e eW g ame i deas? n GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco /60 “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi
  59. 59. 93% 13% .” ue the use “i w ould contin 60% as may 100% “some o f t h e id e duct.” le a d t o a new pro d.” recommen “i would a L L e r o xP v erien Ces? e GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi /60
  60. 60. od sP eCiFiC meth ienCe s? e xPer GDC Mobile 08: February 18-22, 2008; Moscone Center, San Francisco “Creativity Techniques in Game Design“ by Annakaisa Kultima, University of Tampere, Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi 60/60
  61. 61. udy? of t he st ns Limitatio
  62. 62. udy? of t he st ns Limitatio es of ga me erienc Posit ive exp techniques! idea specific
  63. 63. udy? of t he st ns Limitatio es of ga me erienc Posit ive exp techniques! idea specific don ’t forget other ap proaches!
  64. 64. udy? t he st tions of imita me l erienc es of ga Posit ive exp techniques! idea specific don ’t forget other ap proache http://gameslices.wordpress.com s!
  65. 65. udy? t he st tions of imita me l erienc es of ga Posit ive exp techniques! idea specific don ’t forget other ap proache http://gameslices.wordpress.com s! ien ces? you r exper
  66. 66. udy? t he st tions of imita me l erienc es of ga Posit ive exp techniques! idea specific don thanK you! ’t forget other ap proache http://gameslices.wordpress.com s! Annakaisa.Kultima@uta.fi ien ces? you r exper

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