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25SEP2022 WFH Slides.pptx

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A presentation underpinning a discussion with participants in the wide-area network (WAN) summit held on 26 September 2022 in London at the QEII. It is based on initial descriptive results of a 2022 global survey of over 7,000 internet users on their workplaces prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, during the pandemic, and currently. Questions also address the cybersecurity issues they faced during each stage of the pandemic. The rise of working from home and hybrid working are clear along with declines in office work and the use of decentralised offices. The survey was designed by our research team at the Global Centre for Cybersecurity Capacity Building at the University of Oxford in collaboration with Grape Data, a new and innovative survey research organisation, which fielded the survey.

A presentation underpinning a discussion with participants in the wide-area network (WAN) summit held on 26 September 2022 in London at the QEII. It is based on initial descriptive results of a 2022 global survey of over 7,000 internet users on their workplaces prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, during the pandemic, and currently. Questions also address the cybersecurity issues they faced during each stage of the pandemic. The rise of working from home and hybrid working are clear along with declines in office work and the use of decentralised offices. The survey was designed by our research team at the Global Centre for Cybersecurity Capacity Building at the University of Oxford in collaboration with Grape Data, a new and innovative survey research organisation, which fielded the survey.

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25SEP2022 WFH Slides.pptx

  1. 1. NetWORK: How is the Internet enabling change in the post-pandemic workplace? Evidence and Themes from Exploratory Research William Dutton and Patricia Esteve-González Oxford’s Global Cybersecurity Capacity Centre (GCSCC)
  2. 2. Cybersecurity Across Workplaces: Exploratory Research In-depth Interviews with cybersecurity and IT officers at major institutions, businesses, communication firms, and universities* Global survey of over 7K adults, 18 & over, about their perceptions, attitudes and beliefs about working from home and cybersecurity * Bispham, M., Creese, S., Dutton, W. H., Esteve-Gonzalez, P., and Goldsmith, M. (2021), 'Cybersecurity in Working from Home: An Exploratory Study’, presented at TPRC49, 22-24 September 2021. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3897380
  3. 3. The Changing Nature of Work: Post-Pandemic Exploratory Survey of the Impact of the Pandemic on Work and Cybersecurity Global Centre for Cybersecurity Capacity Building (GCSC), University of Oxford in collaboration with GrapeData GrapeData: “Pioneers in developing … market research platform with global coverage” An exploratory online global survey of adults [in the field presently]
  4. 4. Survey on Cybersecurity across Workplaces • An Exploratory Research Project • William Dutton, Patricia Esteve-González, Ioannis Agrafiotis, Sadie Creese, and Michael Goldsmith • Global Cybersecurity Capacity Centre (GCSCC)
  5. 5. Survey and Respondents Globally Distributed Demographically Diverse but Young Technically Skilled but Very Mobile Reliant
  6. 6. The Global Survey with Grape Data • Focused on cybersecurity and the respondent’s workplace(s) • In the field from 22 June- 2 September 2022 • 7,330 respondents, but not a random sample • Respondents recruited and vetted • 133 countries • Limitations: evolving trends, perceptions, limits of recall • Exploratory study
  7. 7. Global Distribution of Respondents (by Residence) 10% 25% 28% 8% 19% 3% 6% 1% East Asia and Pacific Europe and Central Asia Latin America and the Caribbean Middle East and North Africa North America South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Prefer not to answer
  8. 8. Demographics • Young: 86 percent between 18 and 44 years of age • Gender: balanced with 50 percent identifying as male • Majority of participants (55%) live with at least one child • Living in big cities (40%), medium sized cities (26%), small city or town (18%), … with only 3 percent on a farm or home in a rural area • Marital Status: 45 percent single, 29 percent married, … • 11 percent with a master’s or doctoral degree, the modal category is high school (36%) followed by a bachelor’s degree (30%)
  9. 9. Employment Status 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Don't know Other categories Retired Unemployed Student Working part time Working full time
  10. 10. Internet Access • Access to Internet at Home: 47% broadband sub; 70% smartphone • Devices: Mainly smartphone, followed by laptop • 43% of participants use smartphone as the only way to access Internet at home • 87% of participants have at least one desktop or laptop computer at home • 48 percent say they are skilled online, using the internet independently and people come to them for help on how to use it • The pandemic did not lead most (58%) to adopt new software or apps • About half (47%) use the internet “almost constantly”, with another 46 percent using it “many times a day” • 70 percent have a reliable connection at home, with 21 percent saying they have “occasional problems connecting at home” • 70 percent of those with connection at home describe it as “fast enough to do things I do online”
  11. 11. Pre- and Post-Pandemic Workplaces Graphic from ‘How the pandemic will shape the workplace trends of 2021’ scx2.b-cdn.net
  12. 12. Controversy Surrounding the Workplace Elon Musk: come into work, or … “pretend to work somewhere else”
  13. 13. John Thornhill editorial in Financial Times* “… the Covid pandemic has permanently changed the world of work.” *Thornhill, J. (2022), ‘What this tech bubble got right’, Financial Times, 23 September: 25.
  14. 14. Workplace: Current* 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% Decentralized Work Center Hybrid Office/Uni Home * Only those respondents working or studying
  15. 15. Working From Home* 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Currently During the pandemic Before the pandemic * Only those participants working or studying
  16. 16. Number in Household Working from Home 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Don't know None One Two Three More than 3
  17. 17. Do You Need Internet Access to Work/Study? 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% Don't know Never Rarely Minority Most Tasks Can’t Do Without
  18. 18. Working from Office or University* 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Currently During the pandemic Before the pandemic * Only those participants working or studying
  19. 19. Working in Flexible or Hybrid Office Context* 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Currently During the pandemic Before the pandemic * Only those participants working or studying
  20. 20. Working in Decentralized Workplace* 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% Currently During the pandemic Before the pandemic * Only those participants working or studying
  21. 21. Change in Workplaces Through the Pandemic* 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Decentralized Work Center Hybrid Office/Uni Home Currently During the pandemic Before the pandemic * Only those participants working or studying
  22. 22. Beliefs and Attitudes toward the Workplace 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Prefer outside home Prefer Hybrid Prefer WFH Satisfied online systems Possible to WFH
  23. 23. “I am more productive” 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% WFH Office Decentral DK N/A
  24. 24. “I am lonely” 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% WFH Office Decentral DK N/A
  25. 25. “I get more distractions” 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% WFH Office Decentral DK N/A
  26. 26. “I lose touch with people important to work” 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% WFH Office Decentral DK N/A
  27. 27. “I have too many problems with communication” 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% WFH Office Decentral DK N/A
  28. 28. “I experience many problems with technology” 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% WFH Office Decentral DK N/A
  29. 29. Cybersecurity Across Workplaces
  30. 30. “Security is a problem” 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% WFH Office Decentral DK N/A
  31. 31. “Privacy is a problem” 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% WFH Office Decentral DK N/A
  32. 32. “I haven’t faced any cybersecurity problems” 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Currently During the pandemic Before the pandemic
  33. 33. “Did you experience more cybersecurity problems before, during, or after the pandemic?” 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% I don't know More before the pandemic More after the pandemic (currently) No difference More during the pandemic
  34. 34. Cybersecurity Problems: Currently 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Computer or other digital device stolen Been a victim of online identity theft Lost data that was on my computer or other device Been harassed or bullied online Tricked into providing personal information online Personal data or passwords stolen or hacked Saw unsolicited cruel or hateful comments or images online Believed someone accessed your social network or e-mail account… Tricked into opening a fraudulent message or attachment Been a victim of a scam or fraud online Received a virus, spyware or other malicious software Received obscene or abusive e-mails
  35. 35. Cybersecurity Problems: During the Pandemic 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Computer or other digital device stolen Lost data that was on my computer or other device Been a victim of online identity theft Tricked into providing personal information online Been harassed or bullied online Personal data or passwords stolen or hacked Saw unsolicited cruel or hateful comments or images online Believed someone accessed your social network or e-mail account… Tricked into opening a fraudulent message or attachment Been a victim of a scam or fraud online Received a virus, spyware or other malicious software Received obscene or abusive e-mails
  36. 36. Cybersecurity Problems: Before the Pandemic 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Computer or other digital device stolen Been a victim of online identity theft Lost data that was on my computer or other device Tricked into providing personal information online Been harassed or bullied online Personal data or passwords stolen or hacked Been a victim of a scam or fraud online Believed someone accessed your social network or e-mail account… Saw unsolicited cruel or hateful comments or images online Tricked into opening a fraudulent message or attachment Received a virus, spyware or other malicious software Received obscene or abusive e-mails
  37. 37. Current Cybersecurity Problems “Received obscene or abusive e-mails” “Received a virus, spyware or other malicious software in your computer” “I have been a victim of a scam or fraud online” “Tricked into opening a fraudulent message, attachment” “Believed someone accessed your social network or e-mail account without your permission” “Saw unsolicited cruel or hateful comments or images online”
  38. 38. Change in Top Cybersecurity Problems 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Received obscene or abusive e-mails Received a virus, spyware or other malicious software Been a victim of a scam or fraud online Tricked into opening a fraudulent message or attachment Believed someone accessed your social network or e-mail … Saw unsolicited cruel or hateful comments or images online Currently During the pandemic Before the pandemic
  39. 39. Change in Lesser Cybersecurity Problems 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Personal data or passwords stolen or hacked Tricked into providing personal information online Been harassed or bullied online Lost data that was on my computer or other device Been a victim of online identity theft Computer or other digital device stolen Currently During the pandemic Before the pandemic
  40. 40. When More Problems Were Perceived 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% I don't know More before the pandemic More after the pandemic (currently) No difference More during the pandemic
  41. 41. Percent Who Disagree in their Effectiveness 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Being careful to avoid phishing and scam e-mails Checking the authenticity of people who contact you online Not visiting websites that look suspicious Using two- or multi-factor authentication Carefully managing your passwords Keeping operating systems and software up to date Using secure networks when connecting to the Internet Not sharing personal information on social media Using strong passwords Blocking pop-up ads Using licenced (not pirated) software Managing records of your Internet use like "cookies" Sharing virtual meetings URL securely Using a sliding webcam cover Keeping family members away from work devices
  42. 42. Did You Start Taking More Protective Measures since the Pandemic? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Don’t know No Yes
  43. 43. Devices Used when Working from Home 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Don’t know Devices provided by your employer A mix of corporate and personal devices Only personal devices
  44. 44. What Employer Does 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Provides a corporate Virtual Private Network (VPN) for… Makes corporate applications accessible to you only via… Provides multifactor authentification Provides a securely configured device, such as a laptop Provides training on good cybersecurity practices for staff Provides secure videoconferencing software Provides corporate centralised sotrage solutions and… Has me use software that is pre-approved by the… Has policies on working from home or remotely Has clear policies for responding to any security incidents… Provides antivirus software Provides you access to IT support
  45. 45. What Employer Does Not Do 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Provides you access to IT support Has clear policies for responding to any security incidents… Has policies on working from home or remotely Has me use software that is pre-approved by the… Provides corporate centralised sotrage solutions and… Provides secure videoconferencing software Provides antivirus software Provides multifactor authentification Provides training on good cybersecurity practices for staff Makes corporate applications accessible to you only via… Provides a securely configured device, such as a laptop Provides a corporate Virtual Private Network (VPN) for…
  46. 46. Did Your Employer Start Taking More Protective Measures since the Pandemic? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Don’t know No Yes
  47. 47. Organizational Perspectives 79 percent believe the organization in which they work is open to new ideas and innovation 51 percent see their organization focused on results, compared with 41 percent focused more on how work is done
  48. 48. What is the policy of your organization? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Don't know N/A Permit WFH or on Move Office Allow hybrid
  49. 49. Some General Patterns and Themes Workplace is a matter of contention – divided opinions WFH has risen in practice and preferences Pandemic accelerated WFH, despite bounce back Pandemic hit office work but also decentralized workplaces People prefer a Hybrid Workplace or WFH WFH seen as productive but lonely, distracting & out of touch Office work seen as less productive but in touch and social Most organizations remain flexible at present
  50. 50. THANK YOU: Questions or Comments? • Exploratory Study, perceptions, and not a random sample from which to generalize specific percentages, etc. • Conceptions of the workplace are broadening but facing uncertainty • Cybersecurity perceived to be a somewhat growing problem by users, but … • Work can be done in households and hybrid work contexts • Has security enabled more flexibility?

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