Winter 2008 Minnesota Plant Press


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Winter 2008 Minnesota Plant Press

  1. 1. Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society NewsletterVolume 27 Number 2 Winter 2008 Monthly meetings Canoes help searchers Thompson Park Center/Dakota Lodge Thompson County Park 360 Butler Ave. E., West St. Paul, MN 55118 in dwarf trout lily hunt by Russ Schaffenberg 651-552-7559 (kitchen) I first saw the rare dwarf trout lily in 2006 when I volunteered Programs with the DNR Natural Heritage Program. I helped with the count in Nerstrand Big Woods State Park, close to the park headquarters, near The MN NPS meets the first Thursday the waterfalls — a gorgeous scene on a beautiful spring day. To starein October, November, December, at the emerging greenery on the forest floor all day puts me in a veryFebruary, March, April, May, and June. happy place after a long winter. I guess when you linger a long whileCheck the website for more program in nature and immerse yourself in it and leave other thoughts behind,information. you will sense and experience nature at a much deeper level of detail 6 p.m. — Social period and sensation. I felt great satisfaction while driving home that day, 7 – 9 p.m. — Program, society glad spring was here, eager to plan more outdoor I shared with Derek Anderson and Nancy Sather my love to canoe Feb 7:  “Biofuels:  Threats and and kayak and that I had paddled past the dwarf trout lily SNAs onOpportunities for Native Plants,” by Joe the Cannon River before. There are several SNAs along the Cannon,Fargione, regional scientist, The Nature and it makes a great day-trip from the metro, whether you bike,Conservancy, Minnesota Chapter.  Plant rollerblade, paddle the river, or simply hike. If you choose to paddle,of the Month (also by Fargione): Panicum you don’t even need an extra vehicle to shuttle between Cannon Falls,virgatum (switchgrass).  Announce slate Welch and Red Wing, as you can just bike or skate back to the car onof new board member candidates. the scenic trail. I also shared that I could equip any plant search they   March 6:  “Rare Plants in had to do via boat.Temporary Rainwater Pools on They took me up on my offer. They had been studying maps,Bedrock Outcrops:  Recent Discoveries zeroing in on possible dwarf trout lily habitat on private land along theon Some of Southwestern Minnesota’s Straight River, which joins the Cannon near Faribault, and contactingMost Scenic and Threatened Habitats,” by landowners to get permission to search. The easiest way to access theFred Harris, Plant Ecologist, DNR. (No sites was via the river, because these places were often far from a roadPOM since many plants will be covered and because some landowners preferred that we access via the detail.)  Annual Meeting/Election In this issue A canoe trip was planned.of three new board members.  I met up with DNR staff April 5, 8:30 a.m. - 4 p.m.: Annual members Derek, Sharon Goetz Society news ......................2symposium, “The North Shore Hollister, and Amanda Plain at Symposium .......................3Highlands,” Bell Museum of Natural Medford City Park. We unloaded President’s column.............4History, University of Minnesota, the gear and canoes, drove to our ATV damage .....................4Minneapolis. See article on page 3. destination, left my vehicle, and Herbarium .........................5MN NPS website returned. Derek, our leader, came Medicinal plant harvests ...6 well prepared with GPS and great Field trips ......................... 7 For current information about MN NPS maps. On larger rivers with larger Plant Lore: Fireweed .........7field trips, meetings, and other events, bends, it’s easy to navigate with a Membership form ..............7check the website: Continued on page 3
  2. 2. Meet Russ and finally had time to study the flora again, gaining inspiration, MN NPS BoardSchaffenberg information and connections from the MN NPS. Now basically a of Directors Russ is one of the newest members homemaker, he has time to travel, President: Scott Milburn, scott.of the Society’s board. He grew up in enjoy nature and study the flora. milburn@mnnps.orgMankato, amid a strong tradition of Vice President: Shirley Mahgardening, hunting, fishing and love Updates to plant Kooyman, shirley.mah.kooyman@of nature. But his hippie friends in mnnps.orgcollege gardened organically, which keys are available Secretary: Sean Jergens, sean.greatly influenced him, and ever Bruce Barnes has updated jergens@mnnps.orgsince then he has grown much of his his Flora ID plant keys with added 
images, nomenclatural Treasurer: Ron and Cathyown food and loves to cook. changes, etc. Contact him if you Huber, With strong environmental Ken Arndt, board member, ken. wish to get an update for $6 forvalues, he studied chemistry and shipping and handling.  He isbiology and became good at plant Peter Dziuk, board member, peter. planning to bring out new, updatedidentification, and still has his databases on an annual basis, withtattered Britton and Brown and updates available around the first Linda Huhn, board member andThomas Morley. But ultimately of each year. 
 program coordinator, 612-374-1435he became a chemist, first in theenvironmental field, then in the water Contact him at: Bruce S. Daniel Jones, board member,purification industry. He was also a Barnes,
Flora ID Northwest, daniel.jones@mnnps.orgworking musician and recently was LLC,
 731 NW 5th, 
Pendleton, Beth Nixon, board member, beth.inducted into the Minnesota Rock & OR  97801;
541-276-5547;  FAX nixon@mnnps.orgCountry Music Hall of Fame. He 541-276-8405; or; Russ Schaffenberg, boardfinally traded his drumsticks for a or
 member, russ.schaffenberg@mnnps.lake cabin in northern Wisconsin. org If you have not yet purchased Russ is president of his lake a Minnesota interactive plant key Listserv Coordinator: Charlesassociation, writes their newsletter, through the MN NPS, contact Ron Umbanhowar, ceumb@stolaf.edudoes the lake monitoring and loves Huber at  Field Trips: fieldtrips.mnnps@to canoe and kayak the nearby Wild The cost is $70 to members who mnnps.organd Scenic rivers. He retired early are up-to-date on their dues. Memberships: memberships.; 651-739-4323 Historian-Archives: Roy Minnesota Native Plant Society’s purpose Robison, historian-archives.mnnps@ (Abbreviated from the bylaws) Technical or membership This organization is exclusively organized and operated for inquiries: contact.mnnps@mnnps. educational and scientific purposes, including the following. org 1. Conservation of all native plants. Minnesota Plant Press Editor: 2. Continuing education of all members in the plant sciences. Gerry Drewry, 651-463-8006; 3. Education of the public regarding environmental protection of plant life. 21st Prairie Conference 4. Encouragement of research and publications on plants native to The 21st North American Prairie Minnesota. Conference will be Aug. 4 to 8 on 5. Study of legislation on Minnesota flora, vegetation, and ecosytems. the Winona State University campus, 6. Preservation of special plants, plant communities, and scientific and Winona. The theme is “The Prairie natural areas. Meets the River.” The conference 7. Cooperation in programs concerned with the ecology of natural will be part of the university’s sesquicentennial celebration. resources and scenic features. Additional information is available 8. Fellowship with all persons interested in native plants through at or meetings, lectures, workshops, and field trips. by contacting Dr. Bruno Borsari at 507-457-2822. bborsari@winona.edu2
  3. 3. Dwarf trout lily searchContinued from page 1 North Shore Highlands is focus of symposiumcanoe map, but the bends were somany and so small that we couldn’tkeep track with the map and had by Scott Milburnto check GPS along the way. Our This year’s symposium will be April 5, again at the Bell Museum oftargets were a number of parcels on Natural History. The focus will be on the North Shore Highlands Subsection.either side of the river. A brochure, with reservation form, is available at our website on the link Rivers in southeastern Minnesota for “Annual Symposium.” The brochure will be mailed to our membersare prone to flooding because of the in February. We have a great line-shape of the land and rapid runoff the last few parcels. We planned our up of speakers on this fascinatingfrom fields. This disturbance creates approach to one section, then spread portion of the state. I want to thankzones of different vegetation, out to sweep across the bottom these folks from the Minnesotareflected in elevation. Zones vary towards a hillside. County Biological Survey for theirfrom gravel, sand and clay — On the final pass along the help: Supervisor Carmen Converse;with opportunistic annuals and hillside, it looked promising — Lynden Gerdes, ecologist; andtough perennials — to rich, mature just the kind of scene Gleason & Lawson Gerdes, ecologist.hardwood forest on the high ground, Cronquist describe: “rich woods, We are honored to have Professorand a continuous gradient of high to often on north slopes.” Amanda Emeritus Dr. John Green, Universitylow floodplain in between. There found a skull; we thought it was a of Minnesota-Duluth, start the dayseemed to be a line in elevation fox. We paused to speculate about it. with a presentation on the geologyabove which the false rue anemone Then, moments later and a few steps of the North Shore Highlandswas abundant and below which there away, there they were! Eureka! With (NSH). He will be followed by Chelwas none. Other species showed joy, we converged on the spot, then Anderson, DNR, speaking aboutvariable tolerance to flooding and/ went back to get the flags we had the plant communities of the NSHor were quicker to repopulate low carried all day without needing and and Lynden Gerdes, DNR botanist,ground. The common trout lily discussing rare plants of the region.was scattered on the middle groundand abundant on high ground. We We will also focus on two otherlingered at large patches, hoping we important components of the NSHwould find some dwarfs mixed in, flora. Dr. Jan A. Janssens, oflooking for the telltale thread-like Lambda-Max Ecological Research,flower stalks. will speak about the bryophytes, We hopscotched our way down and Joe Walewski, of Wolf Ridgeriver — paddle, search, paddle, Environmental Learning Center,search — and had fun finding a will speak about the lichens.bullfrog, interesting flotsam and The symposium will concludeskipping stones on the river during with a panel discussion on NHSlunch break, but otherwise, no conservation issues. Panel membersluck. About 42 known dwarf trout so far include Lawson Gerdes; Jacklily populations are found in three Greenlee, plant ecologist, Superiorcounties. Many of these small National Forest; Mike Schrage,patches occur in groups close wildlife biologist, Fond du Lactogether and may be re-considered Reservation Resource Managementas single populations, so there Dwarf trout lily photo by Russ Division; and Jan Green, citizenreally are very few populations. Schaffenberg conservationist/birder.It had been about 10 to 15 years Registration cost, includingsince the last really new population this time had left behind. (Is it good lunch, is $40 for members and $50was found, so our chances were luck to forget them?) We counted for non-members. Vendors mustslim. Guided by the differences in 152 blooming plants, most in one register and also pay $50 for a table.vegetation, we realized that much of big patch and the rest in a smaller Mail registrations by March 25 to:the land was too low and looked for one. Then we splashed down a nice MN NPS Symposium Registration,higher ground, even just a small hill rapids just before our take-out and c/o Shirley Mah Kooyman, 4520or hummock tucked in somewhere. were tired but happy after a day of Terraceview Lane N., Plymouth,By mid-afternoon we were down to paddle, search, paddle, search. MN 55446. 3
  4. 4. ATVs and the President’s columnenvironment by Scott Milburn We had a great 2007 with several notable items, such as adding Peterby Matt Norton. This is an abstractof his presentation May 3, 2007. Dziuk and Russ Schaffenberg to the board, hosting a great symposium on ATVs, off-highway motorcycles, the Prairie Coteau, providing informative programming, and enjoying manyand mudder trucks — collectively opportunities to see our flora in the field. As we ended 2007, our accountknown as off-highway vehicles was hovering around $25,000. This represents quite an achievement for an(OHVs) — have an inherent capacity all-volunteer organization such as damage the environment severely Since the Society is not a for-profit business, the board decided to put ain numerous ways, regardless of portion of last year’s revenue to a worthwhile cause. We considered severalhow well behaved the rider. OHVs options that were in keeping with our mission. We felt the best use of ourcause erosion, sedimentation, and monies would be toward something capable of reaching as many peoplewildlife disturbance. as possible, thus furthering our cause. As many of you know, Orchids of OHVs are extremely effective Minnesota by lifetime member Welby Smith is out of print. Near the endat spreading non-native weed of this past year, the board unanimously approved the donation of moniesspecies, which invade and destroy to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, specifically earmarkednative plant communities. They for the printing of a second edition. Our treasurer, Ron Huber, provided areadily pick up weed seeds from check for $2,700 to the DNR. This will not cover all of the costs, but it is aroadways and often travel into the significant contribution. Our understanding is that this second edition willbackcountry, depositing these seeds be in paperback, with newly revised distribution maps, along with additionalin new locations. ATVs’ knobby information pertaining to habitat, plant description and commentary. Thetires also destroy or beat down Society will receive mention for this donation in the future publication.vegetation and expose soil, making Board member elections will be in March, and I encourage those whoa more favorable seedbed for these are interested in serving or have someone in mind to serve on the boardweed seeds. In short, because of to contact our vice president, Shirley Mah Kooyman. An initial slate oftheir engineering (extreme power, candidates will be presented at our February meeting, and nominations willaggressive tire tread, ability to drive be open until we vote at the March meeting.anywhere), OHVs cause tremendous We have an exciting year ofdamage to vegetation, wildlife, these inherent environmental problems. Rather, when trails are programming ahead. The topicslands, and waters of the state. provided in proportions that outstrip we are exploring should be of great Renegade OHVers do damage limited resources available for state interest to the Society. As thesethat is more severe and extensive enforcement and monitoring, those programs are set, we will be postingthan any other outdoor recreational added trails expose more areas to them on the website and in the Plantactivity. They are more likely to both inherent and renegade damage Press. I would also like to remindintentionally disobey signs, gates, from OHVs. folks about the Annual Symposium,and berms, either in order to flout Finally, the management situation which is discussed on page 3.the law, or in the search for wetlands likely will get worse. The “open- We have changed our e-mail(mudholes), steep slopes (hill- unless-posted-closed” management addresses for key contacts. Weclimbs), and other “challenge areas.” system ensures trail proliferation had been receiving a great deal ofRiders generally do not see a problem and guarantees environmental spam, so we changed our addresseswith using natural features on the damage. The DNR is ensuring to reduce this problem. Instructionslandscape to test the engineering this outcome north of U.S. Hwy. 2, on how to contact us via e-mail arelimits of their machines. According where 74 percent of state forest acres provided on the the DNR’s 2001 OHV Recreation are located. On “managed” state This leads me to one last item —Planning Tool Report, “riders forests, the DNR establishes the we need more feedback from ourneither understand nor appreciate the presumption that all de facto trails, membership. It is often difficultpossible connection between their regardless of whether they were to gauge how we are doing, andriding and environmental damage. created legally, are thereafter open feedback would be useful. PleaseRespondents think mud, natural to motorized recreation unless and e-mail your comments to me, and Iwater hazards, and hill climbs are until the land manager undertakes can present them to the board. Withall appropriate uses in the forest.” the substantial process of closing that, I would like to wish everyone Providing more designated trails the user-created trail and then posts well this winter, knowing that springdoes not automatically prevent it as such. will be here soon.4
  5. 5. Explore the Herbarium, examples for educational training and as a source of data for researcha hidden state treasure hypotheses. Thus, the collections also seek to preserve representative examples of worldwide diversity, toby Anita F. Cholewa, Ph.D., Botanical Section preserve collections of importancecurator of the herbarium The botanical collection to the research of curators and The University of Minnesota numbers over 600,000 vascular students and government agencies,Herbarium — plants, algae, fungi plants, approximately 25,000 and to act as sources of data forand lichens, previously under the slides of spores/pollen, and a small scientific study.direction of the Department of seed collection of approximately If you would like to be part ofBotany/Plant Biology, was formally 2,000 lots. The representation of this exciting but hidden resourceincorporated into the Bell Museum Minnesota’s flora is unparalleled, and have some time during theof Natural History in 1996. It has with over 160,000 specimens day, consider volunteering a fewbecome a hidden state treasure. collected throughout Minnesota’s hours a week by helping prepareCryptogamic Section history by L. Moyer, E. Nielson, O. specimens or providing data entry The collections of algae, fungi, Lakela, J.W. Moore, W.R. Smith, services. If interested, contactlichens, and mosses are one of the and many others. one of the curators: Dr. Anita F.most comprehensive in the nation, The assemblage of historic flora Cholewa,; Dr.numbering over 145,000 lichens, of the Upper Midwest, including Dave McLaughlin, davem@umn.over 60,000 fungi, 50,000 mosses, the Dakotas, Wisconsin, and edu; Dr. Imke Schmitt, schm2109@and 13,000 algae. Important southwestern Ontario, is among; or Dr. George Weiblen,collections include J. Tilden’s algae the best in the U.S. There is an the Pacific Northwest coast excellent collection of circumborealand South Pacific islands, E.W.D.Holway’s rusts of North and South and arctic flora due to past research interests of E.C. Abbe, W.S. Cooper, Dakota County,America, M.E. Palm’s collection D. Lawrence, and their students. DNR protect 130of Minnesota slime molds, andthe best collection of Minnesota’s Additionally, there is an excellent collection of historic Pacific island natural acres Almost 130 acres of prairie onfleshy fungi, notably those of D.J. flora, through the efforts of J. Tilden, two properties south of HastingsMcLaughlin, M.E. Palm, and M. A.A. Heller, and J.W. Moore, and a have been protected this year.Weaver. collection of early Amazonian flora Dakota County paid $638,000 for The lichen collection comprises by H.H. Rusby and R. Squires as part conservation easements; the DNRthe best representation of national of the early exploration (1895-1896) paid an additional $50,000.park and national forest lichens of the Amazon region by the Oronoco Company Limited (of Minnesota). This is the second-largestand has an excellent representation J.W. Congdon’s collection (over natural area preserved in thefrom China and Sonora, Mexico 9,000 specimens) of early California county’s Farmland and Natural(primarily Clifford Wetmore’s plants (including Yosemite National Areas program, according to Alcollections), along with the Park) and approximately 7,000 Singer, supervisor. The $20 millioncollection of the American specimens of early western U.S. and program began in 2002 and isBryological and Lichenological tropical Asian flora acquired through expected to be completed this year.Society. The collection includesBruce Fink’s Minnesota lichens, G. J.H. Sandberg’s exchanges are other Singer said the countyLlano’s collections, and S.K. Harris’ significant collections. worked closely with Friends ofNew England lichens, and there is The primary emphasis of the the Mississippi River, and thea very good representation of the museum is to build and preserve two families owning the landEuropean lichen flora. a core series of collections will continue to work with that Significant moss collections representing the flora and fauna of the organization to restore their land.include those of J.M. Holzinger Upper Midwest, to be a permanent Paul and Kari Curtis own 69from Minnesota, R.M. Schuster’s record of regional biodiversity. acres with rolling grasslands andMinnesota liverworts, and the The museum’s collections are also remnants of an oak savanna. GeneBescherelle European collection. an important part of the graduate and Carol Almquist own 59 acresThis section also houses the cereal- program in bio-systematics at the with oak, maple-basswood forestrust repository collection of the U.S. University of Minnesota in that and converted grassland. Both areasDepartment of Agriculture. the collections act as a source of are on Hwy. 61. 5
  6. 6. Harvesting of medicinal The new standards now in place look at each species and its needs.plants raises concerns There is no single standard. Each plant is looked at to ascertain what a sustainable harvest for that speciesby Erica Fargione, herbalist. This is an abstract of her talk at the Oct. 4, is. The IUCN has researchers in four2008 MN NPS meeting. countries, working with harvesters The harvest of plants for medicinal uses is as old as the use of plants and companies marketing thefor food. People have used plants for medicines in every culture in the herbs to develop species-specificworld. Plants are the best and cheapest chemists we have for our health. standards. They are also trying toIt is imperative that we protect the plants, because if we lose our valuable develop ways to certify and marketmedicinal plants, we will have nowhere else to turn. Plants are more than sustainable harvests, much likemedicine for humans. Plants clean the air and water, produce our oxygen, organic certification.feed the animals, heal the animals, and their beauty enriches our lives. Weneed to be stewards of this richness and understand our role as humans and As consumers, we can look atthe effects we have on the natural environment. where our plants come from — look at tea boxes, hair care products, A particular concern is our harvesting of plants for medicine and the tinctures, massage oils, perfumes,sustainability of our harvesting. To address the impacts on plant populations, cosmetics, dietary supplements.the World Conservation Union IUCN Medicinal Plant Specialist Group, Many of these plants come from thealong with WWF-Traffic, have been working on international standards wild. Wouldn’t it be nice to know iffor the sustainable wild collection of medicinal and aromatic plants (ISSC- their harvest was sustainable?MAP). The catalyst for these standards was the concern that many plantresearchers, herbalists, conservationist and others have for the plants that Consumers also need to know theare now threatened because of both market demands and habitat loss. right ways to use herbal medicines.Currently, worldwide, 10,000 to 15,000 MAPs are threatened. 64 MAPs Many herbal medicines areare listed on CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered marketed to promote sales. They areSpecies), including two native Minnesotan species — Goldenseal (Hydrastis touted as wonder cures with healthcanadensis) and American ginseng (Panx quinquefolium). benefits that aren’t real. The use of medicinal plants by herbalists is What makes medicinal and aromatic plants special? The diversity of uses based on traditional uses of plants.— teas, essential oils, medicines, food, cosmetics, hair care products, and Herbalism is complex, and plantsspices. Harvesting demands on many plant species are great. The demand have specific uses. We cannot geton plants for medicinal purposes is a big part of this demand. Here are our health education from the peoplesome figures about the medicinal herb market. trying to sell product — the market • The global market for medicinal herbs is $60 billion annually. is not an advocate for your health. • $17 billion was spent on herbal medicines in United States in 2000. As conservationists and stewards • In 2002, one in five U.S. adults used natural products for health. of plants, we can be mindful of Worldwide, 70 - 90 percent of all MAPs in the marketplace are wild- the changing market. A plant mayharvested. Only 900 plant species are cultivated worldwide. There are someday become a very importantmany reasons for this. Many of these plants have difficulties growing in medicine. Be aware of what plantscultivation, the market fluctuates so much that to invest in the cultivation are being marketed and the possibleis risky, the demand is usually ahead of the market so that there is no demands this may put on the wildtime to develop cultivation techniques, not much is known about how to populations.successfully cultivate the plants, the income from harvesting is a secondary The issues facing our naturalincome for the harvesters who also may not own land, and the wild varieties ecosystems are vast. Destructionof plants are considered better medicine. Wild harvesting will continue to of habitat, invasive species, overbe the main source of medicinal plants. harvesting, and climate change, What makes a plant susceptible to over harvesting? all have their effects on the plants. • Life cycle: slow growing, seed production and viability; When we talk about and tackle • Small population size; these issues through research, • Narrow genetic variability; legislation, and working together, • Part harvested: root, seed, flower, bark; we are building a better future for • Explosive demands: When a new study comes out to state the benefits both the plants and people. We need of a plant, then the demand skyrockets; to be able to pass on the richness of • Wholesale price: When the price rises, so does the harvesting. plants to the next generations.6
  7. 7. Field Trips for 2008by Ken Arndt Plant Lore by Thor Kommedahl The Society is planning anotherexciting year of field trips. Stay What is fireweed?tuned to our website for details. Fireweed is EpilobiumLook for another winter botany trip angustifolium, in the evening-around the metro in late February primrose family (Onagraceae),or early March, followed by spring and native to Minnesota.wildflowers in April and May. We How did it get its name?plan a follow-up to this year’s Epi comes from the Greeksymposium with a weekend field meaning upon and from lobostrip to the North Shore Highlands in meaning pod, referring to the waylate June. Other trips will include flowers appear to grow on theanother year of work at Pioneer seed pod — it’s the way that thePark in Blaine, prairie hikes in out- corolla is positioned on the ovary. state Minnesota, a canoe trip on the Angustifolium is Latin for narrowSt. Croix, and possibly a train ride leaf, which has given this speciesin Wisconsin. another common name, willow herb, We are planning one or two because of the resemblance to willowtrips a month, depending on field leaves. Because it occurs on fire-trip leader availability. If anyone desolated areas, it is called know is interested in leading  Where does it grow?a trip, or if you have suggestions Most frequently, fireweed growsas to where to go on a trip, e-mail in clearings on moist soils, rich inme at We humus, often after fires, mainly inare always looking for additional northern, wooded parts of the state. Itfield trip leaders and co-leaders to rapidly invades disturbed sunny sites.take us to the many fantastic areas Epilobium angustifolium,  What do plants look like?around the region and state. photo by Peter Dziuk. Plants are perennial, 3-7 feet tall, with coarse, rhizome-like roots. FourMinnesota Native Plant Society pink-purple, roundish petals make up each flower. The tiny seeds are Member Registration borne in reddish, long and narrow seed pods (capsules), 300-400 seeds Name per capsule. The simple leaves are alternate on reddish stems. Address  Is it poisonous or medicinal? It has not been reported City State Zip poisonous.  American Indians made a paste of peeled roots for treatment Phone (home) (work) of burns, sores, and boils. A leaf E-mail e-mail newsletter? Yes No tea was drunk for bowel problems, and a leaf paste was applied for Membership category (New Renewal ) mouth ulcers. Leaf extracts have $15 Individual been shown to be antibacterial. $15 Family (two or more people at same address) Has it any economic or other uses? $ 8 Student (full time) Northwest Indians used stem $ 8 Senior (over 62 or retired) fibers to make fish nets and twine. $20 Institution Because plants are high producers The membership year starts Jan. 1. To join, fill in this form. Make of nectar, bees and other insects your check payable to Minnesota Native Plant Society. Bring your are attracted to it. It is not often check and the form to a monthly meeting, or mail them to: Minnesota grown in gardens because it Native Plant Society, P.O. Box 20401, Bloomington, MN 55420. becomes an aggressive weed. 7
  8. 8. Minnesota Native Plant SocietyP.O. Box 20401Bloomington, MN 55420Winter 2008