Using Social Information to Improve Opportunistic Networking

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Presents the first results of my PhD proposal, which resulted in the following papers:

MOREIRA, W., SOUZA, M., MENDES, P., SARGENTO, S.
Study on the Effect of Network Dynamics on Opportunistic Routing.
In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Ad-Hoc Networks and Wireless (AdHoc Now 2012), 2012, Belgrade, Serbia.

MOREIRA, W., MENDES, P., SARGENTO, S.
Opportunistic Routing Based on Daily Routines.
In: Proceedings of the 6th IEEE WoWMoM Workshop on Autonomic and Opportunistic Communications (AOC 2012), 2012, San Francisco, USA.

This presentation was given in SITI Brainstorming meeting, on Feb 1st, 2012 @ SITI.

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Using Social Information to Improve Opportunistic Networking

  1. 1. Using Social Information toImprove Opportunistic Networking Waldir Moreira waldir.junior@ulusofona.pt Feb. 1st, 2012 SITI Brainstorm Meeting
  2. 2. Agenda• Introduction• Application Environments• Routing over Opportunistic Networks• Our Work• Conclusions and Future Work 2
  3. 3. Introduction 3
  4. 4. Picture today• Users are eager for retrieving/providing information• Popularization of portable devices 4
  5. 5. Straightforward DefinitionOppNets are highly dynamic, composed ofmobile and static nodes (i.e., devices) andtake advantages of opportunistic time-varying contacts among users carrying themto exchange information 5
  6. 6. General OppNetsCharacteristics• Occasional contacts• Intermittent connectivity• Highly mobile and fixed nodes• Power-constrained devices• Possible nonexistence of e2e paths 6
  7. 7. ApplicationEnvironments 7
  8. 8. Different Environments• Disruptive environments:- Sparse scenarios where communication is established through sporadic contacts• Urban environments- Dense scenarios with communication suffering different interference levels 8
  9. 9. Disruptive EnvironmentsDeep Space Communications• Purpose: provide communication means for manned/robotic exploration• Main challenges: very long delays, sparseness, shadow areas and spacecraft lifetime• Function: Information and commands are exchanged between landers/rovers and earth station through orbiters 9
  10. 10. Disruptive EnvironmentsDeep Space Communications[1] News on Deep Space Networking[2] Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 10
  11. 11. Disruptive EnvironmentsNetworks for Developing World• Purpose: provide asynchronous Internet access despite the scarce/expensive infrastructure• Main challenges: long delays and scarce/expensive infrastructure• Function: data is sent/retrieved either through USB stick carried by a motorbiker or via dial-up connection 11
  12. 12. Disruptive EnvironmentsNetworks for Developing World[3] S. Jain, K. Fall, R. Patra, Routing in a delay tolerant network, 2004[4] News on Pigeon Carrier 12
  13. 13. Disruptive EnvironmentsZebranet• Purpose: Study zebra movements through collars carried by them• Main challenges: energy constraints• Function: collars opportunistically exchange GPS location later then obtained by scientists 13
  14. 14. Disruptive EnvironmentsZebranet 14
  15. 15. Disruptive EnvironmentsTactical Military Networks• Purpose: establish quick communication means among military soldiers, vehicles, and aircrafts• Main challenges: high disruption and partition• Function: information is relayed among military units 15
  16. 16. Disruptive EnvironmentsTactical Military Networks[5] MITRE Corporation (C2 On-the-Move Network, Digital Over-the-Horizon Relay) 16
  17. 17. Urban EnvironmentsOpportunistic Sensing• Purpose: gather information from sensing systems• Main challenges: short contact times• Function: sensor present in different devices gather information which is then collected mobile devices (i.e., custodian) to be transfered to the sensing system central 17
  18. 18. Urban EnvironmentsOpportunistic Sensing[6] CamMobSens - Cambridge University Pollution Monitoring Initiative 18
  19. 19. Routing overOpportunistic Networks 19
  20. 20. What is it about?Considers any contact among nodes andforwarding decisions are made using locallycollected knowledge about node behavior topredict which nodes are likely to deliver acontent or bring it closer to the destination 20
  21. 21. 2000-2010 Analysis[7] W. Moreira and P. Mendes, “Survey on opportunistic routing for delaytolerant networks,” SITI, University Lusofona, February, 2011 21
  22. 22. Existing Taxonomies[7] 22
  23. 23. Major Routing Families[7] W. Moreira and P. Mendes, “Survey on opportunistic routing for delaytolerant networks,” SITI, University Lusofona, February, 2011 23
  24. 24. Social Aspects:The New Trend• Since 2007• Have shown great potential• Use social relationship• Much wiser decisions 24
  25. 25. Replication-based ApproachesSocial Similarity• Community Detection: creation of communities considering people social relationships - Bubble Rap * Forwarding based on community and local/ global centrality[8] P. Hui, J. Crowcroft, E. Yoneki, BUBBLE Rap: Social-based Forwarding inDelay Tolerant Networks, 2011 25
  26. 26. Replication-based ApproachesSocial Similarity• Shared Interests: nodes with the same interest as destination are good forwarders- SocialCast * predicted node’s co-location (probability of nodes being co-located with others) * change in degree of connectivity (mobility and changes in neighbor sets)[9] P. Costa, C. Mascolo, M. Musolesi, G. P. Picco, Socially-aware routing forpublish-subscribe in delay-tolerant mobile ad hoc networks, 2008 26
  27. 27. Replication-based ApproachesSocial Similarity• Node Popularity: use of social information to generate ranks to nodes based on their position on a social graph - PeopleRank * Forwarding based on social ranking of nodes[10] A. Mtibaa, M. May, M. Ammar, C. Diot, Peoplerank: Combining socialand contact information for opportunistic forwarding, 2010 27
  28. 28. Our Work 28
  29. 29. Motivation• Community detection, shared interests, node popularity• Communities are statically defined• Do not consider the age of contacts when computing the centrality• Strong assumptions• Full knowledge on social information is not enough• Some social metrics (e.g., betweenness centrality) can lead to node homogeneity[11] T. Hossmann, T. Spyropoulos, F. Legendre, Know thy neighbor:Towards optimal mapping of contacts to social graphs for dtn routing, 2010 29
  30. 30. Our Proposal dLife  Peoples daily life routine and their social ties to reach a clean representation of social interactions Time-Evolving Contact Duration (TECD)  Weights social interactions based on statistical contact duration nodes have over time TECD Importance (TECDi)  Estimates the importance of nodes 30
  31. 31. Our Proposal 31
  32. 32. Promising results Average Delivery Probability Created Scenario1.00.80.60.40.2 Average Delivery Probability0.0 Traces 1 day 2 day 4 day 1 week 3 week TTL 1.0 0.8 0.6 BubbleRap dLife Comm 0.4 dLife 0.2 0.0 1 day 2 day 4 day 1 week 3 week TTL 32
  33. 33. Promising results Average Cost Created Scenario 1600 1400 1200 1000# of replicas 800 600 400 200 Average Cost 0 Traces 1 day 2 day 4 day 1 week 3 week TTL 40 35 30 25 # of replicas 20 BubbleRap dLife Comm 15 dLife 10 5 0 1 day 2 day 4 day 1 week 3 week TTL 33
  34. 34. Promising results Average Latency Created Scenario 45000 40000 35000 30000Seconds 25000 20000 15000 10000 Average Latency 5000 Traces 0 1 day 2 day 4 day 1 week 3 week 45000 TTL 40000 35000 30000 Seconds 25000 BubbleRap 20000 dLife Comm dLife 15000 10000 5000 0 1 day 2 day 4 day 1 week 3 week TTL 34
  35. 35. Conclusions and Future Work Functions in separate had good overall performance Their combination sure provided improvements dLife is able to transcribe the dynamic behavior found on users interactions into clean social representations Plans  Improve it by introducing randomness and a stale- data removal scheme 35
  36. 36. References[1] News on Deep Space Networking - http://www.engadget.com/2008/11/19/nasas-interplanetary-internet-tests-a- success-vint-cerf-triump/[2] Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter - http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/MRO/news/mro-20060912.html[3] S. Jain, K. Fall, R. Patra, Routing in a delay tolerant network, in: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM, Portland, USA, August, 2004.[4] News on Pigeon Carrier - http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article- 1212333/Pigeon-post-faster-South-Africas-Telkom.html[5] MITRE Corporation (US Marine Corps) (Presentation on C2 On-the-Move Network, Digital Over-the-Horizon Relay) - http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/65/slides/DTNRG-2.pdf[6] CamMobSens - Cambridge University Pollution Monitoring Initiative - http://www.escience.cam.ac.uk/mobiledata/ 36
  37. 37. References[7] W. Moreira and P. Mendes, “Survey on opportunistic routing for delay tolerant networks,” Tech. Rep. SITI-TR-11-02, Research Unit in Informatics Systems and Technologies (SITI), University Lusofona, February, 2011.[8] P. Hui, J. Crowcroft, E. Yoneki, BUBBLE Rap: Social-based Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks, Mobile Computing, IEEE Transactions on, 10 (11)(2011) 1576– 1589.[9] P. Costa, C. Mascolo, M. Musolesi, G. P. Picco, Socially-aware routing for publish- subscribe in delay-tolerant mobile ad hoc networks, Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, 26 (5) (2008) 748–760.[10] A. Mtibaa, M. May, M. Ammar, C. Diot, Peoplerank: Combining social and contact information for opportunistic forwarding, in: Proceedings of INFOCOM, San Diego, USA, March, 2010.[11] T. Hossmann, T. Spyropoulos, F. Legendre, Know thy neighbor: Towards optimal mapping of contacts to social graphs for dtn routing, in: Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, San Diego, USA, March, 2010. 37
  38. 38. Using Social Information toImprove Opportunistic Networking Waldir Moreira waldir.junior@ulusofona.pt Feb. 1st, 2012 SITI Brainstorm Meeting

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