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UBUBI BW’INZOGA
NK’IKIYOBYABWENGE
Tito
UWAMBAJINEZA,B.Pharm,M.Pharm
February , 21,2017
INZOGA N’IKI
• Inzoga n’ikinyobwa gifite ibinyabutabire
birmo alkolo, total solid,total acid as citric
acid,volatile acid,total sugars, Sulphur
dioxid,acetaldehyde,methyl alcohol,……
• bitewe n’ubwoko bw’inzoga n’uko bayikora
• Ikaba ari ikinyobwa gishobora kuba
ikiyobyabwenge mugihe cyakoreshejwe nabi
IKIYOBYABWENGE NIKI
• ikiribwa cg ikinyobwa cyose umuntu afata
kikangiza imitekerereze ye (conscience),
ubwugugu (sensation) n’imyitwarire bitewe
n’uko umuntu yagikoresheje.
• Kuri iyi ngingo, n’inzoga zikaba ziza mu
rwego rw’ibiyobyabwenge mu gihe
zikoreshejwe nabi, umuntu akarenza
urugero, ntabe agishoboye kwigenzura ubwe.
Niki kiba mu nzoga cyangiza ubuzima
• Mu nzoga habamo Alcohol zitandukanye
izwi cyane niyo bita Ethanol ikunze
gukoreshwa nubwo hari nizindi
• Mu nzoga habamo nibindi biyigize twavuze
haruguru nabyo bishobora kwangiza umubiri
mugihe birengeje urugero
• Gusa Turibanda cyane kuri alkolo zibamo
UBWOKO BWA ALKOLO
• Ethanol (ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol)
• Methanol (methyl alcohol,)
• Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol, r)
• Ethylene glycol
• Fermented drinks, such as beer and wine, contain
from 2% alcohol to 20% alcohol. Distilled
drinks, or liquor, contain from 40% to 50% or
UBWOKO BW’INZOGA
• Iznoga zakorewe distillation nizo zikunze
kugira alkolo mbi bita methanol
• Beer 2–6% alcohol
Wine 8–20% alcohol
Whiskey 40–50% alcohol
Vodka 40–50% alcohol
Liqueurs 15–60% alcohol
DUHERE KURI METHANOL
NUBUBI BWAYO
• methanol ikaba ari ubwoko bwa alkolo bubi cyane kubuzima
• Ikunze kuboneka muri Kanyanga,
• ububi bwayo buterwa n’ingayo yayo wanyweye aho
• iyo wanyweye nyinshi ishobora kugutera guhuma,coma ndetse
n’urupfu
• max:300mg/l nko muri whisky, maxi:50mg/l muri Voduka
• NI GUTE METHANOL ARI MBI KUMUBIRI
W’UMUNTU
Methanol(cntnd)
• Methanol mumubiri ihinduka formic
acid,iyi ikba ari toxin mbi cyane,iyi
ikazateza ibibazo mu maraso ,mu
mpfyiko,mumwijima,mumutima,mu
kugira ibibazo mu kubona
• kwangiza imyakuru ,…..
• Umuntu atangira kugira
ibibazo:iseseme.kuruka,kuribwa
munda(mu isaha imwe)
Alkolo muriri rusange IGERA ITE
MU MARASO? (ABSORPTION)
• Alkolo igera mumaraso muburo bwitwa
diffusion
• Iyo umaze kunywa inzoga, iyo igeze mu
gifu 25% bya alukolo ibamo ariyo
ethanol CH3CH2OH, bihita bijya mu maraso
• 75% nibyo bijya mu maraso iyo inzoga
igeze mu mara.
IBISHOBORA GUTEZA
IMPINDUKA KU IKWIRAKWIZWA
RYA ALKOLO MUMUBIRI
• Umuvuduko uri kunyweraho. Iyo ugotomera
inzoga nayo yihutira kujya mu maraso kuruta
unywa buhoro
• Ubwinshi bw’inzoga wanyoye. Ntabwo
nunywa icupa rimwe uzaba nk’uwanyoye
igaziye.
• Ingano ya alukolo iri mu nzoga. Urugero nunywa
primus (5% alcohol) ntuzaba nk’uwanyoye Bond 7
(40% alcohol).
• Kuba inzoga ifite cyangwa idafite gas. (CO2). Inzoga
twita rufuro zirukanka mu maraso kuruta liqueur.
• Kuba wariye cg utariye. Iyo wariye bituma alukolo
nyinshi itagera mu bwonko ahubwo igasohoka. Niyo
mpamvu kunywa unarya bigabanya kuba wasinda.
• Kuba hari imiti uri kunywa. Imiti imwe yihutisha
ikwira ry’inzoga, indi igatuma itinda gukwira mu
NI GUTE ALUKOLO
IKWIRAKWIZWA MU MUBIRI?
(DISTRIBUTION
• alukolo iba mu nzoga yivanga byihuse n’amavuta
cyangwa ibinure kuruta uko yivanga n’amazi
(liposoluble).
• niyo mpamvu feri ya mbere ya alukolo ari mu
bwonko.
• Kuko mu mubiri w’umuntu nicyo gice kigizwe
n’ibinure byinshi.
• Ni nayo mpamvu ingaruka mbi z’inzoga
nyinshi uzibonera mu mikorere y’ubwonko:
• Kudedemanga
• Kutareba neza
• Gucika intege mu ngingo
• Guhubuka mu gufata imyanzuro bijyana
no guseka ubusa kuri bamwe, umujinya ,
…
ITUNGANYWA ITE MBERE YO
GUSOHOKA MU MUBIRI?
(METABOLISM)
• Alukolo yo mu nzoga, ethanol (CH3CH2OH);
iyungururirwa mu mwijima.
• uyihinduramo acetaldehyde ; CH3CHO.
• Iyi ituma imitsi y’amaraso yaguka
(dilatation) aribyo bitera kumva
umunaniro, gucika intege no kuremera
umutwe iyo wanyoye nyinshi. Tubizi nka
hangover.
Metabolism(cntd)
• Mbere yo gusohoka mu mubiri ya
acetaldehyde nayo ihindukamo acetate
(),CH3COO-,
• imeze nka vinaigre, yo rero isohoka mu
mubiri ku buryo bworoshye
Ethanol
Acetaldehyde
Acetic Acid
CO2 + H2O
Alcohol dehydrogenase
Aldehyde dehydrogenase
NI GUTE ISOHOKA MU MUBIRI?
(EXCRETION
• 5-10% bya etanolo bisohoka nta zidi mpinduka
mu nkari,ibyuya,amacandwe no guhumeka
• Uretse iriya ngano ya 5-10% bisohoka uko
byakabaye, ubundi iyo unyoye ethanol mu
mubiri hasohoka acetate.
• Ingano ya alkolo isohoka ni 15 mg/100 mL/hour
ITANDUKANIRO KUBAGABO
NA’ABAGORE IMBERE Y’INZOGA
1.BAFITE INGANO YA ENZYMES
ZITANDUKANYE
•enzyme :Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase
zitunganya inzoga(metabolism) MU GIFU
•kdi ni nyinshi mu bagabo ugereranije mu
bagore,
•izo enzyme zicagagura 15% bya alkolo
umuntu yanyweye
• bishatse kuvuga ko ingano yinzoga igera
mu mara ku mugabo ni nkeya ugereranije
numugore bitewe nuko inzoga nyinshi iba
yacagaguwe na za enzyme
2.INGANO Y’IBINURI
IRATANDUKANYE
•Abagore bafite ibinuri byinshi kurusha
abagabo kuburyo inzo iba yakwiragiy cyane
mumaraso,kuko volume ya’amaraso iba ari
ntoya
•Abagabo baba bafite volume nini y’amaraso
ikagabanya za mbaraga za alkolo
3.INGANO YA’MAZI
•BAGORE:45-55%
•ABAGABO:55-65%
•Ingano nini y’amazi kubagabo ituma alkolo
itabafata cyane kurusha abagore
4.IMISEMBURO
Alkolo yivanga cyane n’imisemburo kuburyo
inatuma intoxication cg se ububi bwa ya alkolo
burushaho kwiyongera
ESE INZOGA ITARENGEJE
URUGERO NI INGANA ITE?
• Ubushakashatsi bwagaragajeko kunywa mu
rugero ari ukutarenza hagati ya 12g na 14g za
alukolo.
• Hari n’ibihugu bivuga kutarenza 10g, gusa
imibare yo hagati ya 12 na 14 niyo rusange ku
isi yose.
• Ibi kugirango ubibare biroroshye.
Twibukeko ireme bwite rya ethanol (alcool
iba mu nzoga) ari 0.789g/ml.
• Biraboneka ko ukoze imibare uri busange ku
munsi udakwiye kurenza hagati ya
• 9.5ml na 11ml za ethanol.
• Bivuze iki:
• Niba primus ifite 5% vol. Bivuzeko muri
100ml za primus harimo 5ml za ethanol.
• Nukora imibare urasanga udakwiye kurenza
hagati ya 190ml na 220ml];g[’ za primus ku
munsi.
INGARUKA Z’INZOGA KUMUBIRI
1.INGARUKA KU BWONKO
•Alkolo zigira ingaruka mbi cyane kubwonko ari nayo
mpamvu zshyirwa mu biyobyabwenge mu gihe
zakoreshejwe nabi:
•Alkolo iyo igeze mubwonko uguhindagurika
kw’imikorere y’ubwonko icyo bita
disinhibition,bitewe nuko imyakura(inhibitory
neurons)ziba ziri mu bwonko ziba zitagikora neza
nyuma yo kugerwaho na ya alkolo
•Nibwo utangira kugera mucyo bita Euphroria state
• Kunywa inzoga nyinshi bituma:
• – Unanirwa gufata imyanzuro
• – Ugira ikibazo cyo kureba neza
• – Kudedemanga
• – Ikibazo cyo mu ngingo: gususumira
kuberako igice kinatanga equilibre ku
mubiri bita celvelet kiba cyafashwe nibow
ubona umuntu yatangiye
kudandabirana+bizwi nko kwandika 8
INGARUKA Z’ALKOLO Ku mutima
• Ubusanzwe alkolo itera kubyimbagana
tw’udutsi dutemberamo amaraso
• Kubyimbagana k’umutima
• – Umuvuduko udasanzwe w’amaraso
• – Guteragura k’umutima ku buryo
budasanzwe
• – Gutera k’umutima inshuro nyinshi
k’umunota
Ku gifu
• Bitera kubyimba kunda bitewe nibinuri
byinshi bishobora kuhaza byatewe na alkolo
• – Bitera kuruka kuko iyo inzoga ibaye
nyinshi ihinduka uburozi
• –– Bishobora kugutera kanseri y’igifu
kubera ko igenda ikaba yakangiza
uturemangingo twaho.
Ku mwijima
• Nkuko twabibonye, Kunywa
nyinshi bitobagura umwijima:
• – Zitera kubyimba k’umwijima
• – Zitera kanseri y’umwijima
• – Kutabasha kuyungurura amaraso ngo
zivanemo imyanda na mikorobe
• – Kurwara diyabete
Ku myororokere
• – Inzoga nyinshi zituma ucika intege mu
gukora imibonano
• –– Kubabara cyane uri mu mihango
• Kutiyobora mu bijyanye n’imibonano,
bishobora gutuma uryamana nuwo ubonye
wese utanikingiye
• – Imihango iza uko yiboneye, igihe
wayiteganyaga ntibe ariho iza
• – Kuba watwitira inyuma y’umura (ectopic
pregnancy
Effects of Alcohol on the Body
• Central nervous system depressant
• Sedated → Sleepy → Stuporous → Unconscious
• Effects are additive with other CNS depressants
Stages of Alcohol Intoxication
10–50
mg/100 mL
• Slight intoxication
• May be no observable signs of intoxication
•
50-120
mg/100 mL
• Mild euphoria, ↑ sociability, talkativeness
• Increased self confidence, ↓ inhibitions
•
90–250
mg/100 mL • Mental confusion
• Memory impairment
• Impaired balance and coordination
• Sedation, drowsiness
180-300
mg/100 mL
• Disoriented to time and place, ↑ confusion
• Exaggerated emotional state
• Double-vision
•Anesthesia
Stages of Alcohol Intoxication
250-400
mg/100 mL
•Response to stimuli ↓
• Stupor, unconsciousness
• Vomiting, incontinence
350-500
mg/100 mL
• Unconsciousness → Coma
• Depression of reflexes
• Impairment of respiration, circulation
• Death
Stages of Alcohol Intoxication
Alcohol and Death
• Primary mechanism for death due to acute
alcohol intoxication is respiratory depression
ESE INZOGA HARI ICYO IMAZE?
• Tutitaye ku myizerere ya buri umwe muri
twe, muri rusange kunywa inzoga itarengeje
urugero bigirira umubiri akamaro.
• Kuko alukolo ituma umubiri ukora
cholesterol (soma koresiterolu) nziza,
kunywa mu rugero bigabanya ibyago byo
kurwara umutima.
INAMA WAGIRWA MUGIHE UNYWA INZOGA
• Ubundi byaba byiza utayinyoye kuko
abatazinywa nabo usanga bafite ubuzima bwiza
ariko igihe wumva kuyireka byanze”
• Shyiraho ingano yinzoga utagombye kurenza
mbere yuko utangira kunywa kandi wirinde
kunywera mubigare
• Ibuka gushyiraho ingano ukurikije ubwoko
bw;inzoga uri buze kunywa kuko zitandukanye
muri ngano ya alkolo irimo
• Tangirira mukunywa mu bidafite alkolo,noneho
uze ugenda ubangikanya nibifite alkolo
• Nywa witonze gake gake
• Nutangira kunywa ujye uhera kuri
binyobwa bifite ingano y’alkolo nkeya
• Gerageza urye mbere yuko uyinywa cg mu
gihe unywa inzoa ufate nicyo kurya
umwanzuro
• Umunyamakenga iyo abonye agiye guhura
n’akaga, arakirinda, ariko umuntu
udatekereza arakomeza akagenda agahura
n’akaga, maze akazabyicuza.”—
Imigani 22:3,
• Ntimukabatwe n’inzoga nyinshi.’—Tito 2:3.
MENYA IBI
• Menya ko inzoga iyo yakoreshejwe nabi
ishobora kuba ikiyobyabwenge
• Menya ko ibyiza byayo ari bike ugereranije
nibibi byayo kubuzima bw’umuntu
• Nunayinywa umenye guhitamo ubwoko
bwiyo ugiye kunywa n’ingano ya alkolo
irimo
• Ibuka kumenya ko abagabo n’abagore
dutandukanye imbere y’inzoga
• Ibuka ubuzima ufite mu gihe ugiye
kuyinywa:niba udatwite,niba utari kunywa
imiti cg ibiyobyabwenge bindi,caffeine,niba
udasanzwe ufite izindi ndwara ziri muri
bya bice byangizwa cyane :
• umwijima,igifu,ubwonko,impyiko,umutima,
….
• Turinde ibiyobyabwenge abana
bacu,abanyeshuri ,urubyiruko muri rusange
kuko nibo bayobozi bacu bejo
hazaza,ntacyo bazamarira igihugu cyacu
rero ejo hazaza mu gihe baba barangiritse
mumutwe kubera ibiyobyabwenge.

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Alcohol effect by effect by tite uwambajineza

  • 2. INZOGA N’IKI • Inzoga n’ikinyobwa gifite ibinyabutabire birmo alkolo, total solid,total acid as citric acid,volatile acid,total sugars, Sulphur dioxid,acetaldehyde,methyl alcohol,…… • bitewe n’ubwoko bw’inzoga n’uko bayikora • Ikaba ari ikinyobwa gishobora kuba ikiyobyabwenge mugihe cyakoreshejwe nabi
  • 3. IKIYOBYABWENGE NIKI • ikiribwa cg ikinyobwa cyose umuntu afata kikangiza imitekerereze ye (conscience), ubwugugu (sensation) n’imyitwarire bitewe n’uko umuntu yagikoresheje. • Kuri iyi ngingo, n’inzoga zikaba ziza mu rwego rw’ibiyobyabwenge mu gihe zikoreshejwe nabi, umuntu akarenza urugero, ntabe agishoboye kwigenzura ubwe.
  • 4. Niki kiba mu nzoga cyangiza ubuzima • Mu nzoga habamo Alcohol zitandukanye izwi cyane niyo bita Ethanol ikunze gukoreshwa nubwo hari nizindi • Mu nzoga habamo nibindi biyigize twavuze haruguru nabyo bishobora kwangiza umubiri mugihe birengeje urugero • Gusa Turibanda cyane kuri alkolo zibamo
  • 5. UBWOKO BWA ALKOLO • Ethanol (ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol) • Methanol (methyl alcohol,) • Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol, r) • Ethylene glycol • Fermented drinks, such as beer and wine, contain from 2% alcohol to 20% alcohol. Distilled drinks, or liquor, contain from 40% to 50% or
  • 6. UBWOKO BW’INZOGA • Iznoga zakorewe distillation nizo zikunze kugira alkolo mbi bita methanol • Beer 2–6% alcohol Wine 8–20% alcohol Whiskey 40–50% alcohol Vodka 40–50% alcohol Liqueurs 15–60% alcohol
  • 7. DUHERE KURI METHANOL NUBUBI BWAYO • methanol ikaba ari ubwoko bwa alkolo bubi cyane kubuzima • Ikunze kuboneka muri Kanyanga, • ububi bwayo buterwa n’ingayo yayo wanyweye aho • iyo wanyweye nyinshi ishobora kugutera guhuma,coma ndetse n’urupfu • max:300mg/l nko muri whisky, maxi:50mg/l muri Voduka • NI GUTE METHANOL ARI MBI KUMUBIRI W’UMUNTU
  • 8. Methanol(cntnd) • Methanol mumubiri ihinduka formic acid,iyi ikba ari toxin mbi cyane,iyi ikazateza ibibazo mu maraso ,mu mpfyiko,mumwijima,mumutima,mu kugira ibibazo mu kubona • kwangiza imyakuru ,….. • Umuntu atangira kugira ibibazo:iseseme.kuruka,kuribwa munda(mu isaha imwe)
  • 9. Alkolo muriri rusange IGERA ITE MU MARASO? (ABSORPTION) • Alkolo igera mumaraso muburo bwitwa diffusion • Iyo umaze kunywa inzoga, iyo igeze mu gifu 25% bya alukolo ibamo ariyo ethanol CH3CH2OH, bihita bijya mu maraso • 75% nibyo bijya mu maraso iyo inzoga igeze mu mara.
  • 10. IBISHOBORA GUTEZA IMPINDUKA KU IKWIRAKWIZWA RYA ALKOLO MUMUBIRI • Umuvuduko uri kunyweraho. Iyo ugotomera inzoga nayo yihutira kujya mu maraso kuruta unywa buhoro • Ubwinshi bw’inzoga wanyoye. Ntabwo nunywa icupa rimwe uzaba nk’uwanyoye igaziye.
  • 11. • Ingano ya alukolo iri mu nzoga. Urugero nunywa primus (5% alcohol) ntuzaba nk’uwanyoye Bond 7 (40% alcohol). • Kuba inzoga ifite cyangwa idafite gas. (CO2). Inzoga twita rufuro zirukanka mu maraso kuruta liqueur. • Kuba wariye cg utariye. Iyo wariye bituma alukolo nyinshi itagera mu bwonko ahubwo igasohoka. Niyo mpamvu kunywa unarya bigabanya kuba wasinda. • Kuba hari imiti uri kunywa. Imiti imwe yihutisha ikwira ry’inzoga, indi igatuma itinda gukwira mu
  • 12. NI GUTE ALUKOLO IKWIRAKWIZWA MU MUBIRI? (DISTRIBUTION • alukolo iba mu nzoga yivanga byihuse n’amavuta cyangwa ibinure kuruta uko yivanga n’amazi (liposoluble). • niyo mpamvu feri ya mbere ya alukolo ari mu bwonko. • Kuko mu mubiri w’umuntu nicyo gice kigizwe n’ibinure byinshi.
  • 13. • Ni nayo mpamvu ingaruka mbi z’inzoga nyinshi uzibonera mu mikorere y’ubwonko: • Kudedemanga • Kutareba neza • Gucika intege mu ngingo • Guhubuka mu gufata imyanzuro bijyana no guseka ubusa kuri bamwe, umujinya , …
  • 14. ITUNGANYWA ITE MBERE YO GUSOHOKA MU MUBIRI? (METABOLISM) • Alukolo yo mu nzoga, ethanol (CH3CH2OH); iyungururirwa mu mwijima. • uyihinduramo acetaldehyde ; CH3CHO. • Iyi ituma imitsi y’amaraso yaguka (dilatation) aribyo bitera kumva umunaniro, gucika intege no kuremera umutwe iyo wanyoye nyinshi. Tubizi nka hangover.
  • 15. Metabolism(cntd) • Mbere yo gusohoka mu mubiri ya acetaldehyde nayo ihindukamo acetate (),CH3COO-, • imeze nka vinaigre, yo rero isohoka mu mubiri ku buryo bworoshye
  • 16. Ethanol Acetaldehyde Acetic Acid CO2 + H2O Alcohol dehydrogenase Aldehyde dehydrogenase
  • 17. NI GUTE ISOHOKA MU MUBIRI? (EXCRETION • 5-10% bya etanolo bisohoka nta zidi mpinduka mu nkari,ibyuya,amacandwe no guhumeka • Uretse iriya ngano ya 5-10% bisohoka uko byakabaye, ubundi iyo unyoye ethanol mu mubiri hasohoka acetate. • Ingano ya alkolo isohoka ni 15 mg/100 mL/hour
  • 18. ITANDUKANIRO KUBAGABO NA’ABAGORE IMBERE Y’INZOGA 1.BAFITE INGANO YA ENZYMES ZITANDUKANYE •enzyme :Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase zitunganya inzoga(metabolism) MU GIFU •kdi ni nyinshi mu bagabo ugereranije mu bagore, •izo enzyme zicagagura 15% bya alkolo umuntu yanyweye
  • 19. • bishatse kuvuga ko ingano yinzoga igera mu mara ku mugabo ni nkeya ugereranije numugore bitewe nuko inzoga nyinshi iba yacagaguwe na za enzyme
  • 20. 2.INGANO Y’IBINURI IRATANDUKANYE •Abagore bafite ibinuri byinshi kurusha abagabo kuburyo inzo iba yakwiragiy cyane mumaraso,kuko volume ya’amaraso iba ari ntoya •Abagabo baba bafite volume nini y’amaraso ikagabanya za mbaraga za alkolo
  • 21. 3.INGANO YA’MAZI •BAGORE:45-55% •ABAGABO:55-65% •Ingano nini y’amazi kubagabo ituma alkolo itabafata cyane kurusha abagore 4.IMISEMBURO Alkolo yivanga cyane n’imisemburo kuburyo inatuma intoxication cg se ububi bwa ya alkolo burushaho kwiyongera
  • 22. ESE INZOGA ITARENGEJE URUGERO NI INGANA ITE? • Ubushakashatsi bwagaragajeko kunywa mu rugero ari ukutarenza hagati ya 12g na 14g za alukolo. • Hari n’ibihugu bivuga kutarenza 10g, gusa imibare yo hagati ya 12 na 14 niyo rusange ku isi yose. • Ibi kugirango ubibare biroroshye. Twibukeko ireme bwite rya ethanol (alcool iba mu nzoga) ari 0.789g/ml.
  • 23. • Biraboneka ko ukoze imibare uri busange ku munsi udakwiye kurenza hagati ya • 9.5ml na 11ml za ethanol. • Bivuze iki: • Niba primus ifite 5% vol. Bivuzeko muri 100ml za primus harimo 5ml za ethanol. • Nukora imibare urasanga udakwiye kurenza hagati ya 190ml na 220ml];g[’ za primus ku munsi.
  • 24. INGARUKA Z’INZOGA KUMUBIRI 1.INGARUKA KU BWONKO •Alkolo zigira ingaruka mbi cyane kubwonko ari nayo mpamvu zshyirwa mu biyobyabwenge mu gihe zakoreshejwe nabi: •Alkolo iyo igeze mubwonko uguhindagurika kw’imikorere y’ubwonko icyo bita disinhibition,bitewe nuko imyakura(inhibitory neurons)ziba ziri mu bwonko ziba zitagikora neza nyuma yo kugerwaho na ya alkolo •Nibwo utangira kugera mucyo bita Euphroria state
  • 25. • Kunywa inzoga nyinshi bituma: • – Unanirwa gufata imyanzuro • – Ugira ikibazo cyo kureba neza • – Kudedemanga • – Ikibazo cyo mu ngingo: gususumira kuberako igice kinatanga equilibre ku mubiri bita celvelet kiba cyafashwe nibow ubona umuntu yatangiye kudandabirana+bizwi nko kwandika 8
  • 26. INGARUKA Z’ALKOLO Ku mutima • Ubusanzwe alkolo itera kubyimbagana tw’udutsi dutemberamo amaraso • Kubyimbagana k’umutima • – Umuvuduko udasanzwe w’amaraso • – Guteragura k’umutima ku buryo budasanzwe • – Gutera k’umutima inshuro nyinshi k’umunota
  • 27. Ku gifu • Bitera kubyimba kunda bitewe nibinuri byinshi bishobora kuhaza byatewe na alkolo • – Bitera kuruka kuko iyo inzoga ibaye nyinshi ihinduka uburozi • –– Bishobora kugutera kanseri y’igifu kubera ko igenda ikaba yakangiza uturemangingo twaho.
  • 28. Ku mwijima • Nkuko twabibonye, Kunywa nyinshi bitobagura umwijima: • – Zitera kubyimba k’umwijima • – Zitera kanseri y’umwijima • – Kutabasha kuyungurura amaraso ngo zivanemo imyanda na mikorobe • – Kurwara diyabete
  • 29. Ku myororokere • – Inzoga nyinshi zituma ucika intege mu gukora imibonano • –– Kubabara cyane uri mu mihango
  • 30. • Kutiyobora mu bijyanye n’imibonano, bishobora gutuma uryamana nuwo ubonye wese utanikingiye • – Imihango iza uko yiboneye, igihe wayiteganyaga ntibe ariho iza • – Kuba watwitira inyuma y’umura (ectopic pregnancy
  • 31. Effects of Alcohol on the Body • Central nervous system depressant • Sedated → Sleepy → Stuporous → Unconscious • Effects are additive with other CNS depressants
  • 32. Stages of Alcohol Intoxication 10–50 mg/100 mL • Slight intoxication • May be no observable signs of intoxication • 50-120 mg/100 mL • Mild euphoria, ↑ sociability, talkativeness • Increased self confidence, ↓ inhibitions •
  • 33. 90–250 mg/100 mL • Mental confusion • Memory impairment • Impaired balance and coordination • Sedation, drowsiness 180-300 mg/100 mL • Disoriented to time and place, ↑ confusion • Exaggerated emotional state • Double-vision •Anesthesia Stages of Alcohol Intoxication
  • 34. 250-400 mg/100 mL •Response to stimuli ↓ • Stupor, unconsciousness • Vomiting, incontinence 350-500 mg/100 mL • Unconsciousness → Coma • Depression of reflexes • Impairment of respiration, circulation • Death Stages of Alcohol Intoxication
  • 35. Alcohol and Death • Primary mechanism for death due to acute alcohol intoxication is respiratory depression
  • 36. ESE INZOGA HARI ICYO IMAZE? • Tutitaye ku myizerere ya buri umwe muri twe, muri rusange kunywa inzoga itarengeje urugero bigirira umubiri akamaro. • Kuko alukolo ituma umubiri ukora cholesterol (soma koresiterolu) nziza, kunywa mu rugero bigabanya ibyago byo kurwara umutima.
  • 37. INAMA WAGIRWA MUGIHE UNYWA INZOGA • Ubundi byaba byiza utayinyoye kuko abatazinywa nabo usanga bafite ubuzima bwiza ariko igihe wumva kuyireka byanze” • Shyiraho ingano yinzoga utagombye kurenza mbere yuko utangira kunywa kandi wirinde kunywera mubigare • Ibuka gushyiraho ingano ukurikije ubwoko bw;inzoga uri buze kunywa kuko zitandukanye muri ngano ya alkolo irimo • Tangirira mukunywa mu bidafite alkolo,noneho uze ugenda ubangikanya nibifite alkolo • Nywa witonze gake gake
  • 38. • Nutangira kunywa ujye uhera kuri binyobwa bifite ingano y’alkolo nkeya • Gerageza urye mbere yuko uyinywa cg mu gihe unywa inzoa ufate nicyo kurya
  • 39. umwanzuro • Umunyamakenga iyo abonye agiye guhura n’akaga, arakirinda, ariko umuntu udatekereza arakomeza akagenda agahura n’akaga, maze akazabyicuza.”— Imigani 22:3, • Ntimukabatwe n’inzoga nyinshi.’—Tito 2:3.
  • 40. MENYA IBI • Menya ko inzoga iyo yakoreshejwe nabi ishobora kuba ikiyobyabwenge • Menya ko ibyiza byayo ari bike ugereranije nibibi byayo kubuzima bw’umuntu • Nunayinywa umenye guhitamo ubwoko bwiyo ugiye kunywa n’ingano ya alkolo irimo
  • 41. • Ibuka kumenya ko abagabo n’abagore dutandukanye imbere y’inzoga • Ibuka ubuzima ufite mu gihe ugiye kuyinywa:niba udatwite,niba utari kunywa imiti cg ibiyobyabwenge bindi,caffeine,niba udasanzwe ufite izindi ndwara ziri muri bya bice byangizwa cyane : • umwijima,igifu,ubwonko,impyiko,umutima, ….
  • 42. • Turinde ibiyobyabwenge abana bacu,abanyeshuri ,urubyiruko muri rusange kuko nibo bayobozi bacu bejo hazaza,ntacyo bazamarira igihugu cyacu rero ejo hazaza mu gihe baba barangiritse mumutwe kubera ibiyobyabwenge.

Editor's Notes

  1. What is alcohol? There are several different types of alcohol, all of which you are likely familiar with from their various household and industrial uses. The alcohol which we commonly associate with drinking is ethanol, or ethyl alcohol. Other alcohols which are encountered in forensic toxicology are: Methanol – also known sometimes as wood alcohol, methanol is a commonly used solvent and reagent in the chemical industry and is a component of windshield washer antifreeze. Isopropanol – what we commonly know as “rubbing alcohol”, isopropanol is a commonly used antiseptic. For example if you have had blood drawn at your physician’s office or at the hospital, it is likely that they swabbed the skin with isopropanol before insertion of the needle. Isopropanol is less toxic than methanol but actually has a greater central nervous system depression than ethanol does. Ethylene Glycol – the active component of antifreeze. It is very toxic and will be covered in the upcoming lecture on “other poisons”. Although there are several different types of alcohol that are encountered in forensic toxicology, I’m going to focus this lecture on ethanol. I will use ethanol and alcohol interchangeably – unless I specifically state otherwise you can assume that when I say alcohol, I am talking about ethanol.
  2. Once ingested, alcohol in the stomach will proceed via the pyloric sphincter into the small intestine. Absorption occurs from the mucosal surfaces of the stomach and small intestine by simple diffusion (movement from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration). Although a significant amount of ethanol is absorbed in the stomach, the small intestine is the major site of ethanol absorption – this is because the surface area available for contact with the blood is far greater in the small intestine than in the other parts of the GI tract.
  3. Ethanol reacts with the cofactor NAD to form acetaldehyde and NADH. This reaction is facilitated by the cytosolic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Acetaldehyde is further oxidized to acetic acid by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetic acid (or acetate) then enters the aerobic respiration process (Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle) and breaks down to the final products – carbon dioxide and water. Although this is not the exclusive route of ethanol metabolism, it is the predominant route by which alcohol in the body is metabolized. Other routes of ethanol metabolism are by the enzyme catalase and by the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS). Catalase and MEOS contribute to less than 10% of the normal metabolism of ethanol. Nicotine adenine dinulcleotide (NAD) is also required in the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway
  4. Ethanol causes vasodilatation of the cutaneous vessels which creates a feeling of warmth (flush) often associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages, also results in a decrease in body temperature (loss of heat at the skin surface). This vasodilatation does not occur uniformly over the vasculature. In fact, moderate doses of ethanol can cause vasoconstriction in the heart and the brain. Disinhibition – at low doses, alcohol induces behavioural excitement. The excitement is caused by a depression of inhibitory neurons within the brain that leaves a person in a state of disinhibition. Because alcohol often induces euphoria, it is commonly thought of as a stimulant rather than a depressant. However, behavioural excitation is due not to stmulation but by the depression of inhibition (taking your foot off the brake of a car will cause the car to speed up). “Loss of restraint”
  5. Ethanol is a non-selective central nervous system depressant; capable of inducing varying degrees of behavioural depression secondary to a non-selective depression of the Sedation – diminished environmental awareness, spontaneity and physical activity Drowsiness -