Winter 2004 Minnesota Plant Press


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Winter 2004 Minnesota Plant Press

  1. 1. Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society NewsletterVolume 23 Number 2 Winter 2004 Monthly meetings Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge Scientific and Natural Visitor Center, 3815 East 80th St. Bloomington, MN 55425-1600 Areas need support 952-854-5900 From the MNPS Board of Directors 6:30 p.m. — Building east door opens Is it becoming harder to find places to photograph your favorite 6:30 p.m. — Refreshments, information, Room A wildflower? Do you enjoy seeing wildflowers in their natural settings? 7 – 9 p.m — Program, society business Are other recreational uses destroying your favorite place? Is it 7:30 p.m. — Building door is locked 9:30 p.m. — Building closes becoming more difficult to find good locations for bird watching? If you answered yes to any of these questions, then you may want to Programs take some action. The MNPS meets the first Thursday inOctober, November, December, February, This year marks the 30th anniversary of the establishment of theMarch, April, May, and June. Check the first state natural area in Minnesota. The Department of NaturalWeb site for more program information. Resources Scientific and Natural Areas (SNA) Program administers Feb. 5: “Native Plants of Papua, New state natural areas. These areas include lands for rare and endangeredGuinea,” by George Weiblen, University species, outstanding native plant communities, and state significantof Minnesota; Plant-of-the-month: geological features.Cardinal flower, by Evelyn Moyle. Mar. 4: “Minnesota’s Scientific and SNAs are the places that Minnesota Native Plant Society membersNatural Areas Program,” by Bob go to photograph elusive orchids, old-growth forests and other uniqueDjupstrum, DNR. features. They are the places where we can go to reconnect with April 1: “Genetic Diversity of Native nature without being disturbed by ATVs or other recreational vehicles.Plants in Minnesota,” by Kristine They protect some of the most sensitive and unique lands in the state,Moncaca; Plants-of-the-Month:Bloodroot and Twinleaf, by Shirley Mah the only public places where many rare plants are found.Kooyman. Land protection and management of SNAs takes money — public May 6: “Recent Research on Little funding — to buy and protect the unique land acquired. This year theBluestem (Andropogon scoparius);” Minnesota Legislature will be appropriating money for highways andPlant-of-the-Month: Little Bluestem,both by Mary Meyer. universities, and purchasing lands for parks and hunting as well as for June 3: “Native Ferns,” by Tom SNAs. The DNR is only requesting $500,000 to purchase and develop land for natural areas, yet it is requesting tens of millions to buy otherBittinger; Annual Plant Sale. land for intensive recreational use.MNPS Web site 2004 is a bonding year, so if you want the most critical lands in thee-mail: state protected as state natural areas, now is the time to contact your state legislator, preferably by letter. The Legislature reconvenes Feb.MNPS Listserve 2. Let your representative and state senator know that you use SNAs Send a message that includes the word for photography or as places to view rare and endangered species. Or“subscribe” or “unsubscribe” and your even if you don’t visit them, tell your legislators that you want thesename in the body of the message Continued on page 3
  2. 2. SNAs need helpContinued from page 1critical places protected for presentand future generations. Tell them thatyou want to see $10 millionappropriated to accelerate theacquisition of new SNAs now, beforethe land is lost to development. Afew years from now, the same landmay be even more expensive,because demand for land is growingas our population grows. If you have questions, call LindaHuhn at 612-374-1435. To find outwho your legislator is, go to the stateWeb site: Web sites Minnesota’s state flower, the showy lady’s-slipper (Cypripedium reginae)are photo resources grows in some of the state’s Scientific and Natural Areas. It is the largestby Dave Crawford and most beautiful northern orchid. The long-lived plants take about Several botany Web sites contain 15 years from seed germination to flowering. Photo by Jason Husveth.good photos of native plants of thenortheastern United States. The sitesinclude the following. Scott Milburn replaces Dan The Web site for the ConnecticutBotanical Society has many very Mielke on board of directorsgood photos of northeastern U.S. Scott Milburn was appointed to the MNPS Board of Directors at the board’s Dec. 4 meeting. He replaces Dan Mielke, who resigned because his newplants: http://www.ct-botanical- position is demanding all of his active time. Dan plans to continue, on more limited basis, his restoration efforts and will continue to search forgalleryindex.html and identify wildflowers on his land and his uncle’s land. He has led several The University of Wisconsin has a field trips on this land.great botany photo Web site: http:// Scott is from Arlington Heights, Ill. He holds degrees from Iowa Statebotit.botany.wisc This is an address University (B.S. in Botany) and from the University of Mississippi (M.S. inchange from the old Virtual Foliage Biological Sciences). His graduate work focused on evaluating the effectsweb site. of wintertime flooding on agricultural soils in the Mississippi Delta. “More In Minnesota’s own Sherburne specifically, the research examined the existing nitrogen budget in the soil and how wintertime flooding affected the total nitrogen budget,” he said.County, the Sherburne National His graduate work is included in a recent collaborative effort entitledWildlife Refuge Web site has a plant Achieving Sustainable Freshwater Systems, published by Island Press.list page with links to photos of manyof the plants: http:// “Towards the end of graduate school, I decided that my true interest wasm i d w e s t . f w s . g o v / S h e r b u r n e / not wetland biogeochemistry, but rather plants,” Milburn said. “From thatPlant.HTM point on, I have been focusing much of my time and effort towards the subject of botany, or more specifically, sedges. I started my professional Do you know of other such sites? career in Chicago for Hey and Associates, where I was able to learn theSend your recommendations to Dave flora of the region. I spent about a year and a half working there and decidedCrawford at to move to Minnesota in pursuit of more botanical diversity.” Milburn now works with Jason Husveth at Critical Connections Ecological Services. 3
  3. 3. Old-growth forests are a source ofbiological materials for restorationby Lee E. Frelich, University of years. The inner city of Minneapolis, be noticed by one generation ofMinnesota Department of Forest for example, has many bur oaks that foresters, does not occur.Resources. He presented this were present before the city existed.information to The Minnesota Native Resilience to rather severe natural Since the area was oak savanna forPlant Society on Nov. 6, 2003. disturbances is a very special feature several thousand years, these are of old-growth forests. Near-boreal Old-growth remnants are a treasure remnants of ancient populations that forests of jack pine and black sprucetrove of unique biological resources. are adapted to local climate and soils. on the Canadian Shield bedrock inMany tree populations that have Even if the individual trees are not northern Minnesota can burn rightadapted to unusual site conditions ancient, the populations often are. down to the bedrock and bounceexist and would be good sources for There is also much to be gained back to dense forest within a fewnew horticultural varieties of trees from old growth that could be useful years, but often become brushy afterthat could withstand city conditions. for management and restoration of harvest. Someday we may learn how this resilience works, and be able to Examples include paper birch commercial forests. High-grading is use that knowledge to better managegrowing on rocky south slopes near the practice of taking the best trees commercial forests.the southern edge of its range, and (tallest trees of best growth form),sugar maples growing on rock or on and leaving poor individuals as well Preservation of old-growth forestsflood plains. There are also as less desirable species to regenerate can be fully justified based on thenumerous examples in Minnesota of the next forest. High-grading has scientific values just discussed.trees in old growth that can do things been and still is a common harvesting Spiritual and esthetic values, and thenot generally known or expected of practice, and it will eventually lead fact the people want them, only adda species, such as black ash four feet to degradation of the quality and to the reasons for preserving diameter, red maple, five feet, volume of timber produced. Old- We should not forget how importantcottonwood seven feet in diameter, growth remnants contain trees that it is to allow old-growth forests toand so-called short-lived species like have only undergone natural experience and recover from naturaljack pine and cottonwood living to selection via natural disturbance and disturbances, since it seems that thisage 150-200. competition with other trees. process is probably the most Two of the most important important aspect of old growth, and Some of these features occur in the scientific values of old-growth it is what shaped the ancientmetro area in remnants such as forests are as a control for the populations of trees over thousandsWood-Rill,Wolsfeld Woods, and commercial forest landscape and for of years. Certainly, it is moreRiley Creek Conservation Area. lessons we can learn from them, such important than the age and size of theThey also occur right on city streets.American elms, for example, were as resilience after disturbance. trees at a given moment in time.obtained from natural seed sources Silviculture, the science of growing trees, is a long-term experiment that Abatement events posted100 years ago. Now the natural will last thousands of years. Like all The schedule for noxious weedpopulations have been through experiments, controls are necessary. abatement events is posted on theseveral generations without living a Forest ecosystems did not evolve to MNPS Web site. Last year 36full life span, due to infection by produce commercial crops, and we abatement and six educationalDutch elm disease by age 30. But do not and will not know for some events were posted. We needthose older elms in the city have been time how much harvesting is information on 2004 events. If yourprotected from elm disease and still ultimately sustainable. Old-growth organization has scheduled a time torepresent the original genetic remnants that experience only remove buckthorn, garlic mustard,structure of native elm populations. natural disturbance can be used for Siberian elm, mulberry, honeysuckle, Ancient populations also exist in periodic comparison with second or other invasives, send thethe city in the same locations that growth to make sure that slow information to Dianne Plunkettthey have been for thousands of decline in productivity, too slow to Latham at
  4. 4. Garlic mustard March 27 symposium ismanagement on savannas, woodlandsplan developed by Karen Schik The annual symposium is the The long-term plan of the board is to have future symposia focus on A management program for flagship event of the Minnesota different plant communities andattacking garlic mustard has been Native Plant Society. It is always a regions of the state over the nextdeveloped by Driftless Land topical subject that draws a crowd, several years. We welcome yourStewardship, a restoration firm in and this year is no exception. The title suggestions.southwestern Wisconsin. The firm of the 2004 symposium is: Our A brochure on this year ’ssays that their protocol, which Historic Landscape: the ecology of symposium will be mailed inintegrates multiple control strategies, savanna and woodland in the February. The followingis very effective. Using it, they havetaken massive garlic mustard metropolitan area. It will be held on presentations have been scheduled.infestations to “manageable levels” Saturday, March 27, from 8 a.m. to • Geologic overviewin two years. Their comprehensive 4 p.m. at the Bunker Hills Activity • Plant communitiesapproach uses a combination of Center, Bunker Hills Regional Park, • Rare plantsprescribed burning, weed torching, Coon Rapids. The building is • Plant-insect interactionshand-pulling and herbicide surrounded by native prairie and • Ethnobotanyapplication, coupled with intensive savanna restorations. • Mammals, birds, amphibians,survey and documentation. and reptiles The board discussed a number of • Degrading factors The DLS method of garlic mustard good options for the topic of thiscontrol is described below and on • Case studies in restoration year’s symposium. This one was Symposium committee membersthe company’s Web page — http:// selected because there is currently a are Karen Schik, chair, Shirley lot of activity in the plant Kooyman, and Jason Husveth. communities, as well as a lot of local In fall, winter or spring, while most expertise on the subject. Most MNPS display is a winnernatives are dormant, garlic mustard members live in the metro, which by Dianne Plunkett Lathamshould be foliar-sprayed with was historically dominated by these I recently became aware thatRoundup (or, if green natives such educational displays can be entered communities (and prairie). We are,as sedges are present, Garlon4/ at flower shows when a member of however, very cognizant of the fact my garden club asked me to enterwater). Always use label that there are many outstate members my buckthorn display at the July Tri-recommendations; a higherpercentage of herbicide is not better in the society, and we would like to City Flower show (Edina, Richfield,and is often less effective. The encourage more members Bloomington). It was awardedherbicide can be applied to garlic throughout the state. second place. Since so many peoplemustard as long as the ambient picked up the buckthorn literature, Itemperature is above freezing. hand-pulling by burning off all of the decided to create a new buckthorn garlic mustard seedlings with a hand- display and enter it in the State Fair If the garlic mustard infestation is held propane weed torch. (DLS does Flower Show. There it got anin a fire–dependent natural not burn in the fall, because the roots honorable mention, and more thancommunity (are oaks present?), remain viable and resprout in the 100 people picked up the literature.broadcast-burn the garlic mustard- spring. Top-killed plants cannot be At the Sept. 13 Arboretum Flowerinfested areas in late spring when the sprayed in the winter. Therefore, fall Show, I entered the buckthorncotyledonous-stage plants are burning increases the amount of display (second place), my all-newpresent. This step kills many first- hand-pulling that is necesssary.) invasive plant display (third place)year plants as well as removes leaf and the MNPS display. This cycle needs to be repeatedlitter that prolongs germination and until garlic mustard is eradicated. MNPS got first place and thefrustrates the control process. The seed can remain viable in soil Educational Award (a big maroon Before garlic mustard sets seed, all for five to seven years. All non- ribbon)! Congratulations to all thosesecond-year plants should be pulled infested areas should be monitored who had a hand in designing theto prevent seed production. Follow to prevent further infestation. MNPS display. It is truly a winner! 5
  5. 5. Wild rice is valuable food and aculturally significant resource Darren Vogt, environmental flat on the water surface and can form for years if the seed remains in thebiologist for the 1854 Authority, vast leafy mats. During July, the rice water. Wild rice is susceptible to highdiscussed the “Biology, Traditional grows vertically and eventually water levels, human disturbances,Harvest, and Cultural Significance stands out of the water up to six to and competing vegetation such as burof Minnesota Wild Rice” at the Dec. eight feet. Separate male and female reed, water lilies, bulrushes, and4, 2003, MNPS meeting. The spikelets are located on a terminal pickerel weed.following article includes flowering panicle. Cross-pollination If you are interested in purchasinginformation from Vogt’s abstract and occurs naturally in rice beds, usually native-harvested rice, be sure to readfrom the “Wild Rice Resource in late July. Rice kernels begin to package labeling to verifyGuide” published by the 1854 fill with a milky substance in late July authenticity, and make inquiries ofAuthority. to early August, later hardening to your grocer. You may also want to The 1854 Authority is an inter- become seeds. look for native-harvested rice at foodtribal natural resource management Wild rice ripens in late August or co-ops. In the Twin Cities area, tryagency governed by the Bois Forte early September, and it is during this Lakewinds Natural Foods, LindenBand and Grand Portage Band of time that harvesting is done. A state Hills Co-op, Mississippi Market,Lake Superior Chippewa. The license or 1854 Authority River Market Community Co-op,organization is charged to preserve identification card (for Bois Forte or Seward Co-op Grocery & Deli,and protect the treaty rights and Grand Portage band members) is Valley Natural Foods, and Wedgenatural resources in the 1854 Ceded required. Two people in a canoe Co-op. It is also available at St. PeterTerritory of northeastern Minnesota. typically cooperate to harvest wild Food Co-op in St. Peter and may be available at other co-ops in the state. Wild rice, known as manoomin in rice. One person guides the canoethe Ojibway language, has been a while the other uses knockers (short For additional information, contactvaluable food source and a culturally pieces of wood) to harvest the rice. the 1854 Authority at 4428 Hainessignificant resource for Native Because the kernels ripen at different Rd., Duluth, MN 55811; 218-722-Americans for centuries. The 1854 times, the same wild rice bed can be 8907; www.1854authority.orgAuthority developed the Wild Rice harvested several times in a year.Resource Guide in an effort to outline Finishing of wild rice prepares it The buckthorn-Asian ladypotential water bodies where wild for cooking or storage and beetle connectionrice may be harvested within the traditionally includes drying, Buckthorn played a role in the1854 Ceded Territory. The booklet parching, hulling, and winnowing. Asian lady beetle infestation last fall,also includes information about wild Much of the wild rice for sale in according to Bruce Potter, arice biology, harvest regulations, and stores is actually “paddy” rice, a University of Minnesota biologist.traditional harvesting and finishing. hybrid that is cultivated in artificially Buckthorn is the primary host of Several varieties of wild rice have created fields and mechanically soybean aphids, which are eaten bybeen identified. The wild rice found harvested. the Asian lady beetles. In the fall,in northeastern Minnesota can be If wild rice is not harvested, the the aphids lay eggs at the base ofclassified as Zizania palustris, but is ripe seeds will eventually fall into the buckthorn buds. The eggs hatch insometimes misnamed as Zizania water and sink into the sediment at the spring, producing asexualaquatica. Wild rice is not related to the bottom of the lake or river. With females that reproduce asexually onwhite rice (Oryza sativa). favorable conditions, seeds will grow buckthorn and then move to Wild rice is an annual plant that into wild rice plants beginning the soybeans, their alternate host. Somegrows best in shallow lakes and next spring. However, wild rice seed winged aphids travel long distances.rivers. It begins growing soon after also has the ability to remain dormant “Eggs on buckthorn are believed toice-out, reaching the water surface in until favorable conditions are be the only way soybean aphids canJune. During this time, the plants lie encountered. This dormancy can last overwinter here,” Potter said.6
  6. 6. Board member nominees Plant Loreto be announced Feb.5 by Thor Kommedahl What is prickly pear cactus?by Linda Huhn All candidates for the board must Prickly pear cactus is a species of At the Feb. 5 Minnesota Native have been active society members for Opuntia. Species native to MinnesotaPlant Society membership meeting, more than one year. Any interested are O. fragilis and O. macrorhiza, butthe society’s Board of Directors, as member in good standing who meets O. humifusa has also been reported.required in the bylaws, will introduce this qualification may also become a These species are in the cactusthree candidates it deems qualified candidate. fill the three board member What do these names mean? At press time, the Nominationspositions that expire in 2004. Opuntia is a Greek city, and this Committee, chaired by ViceAdditional nominations may be name was used for succulent plants President Linda Huhn, is selecting amade by members. by Tournafort. Others say it was a slate of three nominees to propose to Each year three of the nine board the board for its approval as name given by Pliny for a plant described by Theophrastus; however,members, who serve staggered three- candidates. Any members who neither of them could have beenyear terms, are either up for re- would like to nominate themselves describing this plant for it was notelection or step down. Board or other members should call or e- present in Europe until the discoverymembers whose terms expire in 2004 mail Linda Huhn at 612-374-1435, of the New World. Fragilis meansare President Jason Husveth, Vice or fragile, macrorhiza means large root,President Linda Huhn and Secretary and humifusa means sprawling. The At the March 4 annual meeting, “pear” refers to the fruit.(and Former President, 2000-02) Joel secret ballots will be cast byDunnette. Where do these plants grow? members present. Three directors Opuntia species are native to NorthIs your town a ‘Native will be elected by a simple majority and South America. In MinnesotaPlant Community?’ of all candidates. These will include the board-approved slate of three they are found along the Minnesotaby Joel Dunnette River and in the southwest part of the candidates, any other announced How can we raise awareness of state, on rocks, sand dunes and candidates, and nominations from the prairies, and along shores.native plants? You’ve seen signs floor.promoting towns as “Tree City What do the plants look like?USA.” Why not extend that idea to An identified absentee ballot may Minnesota species are prostrate andnative plants? The Prairie Smoke be cast by mail if obtained from spreading and form large mats. TheChapter of The Prairie Enthusiasts, Secretary Joel Dunnette and returned stems (sometimes called pads) areMinnesota Department of Natural to him before the election. (Contact flat and spined. Flowers are yellow,Resources and MNPS are beginning Joel: often with a red or reddish center, anddiscussions of a plan to do just that. Voting by proxy is not permitted produce a juicy berry. They bloom in early summer. A town would get a sign under the society’s bylaws.recognizing it as a “Native Plant Election results will be announced Does the prickly pear have anyCommunity” if they have an area of immediately and will also be uses?native plants and encourage use of published in the spring Minnesota Most of the uses are attributed tonative plants. Details remain to be Plant Press. New board members O. humifusa. Pads are roasted,worked out. You can help make this will begin their three-year terms of peeled, sliced, and eaten. Seeds arehappen. Contact Joel Dunnette at office in June 2004. roasted and ground as a meal for soup thickeners. The Pawnee and> Indians used the pads for sizing to The board hopes all membersBooth was in school fair fix colors on hides or receptacles interested in serving the society made from hides. They also ate fruitsBetween 700 and 1,000 people (which, like most volunteer fresh or dried. American Indians alsoattended the Volunteer Fair at Edina organization is run by just a few applied fruit juice to warts and drankHigh School Oct. 28. MNPS was one volunteers) will step forward and run pad tea for lung ailments. An Israeliof 55 participating organizations. for office. We need your skills, your research group used flowers toDiane Plunkett Latham and Linda ideas, and your dedication. Call or reduce urgency to urinate for thoseHuhn set up and staffed the booth. e-mail Linda at the above numbers. with benign prostatic hyperplasia. 7
  7. 7. Minnesota Native Plant SocietyUniversity of Minnesota250 Biological Sciences Center1445 Gortner Ave.St. Paul, MN 55108Winter 2004 Issue