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Delivering Intelligent
Transport Systems
Driving integration and innovation
The current use of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) is
often limited by a lack of an integrated and holistic vision.
Traditionally, the implementation of ITS projects has been
more tactical, focused on single transport modes using
stand-alone proprietary systems. As Transport Authorities
embark on increasingly complex mixes of IT investment
to support the provision of their transport networks, there
is a real need and opportunity to align the IT architectural
framework with the business strategy and operational
model to achieve a greater degree of system, data and
service integration.
IBM believes that an integrated common framework
uniting some of the key transport sub-systems will offer
Transport Authorities the ability to better manage their
network and provide integrated services to customers.
This framework should make maximum use of open and
common standards as well as adopting a Service Oriented
Architecture approach, which simplifies future integration
and inter-operability between transport systems.
In addition, the implementation of a new strategic transport
project such as an Automatic Fare Collection (AFC)
system or a Road User Charging (RUC) system allows the
opportunity to utilise the new infrastructure as a base for
future projects. For example, the Customer Relationship
Management (CRM) component of a multi-modal AFC
system can form the framework for other transport systems
to integrate their customer data. The development of a new
transport portal / website that provide trip advisory services
and real-time information updates to customers is another
example of how a strategic project can stimulate the data
integration of other transport systems. These strategic
initiatives can kick-start the development of a common
framework that leads to improved customer services,
reduced operational costs and increased revenues.
Transport Influencers Model
Spatial Developm
ent
Population&Economy
TransportData
&
ITS
Environment
Strategy & organisation
Funding
m
echanism
s
Infrastructureprovision
Transportmodelling
Customer interaction
Farecollection/
pricing
Road
Charging
Mobile workforce
Transport
Infrastructure supply
Macro demand
influencers
Information &
Customer
management
2
3
4
5
1
Maturity levels
Traditional
Opportunitytoinnovate
© Copyright IBM Corp, Steer Davies Gleave, Serco. 2006
Demand
Management
Figure 1: Transport Influencers Model
Transport has a major impact on the quality of life in a city, its environment
and the economy. Transport Authorities globally are facing similar strategic
challenges around worsening congestion, insufficient transport infrastructure,
affordability constraints, increasing emissions and growing customer needs.
To respond to this demanding environment, Transport Authorities can no longer depend solely on the traditional
approach of building more infrastructure as this requires significant financial commitment as well as complex regulatory
and environmental planning processes to manage (see Figure 1).
Consequently, Transport Authorities across the world are increasingly focussing on the use of demand management with
schemes such as road user charging; and information and customer management techniques including enhanced traveller
information services. This broader application of Information Technology (IT) provides an opportunity to drive innovation
in the provision of transportation systems and services.
Transport Maturity Model
Based on extensive research and interviews with leading Transport Authorities globally, IBM has developed a Maturity
Model based on the level of system, data and service integration across multiple transport modes. The Model enables
authorities to view their business and ITS solutions holistically and capture their vision of where they would like to go to
(see Figure 2). A profile of a typical Transport Authority has been mapped for reference.
Figure 2: Multimodal Network Management Maturity Model
Level 1
Silo
Level 2
Single Mode Integrated
Level 3
Partially Integrated
Level 4
Multimodal Integrated
Level 5
Multimodal Optimized
Planning Functional Area Planning
(single mode)
Project-based Planning
(single mode)
Integrated agency-wide
planning (single mode)
Integrated corridor-based
multimodal planning
Integrated regional
multimodal planning
Performance
Measurement
Minimal Defined metrics by mode Limited integration across
organizational silos
Shared multimodal system-
wide metrics
Continuous system-wide
performance management
Customer Relationships Minimal capability,
no customer accounts
Customer accounts
managed separately for
each system/mode
Multi-channel account
interaction per mode
Unified customer account
across multiple modes
Integrated multimodal
incentives to optimize
multimodal use
Data Collection Limited or Manual Input Near real-time for major
routes
Real-time for major routes
using multiple inputs
Real-time coverage
for major corridors, all
significant modes
System-wide real-time data
collection across all modes
Data Integration Limited Networked Common user interface 2-way system integration Extended integration
Analytics Ad-hoc analysis Periodic, Systematic
analysis
High-level analysis in near
real-time
Detailed analysis in
real-time
Multimodal analysis in
real-time
Payment Methods Manual Cash Collection Automatic Cash Machines Electronic Payments Multimodal integrated
fare card
Multimodal, multi-media
(fare cards, cell phones, etc)
Network Ops. Response Ad-Hoc, Single Mode Centralized, Single Mode Automatic, Single Mode Automated, Multimodal Multimodal real-time
optimized
Incident Management Manual detection,
response and recovery
Manual detection,
coordinated response,
recovery
Automatic detection,
coordinated response and
manual recovery
Automated pre-planned
multimodal recovery plans
Dynamic multimodal
recovery plans based on
real-time data
Demand Management Individual static measures Individual measures, with
long-term variability
Coordinated measures with
short-term variability
Dynamic pricing Multimodal dynamic pricing
Traveller Information Static Information Static trip planning with
limited real-time alerts
Multi-channel trip planning
and account based alert
subscription
Location-based, on journey
multimodal information
Location based, multimodal
proactive re-routing
strategicplanningreal-timeinformation
creationcapability
real-timeinterventioncapability
Intelligent Transport Systems at a turning point
Over recent years, ITS has played an increasingly important
part in providing transport services more effectively. With its
growing maturity, IBM believes ITS is approaching the next
stage in its development where it will be influenced by:
• Greater integration between systems and modes
• Open and common standards, and a shared framework
• Service Oriented Architecture
• Increased customer services
• Real-time information sharing and responsiveness
• Demonstrable value for money
IBM’s ITS experiences
IBM’s experience of developing ITS solutions includes the delivery and operation of the Stockholm Congestion Tax
Project, Singapore’s Automatic Fare Collection back office systems, the UK Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency’s
Electronic Vehicle Licensing system and a leading UK insurance company’s usage-based insurance model.
Case Study:
DVLA’s Electronic Vehicle Licensing system
The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) sought
to deliver higher levels of customer service at a lower
cost through a new online channel for vehicle licensing.
Implemented over 12 months, the innovative project won
several awards including the UK e-Government Award for
Central e-Government Excellence in 2006.
Its benefits include:
• Reduction in licensing processing time
• Reduction in cost of vehicle licence renewal
• Easier compliance for motorists
• Faster renewals through integration with insurance
companies and other government agencies.
Case Study:
Congestion Charging in Stockholm
The Swedish authorities required a system that would
automatically tax Swedish registered vehicles entering and
leaving the city centre between 06.30 and 18.30, Monday to
Friday (excluding national holidays). The target was to reduce
congestion by between 10% and 15%.
The biggest challenges during the design and implementation
process were the tight time frame, political sensitivity and
public scrutiny. The trial was to be followed, in September
2006, by a referendum for Stockholm residents to decide
whether to implement the congestion tax permanently. It was
crucial that the trial brought tangible, measurable benefits and
won over its users.
The trial itself launched on time and ran without interruption
through to its end on 31 July 2006. It not only met its
objectives – it exceeded them.
• Traffic congestion in Stockholm was reduced by 25%, far
above the original target
• Traffic queuing times fell by up to 50%. Journey times were
faster and more predictable
• Stockholm bus timetables were re-written to take
improvements to traffic flow into account
• Pollution levels in the city fell by between 10% and 15%
• Confidence in the system was high due to minimal
enforcement and administrative errors
When the trial ended, a majority of Stockholm residents
voted in favour in the referendum. This was the first time
that the residents of a European city have elected to adopt
road charging. As a result, the Swedish parliament decided to
introduce the system permanently. Following the parliamentary
process and some enhancements, the scheme was relaunched
in August 2007.
Investment in ITS innovations
IBM is investing in several Innovation Programmes that
focus on the next generation of ITS solutions: Global
Innovation Outlook and InnovationJam. The InnovationJam
programme is being used to design and in-market test
the next generation of road user charging systems
– Innovative Transport Pricing - and to develop advanced
information management solutions for end-users and
transport operators – Advanced Transport Information
Management (see Figure 3).
IBM’s global Innovative Transport Pricing project is
focused on the technology roadmap for road user
charging from City based schemes through to time,
distance and place schemes at a national/state level.
It is addressing the operational and technology challenges
of scale, privacy, accuracy, interoperability, enforcement,
total cost of ownership and critically the migration from
individual schemes through to national schemes.
IBM is running several co-invested trials with Transport
Authorities globally. An example is the Traffic Prediction
Pilot in Singapore (see case study below).
Case Study:
Traffic Prediction Pilot in Singapore
Even though Singapore has one of the most advanced traffic
management systems in the world, the Land Transport
Authority (LTA) is constantly looking for innovative solutions
to expand on and improve its range of traffic management tools
to keep traffic flowing.
Through IBM’s Global Innovation Outlook programme, the
LTA and IBM co-invested in a pilot to predict traffic flows in
Singapore’s central business district (CBD). Using historical
traffic data and real-time traffic input from the LTA’s i-Transport
system, IBM’s Traffic Prediction Tool predicted traffic flows
over pre-set durations (10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes).
Both speed and volume predictions covering the CBD were
above the target accuracy of 85%. In addition, during peak
periods where more real-time data was available, the average
accuracy of the volume forecasts on the CBD was near or
above 90% from 10-minutes all the way to the predictions 60-
minutes into the future.
With these predictions, LTA’s traffic controllers will be able
to anticipate and better manage the flow of traffic to prevent the
build-up of congestion.
2 Confidential © 2007 IBM Corporation
Pricing Models
Demand – Revenue
Congestion – PAYG
Pollution - Emissions
Innovative Transport
Pricing
End-user Info & Advice
• Multi channel dissemination
• Real time advice
• Personalization
• Location awareness
• Route planning
Transport Network
Management
• Pro-active Decision
support
• Incident response
Advanced
Transport
Information
Management
2
1
Data
Fusion
National / State
Pay-as-you-go
Services
UK
Oregon
Netherlands
Measure
Behaviour
Changes
Data
Collection
Traffic Prediction
End User Info.
Singapore
Figure 3: IBM Innovation Programme for ITS solutions
IBM Solutions
IBM has a team of over 200 ITS specialists providing the following
types of services and solutions to Transport Authorities globally:
•	 Transportation IT Strategy Consulting
	 - Transport Maturity Model
	 - Integrated ITS framework
•	 Road User Charging
	 - Project management, scheme implementation and operation
	 - Urban and Time Distance Place road charging solutions
	 - Total cost of ownership models
•	 Automatic Fare Collection
	 - Project management and implementation
	 - Global partners
•	 Transport Information Management
	 - Single and multi-modal
	 - Network management and end-user sharing
•	 Asset Management
	 - IBM Maximo Asset Management
	 - Management modules in asset, work, service, contract,
materials and procurement management
These solutions allow Transport Authorities to optimise their
networks leading to improved customer services, reduced
operational costs and increased revenues.
For more information
To learn more about IBM’s Intelligent Transport Systems,
please contact your nearest IBM representative:
UK
Jamie Houghton
E-mail: jamie.houghton@uk.ibm.com
Tel: +44-7718-778662
Clare Jack
E-mail: clare.h.jack@uk.ibm.com
Tel: +44-7808-783308
EMEA
Gunnar Johannson
E-mail: gunnar.s.johansson@se.ibm.com
Tel: + 46-8-7935729
Colin Lim
E-mail: colin.fw.lim@uk.ibm.com
Tel: +44-7966-265759
Americas
Naveen Lamba
E-mail: naveen.lamba@us.ibm.com
Tel: +1-703-362-6037
Asia-Pacific
Adrian Tee
E-mail: teekta@sg.ibm.com
Tel: +65-9008-9474
IBM United Kingdom Limited
76 Upper Ground
South Bank
London
SE1 9PZ
The IBM home page can be found on the Internet at
ibm.com
IBM, the IBM logo and ibm.com are trademarks of
International Business Machines Corporation in the
United States, other countries, or both.
Other company, product and service names may be
trademarks or service marks of others.
References in this publication to IBM products or services
do not imply that IBM intends to make them available in all
countries in which IBM operates. Copying or downloading
the images contained in this document is expressly
prohibited without the written consent of IBM. All products
and / or services are subject to availablility.
This publication is for general guidance only.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2007.
All rights reserved.
LA8792 09/07

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Deliveling Intellingent Transport Systems - IBM

  • 2. The current use of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) is often limited by a lack of an integrated and holistic vision. Traditionally, the implementation of ITS projects has been more tactical, focused on single transport modes using stand-alone proprietary systems. As Transport Authorities embark on increasingly complex mixes of IT investment to support the provision of their transport networks, there is a real need and opportunity to align the IT architectural framework with the business strategy and operational model to achieve a greater degree of system, data and service integration. IBM believes that an integrated common framework uniting some of the key transport sub-systems will offer Transport Authorities the ability to better manage their network and provide integrated services to customers. This framework should make maximum use of open and common standards as well as adopting a Service Oriented Architecture approach, which simplifies future integration and inter-operability between transport systems. In addition, the implementation of a new strategic transport project such as an Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) system or a Road User Charging (RUC) system allows the opportunity to utilise the new infrastructure as a base for future projects. For example, the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) component of a multi-modal AFC system can form the framework for other transport systems to integrate their customer data. The development of a new transport portal / website that provide trip advisory services and real-time information updates to customers is another example of how a strategic project can stimulate the data integration of other transport systems. These strategic initiatives can kick-start the development of a common framework that leads to improved customer services, reduced operational costs and increased revenues. Transport Influencers Model Spatial Developm ent Population&Economy TransportData & ITS Environment Strategy & organisation Funding m echanism s Infrastructureprovision Transportmodelling Customer interaction Farecollection/ pricing Road Charging Mobile workforce Transport Infrastructure supply Macro demand influencers Information & Customer management 2 3 4 5 1 Maturity levels Traditional Opportunitytoinnovate © Copyright IBM Corp, Steer Davies Gleave, Serco. 2006 Demand Management Figure 1: Transport Influencers Model Transport has a major impact on the quality of life in a city, its environment and the economy. Transport Authorities globally are facing similar strategic challenges around worsening congestion, insufficient transport infrastructure, affordability constraints, increasing emissions and growing customer needs. To respond to this demanding environment, Transport Authorities can no longer depend solely on the traditional approach of building more infrastructure as this requires significant financial commitment as well as complex regulatory and environmental planning processes to manage (see Figure 1). Consequently, Transport Authorities across the world are increasingly focussing on the use of demand management with schemes such as road user charging; and information and customer management techniques including enhanced traveller information services. This broader application of Information Technology (IT) provides an opportunity to drive innovation in the provision of transportation systems and services.
  • 3. Transport Maturity Model Based on extensive research and interviews with leading Transport Authorities globally, IBM has developed a Maturity Model based on the level of system, data and service integration across multiple transport modes. The Model enables authorities to view their business and ITS solutions holistically and capture their vision of where they would like to go to (see Figure 2). A profile of a typical Transport Authority has been mapped for reference. Figure 2: Multimodal Network Management Maturity Model Level 1 Silo Level 2 Single Mode Integrated Level 3 Partially Integrated Level 4 Multimodal Integrated Level 5 Multimodal Optimized Planning Functional Area Planning (single mode) Project-based Planning (single mode) Integrated agency-wide planning (single mode) Integrated corridor-based multimodal planning Integrated regional multimodal planning Performance Measurement Minimal Defined metrics by mode Limited integration across organizational silos Shared multimodal system- wide metrics Continuous system-wide performance management Customer Relationships Minimal capability, no customer accounts Customer accounts managed separately for each system/mode Multi-channel account interaction per mode Unified customer account across multiple modes Integrated multimodal incentives to optimize multimodal use Data Collection Limited or Manual Input Near real-time for major routes Real-time for major routes using multiple inputs Real-time coverage for major corridors, all significant modes System-wide real-time data collection across all modes Data Integration Limited Networked Common user interface 2-way system integration Extended integration Analytics Ad-hoc analysis Periodic, Systematic analysis High-level analysis in near real-time Detailed analysis in real-time Multimodal analysis in real-time Payment Methods Manual Cash Collection Automatic Cash Machines Electronic Payments Multimodal integrated fare card Multimodal, multi-media (fare cards, cell phones, etc) Network Ops. Response Ad-Hoc, Single Mode Centralized, Single Mode Automatic, Single Mode Automated, Multimodal Multimodal real-time optimized Incident Management Manual detection, response and recovery Manual detection, coordinated response, recovery Automatic detection, coordinated response and manual recovery Automated pre-planned multimodal recovery plans Dynamic multimodal recovery plans based on real-time data Demand Management Individual static measures Individual measures, with long-term variability Coordinated measures with short-term variability Dynamic pricing Multimodal dynamic pricing Traveller Information Static Information Static trip planning with limited real-time alerts Multi-channel trip planning and account based alert subscription Location-based, on journey multimodal information Location based, multimodal proactive re-routing strategicplanningreal-timeinformation creationcapability real-timeinterventioncapability Intelligent Transport Systems at a turning point Over recent years, ITS has played an increasingly important part in providing transport services more effectively. With its growing maturity, IBM believes ITS is approaching the next stage in its development where it will be influenced by: • Greater integration between systems and modes • Open and common standards, and a shared framework • Service Oriented Architecture • Increased customer services • Real-time information sharing and responsiveness • Demonstrable value for money
  • 4. IBM’s ITS experiences IBM’s experience of developing ITS solutions includes the delivery and operation of the Stockholm Congestion Tax Project, Singapore’s Automatic Fare Collection back office systems, the UK Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency’s Electronic Vehicle Licensing system and a leading UK insurance company’s usage-based insurance model. Case Study: DVLA’s Electronic Vehicle Licensing system The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) sought to deliver higher levels of customer service at a lower cost through a new online channel for vehicle licensing. Implemented over 12 months, the innovative project won several awards including the UK e-Government Award for Central e-Government Excellence in 2006. Its benefits include: • Reduction in licensing processing time • Reduction in cost of vehicle licence renewal • Easier compliance for motorists • Faster renewals through integration with insurance companies and other government agencies. Case Study: Congestion Charging in Stockholm The Swedish authorities required a system that would automatically tax Swedish registered vehicles entering and leaving the city centre between 06.30 and 18.30, Monday to Friday (excluding national holidays). The target was to reduce congestion by between 10% and 15%. The biggest challenges during the design and implementation process were the tight time frame, political sensitivity and public scrutiny. The trial was to be followed, in September 2006, by a referendum for Stockholm residents to decide whether to implement the congestion tax permanently. It was crucial that the trial brought tangible, measurable benefits and won over its users. The trial itself launched on time and ran without interruption through to its end on 31 July 2006. It not only met its objectives – it exceeded them. • Traffic congestion in Stockholm was reduced by 25%, far above the original target • Traffic queuing times fell by up to 50%. Journey times were faster and more predictable • Stockholm bus timetables were re-written to take improvements to traffic flow into account • Pollution levels in the city fell by between 10% and 15% • Confidence in the system was high due to minimal enforcement and administrative errors When the trial ended, a majority of Stockholm residents voted in favour in the referendum. This was the first time that the residents of a European city have elected to adopt road charging. As a result, the Swedish parliament decided to introduce the system permanently. Following the parliamentary process and some enhancements, the scheme was relaunched in August 2007.
  • 5. Investment in ITS innovations IBM is investing in several Innovation Programmes that focus on the next generation of ITS solutions: Global Innovation Outlook and InnovationJam. The InnovationJam programme is being used to design and in-market test the next generation of road user charging systems – Innovative Transport Pricing - and to develop advanced information management solutions for end-users and transport operators – Advanced Transport Information Management (see Figure 3). IBM’s global Innovative Transport Pricing project is focused on the technology roadmap for road user charging from City based schemes through to time, distance and place schemes at a national/state level. It is addressing the operational and technology challenges of scale, privacy, accuracy, interoperability, enforcement, total cost of ownership and critically the migration from individual schemes through to national schemes. IBM is running several co-invested trials with Transport Authorities globally. An example is the Traffic Prediction Pilot in Singapore (see case study below). Case Study: Traffic Prediction Pilot in Singapore Even though Singapore has one of the most advanced traffic management systems in the world, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) is constantly looking for innovative solutions to expand on and improve its range of traffic management tools to keep traffic flowing. Through IBM’s Global Innovation Outlook programme, the LTA and IBM co-invested in a pilot to predict traffic flows in Singapore’s central business district (CBD). Using historical traffic data and real-time traffic input from the LTA’s i-Transport system, IBM’s Traffic Prediction Tool predicted traffic flows over pre-set durations (10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). Both speed and volume predictions covering the CBD were above the target accuracy of 85%. In addition, during peak periods where more real-time data was available, the average accuracy of the volume forecasts on the CBD was near or above 90% from 10-minutes all the way to the predictions 60- minutes into the future. With these predictions, LTA’s traffic controllers will be able to anticipate and better manage the flow of traffic to prevent the build-up of congestion. 2 Confidential © 2007 IBM Corporation Pricing Models Demand – Revenue Congestion – PAYG Pollution - Emissions Innovative Transport Pricing End-user Info & Advice • Multi channel dissemination • Real time advice • Personalization • Location awareness • Route planning Transport Network Management • Pro-active Decision support • Incident response Advanced Transport Information Management 2 1 Data Fusion National / State Pay-as-you-go Services UK Oregon Netherlands Measure Behaviour Changes Data Collection Traffic Prediction End User Info. Singapore Figure 3: IBM Innovation Programme for ITS solutions
  • 6. IBM Solutions IBM has a team of over 200 ITS specialists providing the following types of services and solutions to Transport Authorities globally: • Transportation IT Strategy Consulting - Transport Maturity Model - Integrated ITS framework • Road User Charging - Project management, scheme implementation and operation - Urban and Time Distance Place road charging solutions - Total cost of ownership models • Automatic Fare Collection - Project management and implementation - Global partners • Transport Information Management - Single and multi-modal - Network management and end-user sharing • Asset Management - IBM Maximo Asset Management - Management modules in asset, work, service, contract, materials and procurement management These solutions allow Transport Authorities to optimise their networks leading to improved customer services, reduced operational costs and increased revenues. For more information To learn more about IBM’s Intelligent Transport Systems, please contact your nearest IBM representative: UK Jamie Houghton E-mail: jamie.houghton@uk.ibm.com Tel: +44-7718-778662 Clare Jack E-mail: clare.h.jack@uk.ibm.com Tel: +44-7808-783308 EMEA Gunnar Johannson E-mail: gunnar.s.johansson@se.ibm.com Tel: + 46-8-7935729 Colin Lim E-mail: colin.fw.lim@uk.ibm.com Tel: +44-7966-265759 Americas Naveen Lamba E-mail: naveen.lamba@us.ibm.com Tel: +1-703-362-6037 Asia-Pacific Adrian Tee E-mail: teekta@sg.ibm.com Tel: +65-9008-9474 IBM United Kingdom Limited 76 Upper Ground South Bank London SE1 9PZ The IBM home page can be found on the Internet at ibm.com IBM, the IBM logo and ibm.com are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. Other company, product and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others. References in this publication to IBM products or services do not imply that IBM intends to make them available in all countries in which IBM operates. Copying or downloading the images contained in this document is expressly prohibited without the written consent of IBM. All products and / or services are subject to availablility. This publication is for general guidance only. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2007. All rights reserved. LA8792 09/07