Date of Seminar :- 4th September 2012
Time :- 10am onwards
Venue :- M.H Saboo Siddik Polytechnic.
Objective of Industrial
Health and Safety
1. To Provide protection.
2. To provide healthy, safe and hygienic condition
in the Industry.
3. To take protection against risk and hazards.
4. To provide prevention of accident on machinery
and occupational hazards.
The Factory Act
The Factory Act,1948 provides basic labour
laws for industrial health and safety.
Factory act shall
Act was first passed in 1948 then amended in
15th May 2009.
Health : As defined by WHO, health is a
state of complete physical, mental, social
and spiritual well being and absence of
Safety : Safety is a state of freedom from
danger or risk.
Disposal of wastes and effluents
Ventilation and temperature
Dust and fume
Good Machine Health
Good Work Practice
(1) Every factory shall be kept clean and free from
effluvial arising from any drain, or other
nuisance, and in particular :(a)Accumulation of dirt shall be removed daily by
sweeping or by any other effective method;
(b) The floor of every workroom shall be cleaned
at least once in every week by washing, using
(c) Effective drainage shall be provided.
(2) All walls, partition, ceiling, passage shall be
Disposal of wastes and effluents
Waste shall be disposed of after suitable
treatment to render them harmless to the external
Waste water should be properly treated through
ETP Plant and should be given out to the sewages.
Ventilation and Temperature
Effective and suitable provisions shall be made in
every factory for maintaining in every workroom ;
(a)The circulation of fresh air by adequate
(b) Such a temperature as determination secure to
workers therein reasonable conditions of comfort
and prevent injury to health;
(c) Process producing high temperature to be
Dust and Fumes
The working place should free from dust and
Provide exhaust for internal combustion engine.
Provide Proper Scrubber System for Furnaces and
Chimney to be provided for Smoke emission at
In every part of a factory where workers are
working there shall be provided sufficient and
All glazed windows and skylights used for the
lighting of the workrooms shall be kept clean.
The government may prescribe standards of
sufficient and suitable lighting for factories or for
any manufacturing process.
(1) In every factory, effective arrangements shall be
made to provide and maintain at a suitable points for
supply of wholesome drinking water.
(2) In every factory, wherein more than two hundred
workers are employed, provisions shall be made for
cooling drinking water during hot weather .
(1) In every factory, there shall be provided a
sufficient number of spittoons in suitable places
and maintained in a clean and hygienic
(2)The State Government may make rules
prescribing the type and numbers of spittoons to
be provided in any factory and maintenance in a
clean and hygienic condition.
Good Machine Health
• Each and every machine should be maintained so
as to be in Condition when received from OEM.
• Perodical Machine Audits should be done so as to
find Major Flaws and Minor Flaws if any.
• Proper Lubrication and cleaning of Machine
should be done as per Standards.
• History Card, OPL’s and Kaizens should be
recorded and preserved near Machine for easy 17
Good Work Practice
• Ensure proper Operation of Machine as per
process mentioned by the OEM.
• A person handling Automated machine must be
qualified so as to Operate it.
• Right Methdology should be used for Greasing
and Lubrication of Machine.
• Machine Logs should be Maintained whenever
Machine is turned ON.
Some Critical Machines
40 BAR OIL FREE HIGH
1. Employment of young/Trained persons on
2. Striking gear and devices for cutting off power
3. Casing of new machinery
4. Hoists and lifts
5. Protection of eyes
6. Precautions against dangerous fumes, gases, etc. 21
6a. Providing PPE devices at Critical Machines.
7.Precautions regarding the use of portable
electric light .
8.Precautions in case of fire.
9.Test of stability.
10.Safety of buildings and machinery.
Employment of Young/Trained persons on
No Undertrained person shall work on any
dangerous machinery except fully instructed and
received sufficient training in work at the
machine, or is under adequate supervision by a
person who has knowledge and experience of
the machine .
Striking gear and devices for cutting off power
(1) In every factorySuitable striking gear to be provided and
maintained and used to move driving belts shall
be fast and loose pulleys which form part of the
transmission machinery, and such gear or
appliances shall be constructed, placed and
maintained as to prevent the belt from creeping
back on to the fast pulley.
(2) In every factory suitable devices for cutting off
power in emergencies shall be provided and
maintained in every workroom .
(3) Locking device to prevent accidental starting.
Casing of New machinery
(1) In all machinery driven by power :(a) Screw, bolt or key on any revolving shaft,
GEAR ,spindle, wheel shall be encased(enclosed)
or otherwise effectively guarded as to prevent danger.
(b) all spur, worm and other toothed or friction
gearing which does not require frequent
adjustment while in motion shall be completely
(2)The State Government may make rules specifying
further safeguards to be provided in respect of any
dangerous part of any particular machine or class of
Hoists and Lifts
(1) In every factory :(a)Hoists and lifts to be good mechanical
construction and properly maintained /
examined by a Expertise person at least once in
every period of six months or As suggested by
(b)Every hoist way and lift way shall be protected
by an enclosure fitted with gates and the hoist or
lift and every such enclosure shall be constructed
as to prevent any person or things from being
trapped between part of them.
(c) The cage of every hoist or lift used for carrying
persons shall be fitted with a gate on each side
from which access is afforded to a landing;
(2) The following additional requirements shall apply
to hoists and lifts used for carrying persons and
installed or reconstructed in a factory after the
initiation of this Act,
(a)Efficient devices shall be provided and
maintained capable of supporting the cage together
with its maximum load in the event of breakage of
the ropes, chains and attachments;
(b) where the cage is supported by rope or chain,
there shall be at least two ropes or chains
connected with the cage and balance weight,
and rope or chain with its attachments shall be
capable of carrying the whole weight of the
cage together with its maximum load;
Protection of eyes
In any factory as may be prescribed, being a process
which involves :(a) risk of injury to the eye from particles or fragments
thrown off in the course of the process.
(b) risk to the eyes by reason of exposure to excessive light,
the State Government may by rules require that effective
screens or suitable goggles shall be provided for the
protection of eye.
Precautions against dangerous fumes, gases…
No person shall be required or allowed to enter any
chamber, tank, vat , pipe , or other restricted space in any
factory in which any gas, fume, vapour or dust is likely to
be present to such a level as to involve risk to persons.
PPE’s to be provided near Equipments Like
Boilers, Ammonia Compressors, High Nosie generating
Risk to the eyes by reason of exposure to
excessive fumes and gases, the State
Government may by rules require that effective
screens or suitable goggles shall be provided for
the protection of persons employ .
Precautions in Case of Fire
(1) In every factory, all practicable measures shall be
taken to prevent outburst of fire and its
spread, both internally and externally, and to
provide and maintain –
The necessary equipment
(2) Effective measures shall be taken to ensure that in
every factory all the workers are familiar with the
means of escape in case of fire and have been
adequately trained in the routinely.
Power to require specifications of defective
parts or tests of stability
If it appears to the Inspector that any building or
part of a building or any part of the ways,
machinery or plant in a factory is in such a
condition that it may be dangerous to human life or
To provide such drawings, specifications and
other particulars as may be necessary to determine
whether such buildings, ways, machinery or plant
can be used with safety, or
To carry out such tests in such manner as may be
specified in the order, and to inform the Inspector .
Safety of buildings and machinery
If it appears to the Inspector that the use of any
building or part of a building or any part of
machinery or plant in a factory involves danger to
human life or safety, he may serve on the occupier or
manager or both of the factory an order in writing
prohibiting its use until it has been properly repaired
(1) In every factory :Where 1000 or more workers are employed and the
operation carried out which involves risk, injury,
poisoning or disease the occupier shall employ safety
(2)The duties, qualifications and conditions of service of
Safety Officers shall be such as may be prescribed by
the State government.
1. Constitution of Site Appraisal Committees
2. Compulsory disclosure of information by the occupier
3. Power of Central Governments to appoint Inquiry
4. Emergency standards
5. Permissible limits of exposure of chemical and toxic
6. Worker's participation in safety management.
Constitution of Site Appraisal Committees
Applications for grant of permission for the
location of a factory involving a hazardous process,
a Site Appraisal Committee is appointed.
The Site Appraisal Committee shall have power to
call for any information from the person making an
application for the establishment or expansion of a
factory involving a hazardous process.
The Site Appraisal Committee shall examine an
application for the establishment of a factory
involving hazardous process.
Any process relates to controlled by the Central
Government or to a corporation or a company.
Compulsory disclosure of information by the
Registering the factory involving a hazardous
process lay down a detailed policy with respect to
the health and safety of the workers.
Every factory involving a hazardous process shall
expose in the manner prescribing all information
regarding dangers, including health hazards.
Factory engaged in a hazardous process on
the beginning of the Factories Act, 1987 within a
commencement, every occupier of a factory shall
inform the Chief Inspector, the nature and details
of the process in such a form and in such a
manner as may be prescribed.
Power of Central Governments to appoint Inquiry
The Central Government may ,in the event of the
occurrence involving a factory engaged in a hazardous
process , appoint an Inquiry Committee to inquire into
the standards of health and safety observed in the
The recommendation of the Committee shall be
advisory in nature.
Where the Central Government is satisfied that no
standards of safety have been prescribed in
respect of a hazardous process or class of
hazardous processes, it may direct the DirectorGeneral of Factory Advice Service and Labour
Permissible limits of exposure of chemical and
The maximum permissible threshold limits
exposure of chemical and toxic substances
manufacturing processes (whether hazardous
otherwise)in any factory shall be indicated
Workers participation in safety management
In every factory where a hazardous substances
are used or handled, a Safety Committee
consisting of equal number of representatives of
workers and management to promote cooperation
between the workers and the management in
maintaining safety and health.
For estimation of safety aspects, the following
steps are : (1) Source of hazard
(2) Type of hazard
(3) Control procedure
(4) Contingency plan
Sources of Hazard
Handling of inflammable and combustible raw
Handling of compressed gases.
Handling and processing of toxic substance
Handling of corrosive substances
Handling of oxidising substances
Handling of dust-producing equipment and also dust
Handling of boiler
Types of Hazards
Injury and death
In FMCG industry the manufacturing control
procedures are prescribed as per the provision of
FOOD SAFETY,OHSAS,HACCP etc.
The provisions of Good Manufacturing practices
and Good Laboratory Practices are adopted total
aspects of the factory i.e. building, plant setup, personnel, Quality assurance, manufacturing
control procedures, documentation etc. which
certainly provide safe work environment.
For ensuring total safe work environment and to
prevent accident, the under mentioned control
procedures may be adopted.
(a) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)
(c) Safety Audit
(d) Risk Analysis
(e) Preventive Maintenance
(a)Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) :- In the
FMCG industry SOP is prepared in more elaborate
manner for manufacture of each SKU.
The SOP complete in all respects, ensures total
safety in FMCG industry.
(b)Monitoring:- It is essential to monitor each &
every operation for getting success. Hence all the
processes & safety aspects must be monitored.
(c)Safety Audit:- Audit is an essential step to check
the application of systems in true manner. Hence
safety audit is to be done at regular interval so as to
parameters, critical points, safety aspects and all
steps for prevention of accidents.
(d)Risk Analysis:- Analysis in systemic manner by
considering all aspects covering men, machine,
processing, activities, building and all events including
hazard due to human error or failure of any of the
operation or tool.
(e)Preventive maintenance:- Several accidents are
avoidable by taking precautions and timely
maintenance of machineries, building, pipelines etc.
So effective maintenance programme will certainly 59
Each industry has to formulate an on-site "Emergency
It should contain in detail the problem, rapid control, action to
prevent from further growth, and all control procedures.
Five essential step for ensuring accident free as well as safe
1.source of possible hazards 4.preventive measures
And also documentation.
Facilities for storing and drying clothing
Facilities for sitting
Shelters, rest-rooms and lunch-rooms
(1) In every factory ,
Adequate and suitable facilities for washing shall
be provided and maintained for use of the
Separate and adequately facilities shall be
provided for the use of male and female workers;
Such facilities shall be kept clean.
(2) The State Government, in respect of any factory or
class or description of factories or any
manufacturing process, prescribe standards of
adequate and suitable facilities for washing.
Facilities for storing and
The State Government may, in respect of any
factories or class or description of factories, make
rules requiring suitable places for keeping
clothing / Changing Room
and the drying of wet clothing.
Facilities for Sitting
In every factory, suitable arrangements for sitting
shall be provided and maintained for all workers
grateful to work in a standing position, in order
that they may take advantage of any opportunities
for rest .
(1)In every factory to be provided and maintained
first-aid boxes or cupboards equipped with the
prescribed contents, and the number of such boxes
or cupboards to be provided and maintained.
(2) Each first-aid box or cupboard shall be kept in the
charge of a separate responsible person and who
shall always be readily available during the working
hours of the factory.
(1) The State Government may make rules requiring
that in factory where more than two hundred and
fifty workers are ordinarily employed, a canteen or
canteens shall be provided and maintained by the
occupier for the use of the workers.
(2)Without justice in the generality of the foregoing
power, such rules may provide for ,
The standards in respect of
construction, accommodation, furniture and other
equipment of the canteen;
Shelters, Rest-Rooms and Lunch-Rooms
(1) In every factory wherein more than two hundred
and fifty workers are ordinarily employed adequate
and suitable shelters or rest-rooms and a suitable
lunch- room, with provision for drinking water,
where workers can eat meals brought by them, shall
be provided and maintained for the use of the
(2) The Shelters or rest-room or lunch-rooms shall be
ventilated and shall be maintained in a cool and
(1) In every factory wherein five hundred or more
workers are employed, such number of welfare
officers as may be prescribed.
(2) The Government may prescribe the duties,
qualifications and conditions of service of
officers employed under sub-section.
good health and
of safety and