Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society Newsletter www.mnnps.orgVolume 30 Number 2 Spring 2011 Monthly meetings New research reveals Thompson Park Center/Dakota Lodge Thompson County Park 360 Butler Ave. E., more harmful impacts West St. Paul, MN 55118 of invasive earthworms Programs by Dr. Lee E. Frelich, Department of Forest Resources, University of The Minnesota Native Plant Minnesota. This is a summary of his talk at the Feb. 3 MNNPS meeting.Society meets the first Thursday Invasive European earthworms have been shown to cause a number ofin October, November, December, impacts at the ecosystem and plant community level, which were brieflyFebruary, March, April, May, and reviewed. Principle among these are changes in the structure of the soilJune. Check at www.mnnps.org — loss of the organic horizon of the soil (along with its insulating andfor more program information. erosion preventing properties), and increase in bulk density. This results 6 p.m. — Social period in lower availability of nitrogen and phosphorus and more run-off during 7 – 9 p.m. — Program, Society heavy rain events. In turn, these changes cause loss of species richnessbusiness among native plants, increased susceptibility of plants to deer grazing via May 5: “Grazing Plans a double whammy effect of earthworms combined with deer grazing, andwith Conservation Priority in replacement of a lush and diverse plant community with a relatively simpleMinnesota Native Prairie Bank community dominated by fewer species.Sites,” by Paul Bockenstedt,Bonestroo, and Jason Garms, DNR. Recent advances in research were the main focus of the presentationPlant-of-the-Month: Licorice and included earthworm interaction with climate change; facilitation ofbedstraw (Galium circaezans var. invasive plant species; longer ecological cascades, referred to as invasionalhypomalacum) by Mr. Bockenstedt. meltdown; and impacts on birds, other vertebrates, and water quality. June 2: “Plant Communities of The changes in soil structure and nutrient status mentioned above makeVermilion State Park,” by Tavis trees more susceptible to drought at the same time as drought frequencyWesbrook, parks and trails regional is increasing due to climate change. This will help reinforce the negativespecialist, DNR. P-O-M: Alpine effects of climate change on forests within a few hundred miles of thewoodsia (Woodsia alpina), also by prairie-forest border in the Upper Midwest. Earthworms also create aMr. Westbrook. Plant Sale. signature in the rings of trees at the time of invasion — ring widths of Oct. 6: “Delays in Nitrogen sugar maple, for example, are narrowed by about 30 percent. Recovery of ring width occurs a few decades In this issueCycling and PopulationOscillations in Wild Rice later, but it is not clear at this timeEcosystems,” by Dr. John Pastor, whether the trees recover from the President’s column ...................2professor, Department of Biology, changes cause by earthworms, or Spring field trips ............ ...........3U of M, Duluth. P-O-M: Wild whether the forest undergoes a Lakeshore plantings .... .............4Rice (Zizania palustris), also by Dr. period of increased mortality so that Winona County Larix ...............5Pastor. a lower of density of trees allows the Lifetime member Linda Huhn.5 surviving trees to grow faster due to Mushroom book list .................6Plant sale requirements less competition. New members .......... .................6 By 6 p.m., bring labeled potted Several papers have been BioBlitz events ........................7native plants (not cultivars) dug published recently, which combined Plant Lore: Twinleaf .................7from your property in Minnesota. Continued on page 3
President’s The majority of the responses were very positive, and the Board will MNNPS Boardcolumn be exploring this possibility over the next year. This will not be an of Directorsby Scott Milburn inexpensive endeavor, but it would President: Scott Milburn, scott. The Society elected three new be a great long-term investment in email@example.com members at the annual meeting our youth. Vice President: Shirley Mahin March. These new members, Dr. Counter to that proposal was a Kooyman, shirley.mah.kooyman@Peter Jordan, Mike Lynch, and Otto recent amendment to House Bill mnnps.orgGockman, are all new to the board.A small write-up of these three HF1010 which would allow for Secretary, program coordinator:individuals will be included in the logging of oak and walnut trees at Andrés Morantes, andres.next Minnesota Plant Press. Frontenac and Whitewater state firstname.lastname@example.org parks. As of now, this amendment We had our annual symposium Treasurers, membership data base: was removed from the bill, but itat the Bell Museum on March 26th. Ron and Cathy Huber, ron.huber@ could reappear. It raises questionsThis was our fifth year at the Bell, mnnps.org about short-sighted politicaland I would like to thank the folks maneuvering in difficult economic Ken Arndt, board member, fieldwho helped out. The event was very times. trip chair, email@example.com attended, with more than 150 Those who care about natural Michael Bourdaghs, board member,people present. It is my hope to resources need to be diligently firstname.lastname@example.org the current committee together reading the amended items that end Elizabeth Heck, board member,for the 2012 symposium. A topic up in proposed legislation. This webmaster, email@example.com yet to be decided, but we will be amendment to allow logging might orgreviewing the evaluations soon for have passed through the House hadpossible ideas. Daniel Jones, board member, it not been publicized in the news. firstname.lastname@example.org Another item handed out this I hope that as a Society we canyear was a questionnaire regarding Dylan Lueth, board member, dylan. be the ones shedding light on these email@example.com five-year strategic plan for the issues and raising awareness. WeSociety. The last few questions were have the ability through our blog Elizabeth Nixon, board member,in regards to exploring the idea of and Facebook page, but we need conservation committee chair, beth.donating Welby Smith’s recent Trees responsible members to take the firstname.lastname@example.org Shrubs of Minnesota book to initiative and to help keep us all Erika Rowe, board member, erika.every public high school in the state. informed. email@example.com Field Trips: fieldtrips.mnnps@ mnnps.org Minnesota Native Plant Society’s purpose Memberships: memberships. (Abbreviated from the bylaws) firstname.lastname@example.org This organization is exclusively organized and operated for educational and scientific purposes, including the following. Historian-Archives: Roy Robison, historian-archives.mnnps@mnnps. 1. Conservation of all native plants. org 2. Continuing education of all members in the plant sciences. Technical or membership 3. Education of the public regarding environmental protection of plant inquiries: contact.mnnps@mnnps. life. org 4. Encouragement of research and publications on plants native to Minnesota. Minnesota Plant Press Editor: Gerry Drewry, 651-463-8006; 5. Study of legislation on Minnesota flora, vegetation, ecosytems. email@example.com 6. Preservation of native plants, plant communities, and scientific and natural areas. Changes in the board 7. Cooperation in programs concerned with the ecology of natural Dr. Peter Jordan, Mike Lynch, resources and scenic features. and Otto Gockman will replace three 8. Fellowship with all persons interested in native plants through board members whose terms expire meetings, lectures, workshops, and field trips. in June. Derek Anderson and Russ Schaffenberg recently resigned.2
EarthwormsContinued from page 1with my observations, show that Spring field trips by Ken Arndt, MNNPS field trip Hastings Sand Couleeearthworms facilitate the invasion coordinatorof European buckthorn (not to be Scientific and Natural Areaconfused with our native buckthorn Hastings Scientific and Thursday June 9, 6 to 8 p.m.that grows in swamps of northern Natural Area By popular demand, we areMinnesota), tatarian honeysuckle, Saturday, April 23 offering this trip for a third year ingarlic mustard, black swallowwort, Join field trip leaders Scott a row. Join field trip leaders KarenJapanese barberry, hemp nettle Milburn (MNNPS president Schik (ecologist for Friends of the(Galeopsis tetrahit), and Veronica and senior botanist/ecologist for Mississippi River), Tom Lewanskiofficinalis. These species coevolved Midwest Natural Resources) andwith earthworms on their home Ken Arndt (MNNPS board member (conservation director for Friendscontinent and germinate and and forest ecologist for Critical of the Mississippi River), andsurvive best under bare mineral soil Connections Ecological Services) Dave Crawford (“retired” naturalistconditions created by earthworm at Hastings SNA for an afternoon of from Wild River State Park) for aninvasion. In addition, a longer hiking and early spring wildflower evening hike into one of the DNR’schain of invasional meltdown identification. A highlight to the newest Scientific and Natural Areas.has been detected, whereby field trip will be seeing the rare snow Hastings Sand Coulee is a dry sandearthworm invasion facilitates trillium (Trillium nivale) in bloom. prairie about 80 acres in size locatedEuropean buckthorn in woodlots This field trip will be limited to just beyond the southern edge of thein agricultural areas. European 20 MN NPS members. City of Hastings.buckthorn is the overwintering host Eloise Butler Wildflowerof the soybean aphid (a major pest This is a joint field trip with Garden and Bird Sanctuary Friends of the Mississippi Riverfor farmers in recent years), which Saturday, May 7, 10 a.m. to noon and will be limited to 15 MNNPSin turn is the food source for exotic MNNPS members will take aladybeetles that become pests and members. tour with trip leaders Elizabethcause allergies in people’s houses in For additional information about Heck (MNNPS board memberOctober. and Eloise Butler Wildflower these trips, go to our website at Earthworms also impact habitat Garden naturalist) and Shirley Mah www.mnnps.org and follow the linkfor vertebrate wildlife species. Kooyman (MNNPS vice president to the field-trip page. Details onGround-nesting birds such as and wildflower enthusiast) through driving directions and meeting areasovenbird and hermit thrush have Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden, will be e-mailed to participants whobeen shown to have lower nest the oldest wildflower garden indensity in earthworm-infested register for each trip. the country. This historic garden isareas by Scott Loss, a Ph.D. home to over 500 species of plants, More trips are being planned forcandidate in Conservation Biology all within 14 acres. summer and fall. Watch for e-mailat the University of Minnesota. Due to the narrow trails within updates.Research conducted in upstate New the garden, this field trip will be A friendly reminder: our fieldYork shows that salamanders are limited to 20 MNNPS members. trips are for members only. If younegatively impacted by Europeanearthworm invasion. watershed infestation in six small would like to become a member or if Finally, the loss of the organic lakes in Itasca Park was related to you need to renew your membership,horizon (duff layer) and greater measures of eutrophication. now is a great time to join. Renewbulk density of soils can influence The circle of invasive earthworm by downloading a membership formwater quality of lakes invaded by research is ever widening. from our website (www.mnnps.org)European earthworms, even in Earthworms truly deserve the title or use PayPal at the website. Justremote areas like Itasca State Park. of “Ecosystem engineers,” as well follow the link to Membership fromWe know that there is more runoff as Darwin’s comment in his 1881 the home page. I hope to see someand erosion, as well as leaching of book: “It may be doubted whethernutrients such as P, when earthworms there are many other animals which of you at an upcoming field trip.invade. University of Minnesota have played so important a part in Have you read our blog?limnologist Jim Cotner and his intern the history of the world, as have It is on the MNNPS website:Hal Halvorson showed that level of these lowly organized creatures.” www.mnnps.org 3
Three options for site preparationLakeshore plantings can are smothering, mechanical, and chemical preparation. Themaintain access while smothering method uses black plastic or newspapers to smother the existing plants and seeds onprotecting shore, views site. The mechanical method uses a sod cutter or larger soil mover likeby Rusty Schmidt, natural resources the fibrous root systems. Plantings a skid-steer or bulldozer. The mostspecialist, Washington Conservation in the water will protect the shore common method for ease and costDistrict. This is a summary of his talk from some of the wave action and is to use a glyphosate chemical ofat the March 3 MNNPS meeting. provide fish and aquatic insect Rodeo or Round-up or one of the Rusty Schmidt showed from start habitat. Typically, aquatic plantings generics. Round-up is to be used into finish several projects throughout will need larger plants planted. the upland. Anywhere near the shore,the metro area. Most were sunny They will absolutely need permits Rodeo or its generic counterpartsshorelines with lawn-grass shores before that portion of the projects should be used.that were replaced with native can begin. Plant-of-the-Monthupland and transitional shorelinesall the way into the water, with Some of the materials that will be needed will include a wave break, Chelone glabrasome aquatic plants. The plantings that may be a fence or biolog, towere very showy, with a number slow down the wave action hittingof blooming plants throughout the the shore. Biologs are shreddedyear. coconut fibers bound into a big log The average shoreline owners with various dimensions. Theyvalue their shore of a lake, stream or provide resistance to wave action;wetland for the ability to access the substrate for plants planted intowater and the views. To accomplish them; and capture sediment fromthese goals, practical designs can be upland areas. Other materials thatcreated by planting and maintaining can be used are Enviro-loc Bags,good aquatic vegetation within the which are sandbags made of filterwater, then a transition of plants that fabric and filled with the soil media. like moist to wet soils, and finally an Once filled, they can be stacked intoorganized upland planting that still a wall or used for slowing downprovides the views the landowner water in a flow, as a check damdesires and access to the water’s or wing dam. Then the bags areedge. planted with deep-rooted plants that Trees and shrubs are perfect to will take over the bags in time. Photo by Peter Dziuk.provide screening for certain areas Another option is to use Pre- by Rusty Schmidt.and to frame views. The closer the Vegetated Erosion Blankets. These Chelone glabra (turtlehead) hastree is to the viewpoint up the bank, blankets are pre-ordered for a site an interesting flower head that whenthe less obstructive it is to the shore with two layers of blanket and soil pinched looks like it is a talkingview. Yet it still provides habitat placed between with seed that is turtle, similar to a snapdragon. Alsoand shade. By creating the complete specified for the site. The seed is similar to bottle gentian, this flowershore with all levels of structure, grown, and then the blanket is cut is pollinated only by the largehabitat is also provided for wildlife. and rolled like sod. Once delivered bumble bees, as its flower opening is The upland portion of the planting to the site, the sod is rolled out on difficult to enter to get to the nectarshould have some organization and site for instant shoreline planting. source at the back. Turtlehead is aregard to aesthetics, with more New plantings need site robust perennial one to three feetflowers than grasses, and easy access preparation and protection from high, has a bluntly angled stem andto the shore and showy plants. The rabbits and geese. Fences are the opposite, elongate and coarselytransitional plantings should be best defense against unwanted critter toothed leaves. It is found in grassychosen for habitat and toleration of invasions of the new plantings. and bushy meadows and will thrivewater fluctuations and have a higher Other methods include sprays and a in all but the deepest shade. It prefersratio of grasses and sedges with deer scarecrow. moist soils.4
OnPhilip A. Cochran, Ph.D., were there, I could see them from Larix in Winona County Linda Huhn is byprofessor, chair of Biology U.S. Highway 61. lifetime member Linda Huhn, long-time programDepartment, Saint Mary’s It took me some time to get coordinator for the Society, wasUniversity, Winona, Minn. permission to access the slope awarded the Lifetime Membership There is a tamarack (Larix behind one of the homes, but on Aug. Award during the Symposiumlaricina) on the Saint Mary’s 1 and Oct. 24, 2007, I was able to program. In her thank-you to theUniversity campus. I assume that it secure some samples (Bell Museum board, she wrote:was put there by the botanist who 918878). The relatively large cones “Serving on the board, beingfounded our biology department, and long needles revealed that the secretary for a year and coordinatingBrother Charles Severin (1896- trees were not tamaracks, but rather the programs was a great honor for1992), because it sits in line with a European larch (L. decidua), and the me, not to mention educational andginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) and a bald presence of many saplings indicated fun. I did the programs for as longcypress (Taxodium distichum) next to that successful reproduction had as I did because of the example ofour science building in a convenient occurred. Later, I found several others working for the Society, andlocation for demonstrating additional larches growing from I just could not quit when all of youdeciduous gymnosperms. sandstone outcrops along Garvin were giving so much. Tamaracks have not been Heights Road in Winona. Onceformally documented from Winona again I was alerted to their presence “Preserving Earth’s beauty andCounty (G. B. Ownbey and T. by their golden foliage persisting living sustainably is something IMorley 1991, W. R. Smith 2008), after most other trees had dropped learned from my Dad Delmar, thebut L.H.Bunnell (1897) noted that their leaves. In this case, an guy who took our family on tripsthey occurred on bluffs in Homer, obvious source was a large tree in around Minnesota, but mostly outand unlike certain other tree species, the Woodlawn Cemetery downslope west. … The Nature Conservancyhe did not indicate that they had from Garvin Heights Road. W. showed me later, in my adult life,escaped cultivation. Moreover, R. Smith (2008) noted reports how beautiful Minnesota itself is,the botanist John Holzinger (1913) that European larch had escaped and I made it a goal to see it and doalso listed them among the trees of cultivation in the eastern U.S. what I could to preserve the beautifulWinona County. For some reason, a European places. The Plant Society seemed larch does not occur next to the like home when I discovered it and Across the Mississippi River in made so many friends.”Trempealeau County, tamaracks are tamarack, cypress, and ginkgoknown from bog-like habitats along outside our science building on theTamarack and Little Tamarack Saint Mary’s University campus. I Emerald ash borerscreeks, and they may sometimes have noted a tendency for some of cross Mississippigrow from acidic sandstone outcrops our staff to assume that the cypress Ash trees along West Riverin southwestern Wisconsin (Hansen is a European larch, and an outside Parkway in south Minneapolis are1933). They can be easily observed consultant hired by our grounds now infected with emerald ashalong Tamarack Creek by driving department listed it erroneously borers. About 100 of these treesnorth along State Highway 93 from as a dawn redwood (Metasequoia along the river and another 100 inCenterville in the fall, and some can glyptostroboides), another deciduous the previously infected Prospectstill be seen in upland habitat along species. The latter can be found, Park neighborhood will be cutside roads. along with a cypress, on the Winona soon. Last year, 1,400 ash trees in On Nov. 15, 2006, I was driving State University campus. The only other parts of the city were cut asalong Old Homer Road southeast European larch on the Saint Mary’s preventive measures.of Winona, when I noticed multiple campus grows along the upper edge Treasurers’ reportgolden spires of what could only of the wooded terrace slope east of Treasurers Ron and Cathy Huberhave been Larix on a steep forested Saint Joseph Hall. report that in the first quarter ofbluffside overlooking the lowlands Native Plant Expo-June 4 2011, the Society had total incomealong Pleasant Valley Creek. At Landscape Revival: Native Plant of $8,829.13. This was mainly fromleast two dozen trees of various Expo and Market will be Saturday, membership dues and Symposiumsizes extended along approximately June 4, 9 a.m. to 3 p.m., at Roseville registration fees. Expenses totaled100 meters of north-facing slope Rainbow Foods Pavilion, at the $3,992.16, primarily Symposiumbehind private residences along Old northeast corner of Larpenteur Ave. costs. Assets on March 31, includingHomer Road, and once I knew they and Fernwood St. CDs, totaled $19,945.66. 5
Illustrated books about New pollinator program will createMinnesota mushrooms native habitats Native Habitat Development for by Dr. David McLaughlin, Lincoff, G. H. The AudubonDepartment of Biology, University Society Field Guide to North Pollinators is a new U.S. Departmentof Minnesota. He spoke at the April American Mushrooms. 1981. A. A. of Agriculture option for farmers7 MNNPS meeting. Knopf, Inc., New York. enrolled in the Conservation The book that I most recommend McFarland, J. and G. M. Reserve Program (CRP). It isfor the beginner is the one by George Mueller. Edible Mushrooms of defined as “restoring and conservingBarron. Several of these books Illinois and Surrounding States. native plant communities to benefitare nation-wide in coverage, and a 2009. University. of Illinois Press, pollinators and associated wildlifesignificant number of the species Urbana and Chicago. species.”may not occur here. Miller, 0. K., Jr. and H. H. Miller. This plan requires plantings No book covers all Minnesota North American Mushrooms. 2006. that contain at least three speciesmushrooms, as there are regional Globe Pequot Press, Guilford, from each flowering group —differences in mushroom floras. Conn.Two that focus on nearby states early, mid- and late-season. The Phillips, R. Mushrooms of North(Courtney and Burdsall, Huffman et seed mixes must consist of at least America. 1991. Little, Brown andal.) are likely to have use here, but Co., Boston. nine native species, including twomay cover only some parts of the or three grasses. The grasses may Smith, A.H. and N.S. Weber. Thestate, as the mushroom flora changes not exceed 25 percent of the seed Mushroom Hunter’s Field Guide.in the different biomes. mixes. Minimum acreages range 1980. University. of Michigan Barron, G. L. 1999. Mushrooms Press, Ann Arbor. from 1 acre to 10 percent of totalof Northeast North America. Lone CRP acreage.Pine Publishing Co., Edmonton and MNNPS welcomesVancouver, Canada; Renton, Wash.(A good book to start with.) new members Conservation Bessette, A.E., et al. 1997. The Society gives a warm welcome to 22 new members who CornerMushrooms of Northeastern North joined during the first quarter of by Elizabeth NixonAmerica. Syracuse University 2011. They are: Rep. Steve Drazkowski (R,Press. Marcus W. Beck, St. Paul; Mazeppa) proposed an amendment James G. Carlson, Lake Elmo; to an environmental finance bill that Courtenay, B. and H. N. Burdsall, would require logging at FrontenacJr. A Field Guide to Mushrooms Nancy Carlson, Isanti; Christopher Currey, Lafayette, Ind.; and Whitewater State Parks. Thisand Their Relatives. 1982. Van surprise amendment was tacked ontoNostrand Reinhold Co., New York. Troy Eagan, Rochester; Steve Emmings, Excelsior; the large environmental finance bill(Wisconsin fungi). in late March but was not included Karen Stout Heller, Verndale; Grove, J. W. Edible and Anita P. Hoaglund, St. Paul; in the final bill. However, it couldPoisonous Mushrooms of Canada, Jacob and Kathryn Huebsch, resurface during the continuingrevised ed., 1975. Research Branch, Jordan; budget battles.Canada Department of Agriculture, Dorothy J. Jachim, Stillwater; Examination suggests thatOttawa, Ontario. Michael Kaluzniak, St. Paul; elected officials did no research Huffman, D.M., et al. Ruth Henriquez Lyon, Duluth; to understand what native forestMushrooms and Other Fungi of Cathleen Marquardt, Eagan; communities look like and thethe Midcontinental United States. Megan Kranz McGuire, St. Paul; critical roles black walnut and oak2nd ed. 2008. University of Iowa Stephanie McNamara, White Bear play in the long-term viability ofPress, Iowa City. (Iowa and parts of Lake; forest ecosystems.surrounding states.) Chad and Shannon Skally, St. Paul; Conserving Minnesota native Paul and Alex Skawinski, Stevens plant communities is critically Kibby, G. Mushrooms and Other dependent on each of us demanding Point, Wis.;Fungi. 1992. Smithmark Publisher., credible, full disclosure research by Edward Stec, Wyoming;New York. those we elect to represent us. Mary Williams, White Bear Lake.6
Plant Lore Three BioBlitzby Thor KommedahlWhat is twinleaf? events are Twinleaf is Jeffersonia diphyllain the barberry family. It is also being planned Individuals and families arecalled rheumatism root. invited to participate in BioBlitzes atHow did it get its names? Lake Vermilion/Soudan state parks, Jeffersonia was named for Macalester College’s Ordway FieldThomas Jefferson, who was then Station in Inver Grove Heights, andU.S. Secretary of State, by his Blomberg Lake SNA in Wisconsin.friend Benjamin Smith Barton, Participants will help count and maplater a professor at the University flora and fauna, from bacteria toof Pennsylvania. He wanted to insects, plants, birds and animals.honor Jefferson’s considerable Soudan Underground Mine,interest in natural history. Diphylla Lake Vermilion state parks;(two leaves) and twinleaf describe June 25, 12 noon – 12 noon, Junethe one or few basal leaves, almost 26.divided into two half-ovate parts. Photo of twinleat (Jeffersonia diphylla) by Peter Dziuk. The Minnesota DNR is lookingRheumatism root was so named for participants and team leaders.because American Indians used a Inventories and programs will take Korea (explained by the continentalwash from its roots and rhizomes to place at established times throughout drift).treat rheumatism. the 24-hour period. Details will be Is it edible, medicinal, or posted on the Lake Vermilion StateWho discovered twinleaf? poisonous? André Michaux found the Park website (www.mndnr.gov/ Not edible. American Indians vermilion). For more information,plant in Virginia and gave it to made a root tea for dropsy, diarrhea,John Bartram, who planted it in urinary ailments, and applied it as send an e-mail to tavis.westbrook@his garden. Benjamin Barton saw poultices for sores and ulcers. It state.mn.usit there, described and named it contains the alkaloid berberine, Macalester’s Ordway Fieldafter Jefferson, and published the an antibiotic, and has also been Station, Inver Grove Heights;description. Friday, June 10, 5 – 11:59 p.m. used in eyedrops, for treatment of The Katharine Ordway NaturalWhat does the plant look like? leishmaniasis, and experimentally It is a perennial, 4 - 18 inches for diabetes and cardiovascular History Study Area is located attall, with a leaf divided at the base conditions. Berberine can also be 9550 Inver Grove Trail, Inverto look like two paired leaves, and toxic. Grove Heights. This BioBlitz is co-one or more leafless flower stalks Can it be grown as a garden sponsored by Macalester College,(scapes) with a single white flower the Mississippi National River plant? and Recreation Area (MNRRA),of eight petals on top. They resemble It grows well in shaded, moist and the Mississippi River fund.bloodroot flowers. The fruit is a garden soil for an early spring For information, contact dosch@pear-shaped, green capsule with a flower, but it doesn’t last long. Seeds macalester.edulid on top. Twinleaf blooms from do not store well. Ants disperse Blomberg Lake SNA, BurnettApril to May, and plants are gone seeds; rodents cache them for later County, Wisconsinby August. The flowers last only a consumption. July 9, 12 noon - 6 p.m.; July 10,couple of days. 9 a.m. - 3 p.m.Where does it grow? Lost and Found This SNA is north and west of Twinleaf grows in rich, moist Two thermos containers (silver Siren, Wis. Details will be availablewoods in about five counties in one had two tea bags, pink one from the Botanical Club of Wisconsinthe southeast corner of the state. had coffee) were found after website (https://sites.google.com/It is usually found over limestone the Symposium held at the Bell site/botanicalclubofwisconsin/).or other calcareous rocks, and is Museum March 26. If you lost Contact Paul Skawinski atmore abundant east of Minnesota. either one, please contact Shirley firstname.lastname@example.org or go to theThe only other Jeffersonia species Mah Kooyman at 763-559-3114 or Blomberg Lake SNA page on thegrows in northeastern China and smkooyman@gmail Wisconsin DNR website. 7
Minnesota Native Plant SocietyP.O. Box 20401Bloomington, MN 55420Spring 2011 Directions: Take MN Hwy. 52 to the Butler Ave. E. exit in West St. Paul. Go west on Butler 0.2 mile to Stassen Lane. Go south on Stassen Lane to Thompson County Park.