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Tobacco control general for spain final final


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Kristina Mauer (WHO)

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Tobacco control general for spain final final

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Current Percentage of Adult Smokers within the WHO European Region
  3. 3. Female to Male (Adult)ratioAfrica 3:20 Americas 11:25Southeast Asia 8:41 Europe 22:40Mediterranean 5:34 Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden, NorwaWestern Pacific 14:43 y, Netherlands and United Kingdom 4
  4. 4. Youth Prevalence of Tobacco•The WHO European Region has the highest prevalence of youth tobaccosmoking among all the WHO Regions•The prevalence of female youth is considerably higher in the WHO EuropeanRegion than all other WHO Regions 4
  5. 5. Tobacco use is the leading cause ofpreventable death worldwideTobacco Kills nearly 5.4 million people globallyeach year... approximately every 6.5 seconds aperson dies due to smoking related diseasesBy 2030 tobacco will kill more than 8 millionpeople worldwide each yearTobacco is the only product that kills 50% of itsusers when used exactly as intended. It isestimated that if no serious action is taken, upto 1 billion people could die from tobacco usein the 21st century
  6. 6. Mortality from TobaccoCompared to the rest of the world, the WHOEuropean Region has one of the highestproportions of deaths attributable to tobacco16% of all deaths in adults over 30 in the WHOEuropean Region were due to tobaccoThis is in contrast to the African or the EasternMediterranean Regions, with 3% and 7%proportion of tobacco-attributabledeaths, respectivelyGlobal average is 12% 7
  7. 7. Voluntary global target for 2025 30% relative reduction in prevalence of current tobacco smoking 9
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 176 countries plus the European Commission so far (almost 90% ofthe world’s population) have already agreed to implement this international legally binding treaty 9
  10. 10. How Europe is doing in tobacco control?Compared to other Regions, WHO European Region isdoing relatively well. Between 2008 and 2010……• Region has the highest average cigarette prices and thehighest average tax rates - strong progress since 2008• Region has the second highest share of Parties that haveintroduced a comprehensive ban on tobaccoadvertising, promotion and sponsorship BUT progress is weaksince 2008• Region has the highest level of full protection from tobaccosmoke in indoor workplaces, good progress since 2008• Majority of Parties with well-established programs in thetreatment of tobacco dependence and cessation come from the 10Region, no major progress since 2008
  11. 11. BUT• Region has the highest adult and youth smokingprevalence•Region has the lowest rates for implementation of largewarnings (more than 50% of main surface of packages)and also has the lowest share of pictorial warnings• National tobacco control programmes – elaboration andimplementation is at low level• Mass media campaigns are rare 11
  12. 12. Protecting People from Tobacco Smoke (WHO FCTC Article 8)•8countries, Albania, Hungary, Ireland, Malta, Spain, Turkey, Turkmenistan, UnitedKingdom, and now also Ukraine, are smoke-free however level of enforcementvaries greatly• Educational and healthcare facilities are the public places most likely to belegislated as smoke-free• 89% of member countries have national laws requiring fines for violations ofsmoke-free laws• 11 countries had national laws dedicating funds for enforcement• 24 of the 53 countries in the region (45%) had a complaint driven system 12
  13. 13. Percentages of Smoke Free Public Places 13
  14. 14. What do we know?• Research clearly shows that there is no safe level of exposure to second-hand smoke• Comprehensive smoke free laws are the only effective means of eliminating the risks associated with smoking• Ventilation and smoking rooms are not effective 16
  15. 15. What is the regional evidence on comprehensive smoke-free policies?• Strong support from general public• Strong public support leads to high enforcement and compliance• Protect employees by reducing the exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in workplaces and public places• Protect employees by reducing the content of second-hand smoke in the air in workplaces and public places 17
  16. 16. What is the evidence? (cont.)• Can cause a decrease in smoking prevalence and smoking related behaviors• Can reduce mortality and morbidity from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke• Have a positive impact on economic gains in the health system• Do not result in any economic loss and tobacco tax revenues can be maintained or even increased• Have either a neutral or positive economic impact on businesses• Do not drive away tourism 18
  17. 17. Important to keep in mind • All countries are at different starting points and need to consider the best timing for implementing comprehensive smoke free policies • There still exists great variation in the smoke free legislation within the Region, starting from the definitions of indoor workplaces, indoor public places and public transport • There is also great variance in dealing with compliance, such as the amount of penalties and whether it is merely symbolic payment or a substantial amount of money and a strong 19 deterrent
  18. 18. Raise Taxes on Tobacco (WHO FCTC Article 6)• 42% of countries within the region report that >75% of the retail price of themost popular brand of cigarettes is tax• Prices of the most sold brand of cigarettes (20-pack) in international dollarsrange from $1.03 (Kazakhstan) to $9.51 (Ireland)•Large disparities in price between some neighbouring countries - anexample, cheapest brand in Romania is 4.44 international dollars, while inneighbouring Moldova, it is 24 cents• The average % of retail price of the most sold brand of cigarettes that is taxin high-income countries is 75%, compared to only 51% in low- to middle-income countries 19
  19. 19. Tax Percentage of Most Popular Cigarette Brands 20
  20. 20. Warning about the Dangers of Tobacco (WHO FCTC Articles 11 and 12)• No countries within the region fall in the highest implementation categoryfor cigarette warning label legislation• 25% of countries in the region have pictorial warnings for cigarettes - animprovement from the 13% in 2008• 9% of countries in the region have pictorial warnings for smokelesstobacco 21
  21. 21. Percentages of Health Warnings 22
  22. 22. Enforce Bans on Tobacco Advertising, Promotion and Sponsorship (WHO FCTC Article 13)• 57% of the countries in the region have legislated bans on tobaccosponsored events• 25% of the countries in the region have legislated bans on promotionaldisplay at the point of sale - we fall behind most other WHO Regions in banon point of sale• 19% of the countries in the region have legislated bans on tobacco productsin TV/films• 55% of the countries in the region have legislated bans on tobacco brandsin TV/films 23
  23. 23. Percentages of Bans on Advertisement 24
  24. 24. Offering Help to Quit Tobacco Use (WHO FCTC Article 14)• 66% of the countries in the region offer nicotine replacement therapies(NRT) and/or some cessation services, at least one of which is cost covered• 62% of the countries in the region offer a quit line/help line with a liveperson available to discuss cessation with callers• 8 % of the countries in the region (or 4 countries) offer at least one ofNRT, Bupropion, or Varenicline, with full cost coverage 25
  25. 25. Percentages of Cessation Service 26
  26. 26. Monitoring (WHO FCTC Article 21)• 62% of countries collect recent, representative and periodictobacco control data for adults and youth• 5 countries carried out GATS and Kazakhstan in 2013• 29 of 53 countries implemented Global Youth Tobacco Survey• Only 25% of countries in the Region collect data on smokelesstobacco use(Denmark, Finland, Georgia, Iceland, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraineand Uzbekistan). 25
  27. 27. The Power of Data to Fight TobaccoWHO European Parties to WHO FCTC reported major constraints: 1) lack offinancial aid and/or human resources, 2) industry interference, 3) lack ofpolitical will and 4) need for strengthened inter-sectoral collaborationData can….. Optimize lack of resources…by identifying priority areas for action Increase political will by…highlighting the problem Increase political will by…showing public support for introducing new measure(s) Tackle industry lobbying by…presenting data to refute their claims 29
  28. 28. 27
  29. 29. What Does theTobacco Industry Do? • Exaggerating the economic importance of the industry • Manipulating public opinion to gain the appearance of respectability • Conspiring to influence political and legislative decisions • Faking support through front groups • Discrediting proven science • Intimidating governments with litigation or the threat of litigation
  30. 30. A total of 176 countries plus the European Commission(almost 90% of theworld’s population) have already agreed to implement an internationaltreaty, the WHO FCTC and its Article 5.3 and guidelinesPrinciple 1: There is a fundamental and irreconcilable conflict between thetobacco industry’s interests and public health policy interests.Principle 2: Parties, when dealing with the tobacco industry or those workingto further its interests, should be accountable and transparent.Principle 3: Parties should require the tobacco industry and those working tofurther its interests to operate and act in a manner that is accountable andtransparent.Principle 4: Because their products are lethal, the tobacco industry should notbe granted incentives to establish or run their businesses. 31
  31. 31. “We know that tobacco use is nota choice. It is a powerfuladdiction. The true choice isbetween tobacco and health” Director General of WHO at World Conference in Singapore.